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«Social cleavages in the last Portuguese colonial empire Maria Eugénia Mata1 Abstract Social cohesion in the Portuguese colonial empire is approached ...»

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4 Cunha: 13. On “the urge of purity among the impure” for Anglo-Indians, see Anthony, 1969, 368.

5 Cunha: 19.

6 Boxer, 1961: 113-138.

7 Godinho, 1962: 15.

8 Godinho, 1962,: 15.

9 Mata; Valério, 1994: 201.

10 British India became independent in 1947 paving the way to the Dutch, Belgian and French decolonization experiences that followed up.

11 China, India and Indonesia advanced their claims to Macau, Portuguese India and Portuguese Timor, respectively. Independence movements began to form in the African colonies.

12 It is worth noticing that these terms had been the official ones until the overthrow of the Constitutional Monarchy in 1910.

13 Caselli; Coleman, 2002: 1.

14 Ghosh, 2005. See also Blunt, 2003, 281-294. Like Anglo-Indians, mixed people felt the cleavage of the Portuguese empire when independence brought identity problems to most of them. Many of them felt they were Portuguese and thought of Portugal as their mother country, as well.

15 Caselli; Coleman, 2002: 2.

16 Nazzari, 2001: 497.

17 Telles, 1995: 396.

18 Boxer, 1961: 116.

19 McClintock, 1995: 5.

20 Godinho, 1954: 33.

21 Anthony, 1969: 3.

22 Anthony, 1969: iv, x, 9, 141-142.

23 Boxer: 121.

24 Stoler, 1997: 8.

25 Easterly, 2000.

25 26 Alesina; Baqir; Easterly, 1999: 1243-1284.

27 William; Levine, 1997: 1203-1250.

28 Bailey, 2004: 728-747. For racism and anti-racism in Brazil see Telles, Race, class and space in Brazilian cities.

29 Miller, 1988: 246-250.

30 Cott, 2002: 88-90.

31 For the portrayed role of mixed marriage and assimilation as a natural means to overcome and solve the socalled Indian "backwardness" and poverty, see Jacobs, 2002: 29-54.

32 Douglas North, 1990.

33 For the Brazilian case see Telles, 1995.

34 See, for Norway, Birkelund; Heldal, 2003.

35 Harris; Ono, 2005: 236-251.

36 The sample is made of 7,273 marriages for Cape Verde, 974 for Guinea, 456 for São Tomé and Príncipe, 2,238 for Angola 7,918 for Mozambique, 46,124 for India and 3,822 for Timor.

37 See Cott, 2002: 88-90.

38 McClintock, 1995: 5.

39 To compare with Portuguese immigrants in Argentina, see Borges, 2003: 445-479.

40 For the Australian experience see Mc Grath, 2005. For the role of wealth in looking after marriage see Breslaw, 2003, 2003: 657-673.

41 McGrath, 2002: 76-108.

42 Godinho: 18.

43 Sreenivas, 2003: 59-82.

44 Boxer, 1961: 127.

45 Anthony, 1969: 365 46 Godinho, 1962: 19.

47 Godinho, 1962: 34.

48 Godinho, 1962: 24.

49 Stoler, 1997: 29.

50 Caplan, 2001: 51.

51 Anthony, 1969: 210.

52 Lee, 2004: 221.

53 Mohanty, 1997: 272.

54 Rosenfeld, 2001: 161-175. Qian; Lichter 2001: 289-312.

55 Wong, 2003: 803.

56 For biases on admission to school and scholarship in the USA, see Myers, 2002.

57 Or favelas in the Brazilian case, Telles, 1995: 397.

58 Telles, 1995 and Telles, 2004, for Brazilian cities.

59 Telles, 1995: 395.

60 Renee, 2003: 104; Anthony, 1969: 8.

61 After the 1974 revolution in Portugal, the independence of Guinea-Bissau was recognized in the same year, and independence was granted to Cape Verde, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and Angola in 1975. The Portuguese rule on Macau ended in 1999. In 1975 Indonesia occupied Portuguese Timor. As Portugal refused to accept the situation, and the Timorese independence movement refused to yield to Indonesian occupation, the conflict dragged on, until a referendum was held in 1999, with a clear majority voting for independence.

After some nasty incidents, Indonesia withdrew, the United Nations took over the administration of EastTimor, and the country gained its independence in 2002 Lloyd-Jones; Pinto, (eds.), 2003.

62 Valério, 1998: 53-69.

63 Hodler, 2004.

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