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Dr David Martin Burridge CBE ECMWF Director 1 January 1991 to 17 June 2004 An unwritten rule or tradition that the Director of an international organisation should not come from the State in which the organisation has its headquarters, perhaps with the intention of avoiding undue influence from the host country, remained in force until 1990. However, in December 1990, the Council broke with this tradition and appointed Dr David Martin Burridge, a native of Wales, as Director from 1 January 1991. He had been at the Centre since 1974, and had been Head of Research since 1982.
In November 1989, Council had considered the appointment of senior staff, and decided that ‘in general two terms should be the maximum’ for their term of employment. Council broke this rule also when, having renewed Burridge’s appointment in 1993, it reappointed him again in 1998 to serve until he retired on 18 June 2004.
Born: 17 June 1944 Nationality: United Kingdom — Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) Education: Ph. D. in Applied Mathematics from Bristol University, 1970 B. Sc. in Mathematics (First Class Honours) from Bristol University, 1966
Retired since June 2004.
1991-2004: Director, ECMWF 1989-1990: Deputy Director, ECMWF 1982-1990: Head of Research, ECMWF 1979-1982: Head of Model Division, ECMWF 1976-1978: Head of Numerical Aspects Section, ECMWF 1975-1976: Member of Interim Planning Staff for establishing ECMWF 1970-1975: Scientist, Forecasting Research Branch, Meteorological Office, Bracknell 1969-1970: Assistant Professor, Florida State University, USA The Directors 253 Dominique Marbouty ECMWF Director from 18 June 2004 In its session in December 2003, Council appointed Dominique Marbouty from France as Director.
Marbouty had been at the Centre as Head of Operations since February 1999.
Born: 9 June 1951 Nationality: French Education: Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 1970-73 Ecole Nationale de la Météorologie, Paris, 1973-75
2004: Director, ECMWF 2003-2004: Deputy Director, ECMWF 1999-2004: Head of Operations, ECMWF 1994-1999: Deputy Director General, Météo France, Paris 1992-1994: Deputy Director, Météorologie Nationale, Paris 1989-1991: Head, Bureau for Operation and Defence, Météorologie Nationale, Paris 1985-1989: Director, Region South-West, Météorologie Nationale, Bordeaux 1984-1985: Deputy Director, Region South-West, Météorologie Nationale, Bordeaux 1978-1984: Head, Snow Research Centre, Météorologie Nationale, Grenoble 1975-1977: Scientist, Météorologie Nationale, Paris and Grenoble Annex 2
The Council and its Committees
In the words of the Convention:
“The organs of the Centre shall be the Council and the Director. The Council shall be assisted by a Scientific Advisory Committee and a Finance Committee.” The Council The Convention says that the Council “shall have the powers and shall adopt the measures necessary to implement this Convention”. The Council, which meets usually twice per year, is composed of not more than two representatives from each Member State, “one of whom should be a representative of his national meteorological service”. Advisers may assist these representatives at Council meetings. A representative of the World Meteorological Organization is invited to take part in the work of the
Council as an observer. The responsibilities of Council include:
• deciding on the admission of new Member States to the Centre, and making conditions for such admissions, for example payment of a “joining fee” by late joiners Norway and Luxembourg as a contribution to the expenditure of the other States that have built up the Centre’s infrastructure,
• withdrawing membership from a State that fails to fulfil its obligations,
• dissolving the Centre if one or more Member States decide to denounce the Convention so that the financial contributions of the remaining States increase by more than 20%,
• authorising the Director to negotiate and conclude co-operation agreements with States and with international scientific and technical organisations, and
• deciding on the acquisition of computer systems, adopting the staff and financial regulations, and deciding on the myriad other matters required to keep an international organisation functioning.
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Prof C. Finizio Italy 1998–1999 Dr L. P. Prahm Denmark 2000 Mr J-P. Beysson France 2001–2003 Mr A. V. Serrão Portugal 2004– The Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) has twelve members selected from among the scientists of the Member States and appointed “in their personal capacity” by the Council for a period of four years. Thus, members of the SAC do not represent the interests of the State from which they come;
they are independent scientific experts. They represent a broad range of the disciplines relating to the activities of the Centre, modelling, analysis, use of satellite or other specialised data, and more. The Committee is renewed by one quarter every year. Representatives of the World Meteorological Organisation and EUMETSAT take part in the work of the Committee.
The Committee broadly speaking confines itself to the Centre’s scientific programme as the Director proposes it and as it is implemented by the Research Department. Normally meeting once a year in the autumn, it draws up, for submission to the Council, “opinions and recommendations on the draft programme of the activities of the Centre drawn up by the Director and on any matter submitted to it by the Council”. The Director keeps the Committee informed on the implementation of the programme. The Committee gives Council its opinions on the results obtained.
The SAC has played a crucial role over the years. The independent scientists on the Committee have monitored the Centre’s scientific plans, and the progress of implementation of the plans, with a questioning and sometimes sceptical eye. The Director and Head of Research have not always been completely comfortable facing the Committee’s scrutiny. The Committee members continued to question that which they found unconvincing.
However they supported what they liked, and the Chairman of the SAC, in reporting to Council, was often able to convince Council of the merits of the Director’s proposals contained in the Four-year Programme of Activities.
Also, there were times when the Director or Head of Research was able to take some satisfaction in having achieved progress, sticking to their convictions against the opinions of some on the Committee! The enthusiasm of the SAC scientists for the work of the Centre was often evident in the language used in their Reports to Council.
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M. Palomares Spain 1997–1999 M. Klöppel Germany 2000–2002 C. Monteiro Portugal 2003–2004 L. Frachon France 2005– The SAC and Finance Committee are the only two Committees mentioned in the Convention. However, by the Convention, the Council “may set up advisory committees and shall determine the composition and duties thereof”. In 1976 Council established three advisory committees.
• An Advisory Committee on matters relating to communications between the Centre and the Member States, chaired by Dr Daniel Söderman of Finland, was established in May 1976. The terms of reference of the Committee included evaluating Member State requirements for forecast products of the Centre, the means of distribution, how the Member States could use the computer system of the Centre, and technical and financial aspects.
• An Advisory Committee on the acquisition of the computer system of the Centre, chaired by Mr Deloz from Belgium, was established in November 1976. This drew up recommendations leading to the Centre acquiring the CRAY-1 computer.
• An Advisory Committee on the Use of the Computer System by the Member States (ACUCS), chaired by Mr Fred Bushby of the UK, was established in November 1976. The Committee’s work eased greatly the problem faced by Council in ensuring a fair distribution of the available computer resources among the Member States.
In November 1978 Council set up the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC). It would have the tasks of the three somewhat ad-hoc Committees, and would otherwise consider the Centre’s operational meteorological activities, proposed changes to the computing and telecommunications systems and such matters. In effect, while the SAC and Finance Committee advised the Council on the work and plans of the Research and Administration Departments, the TAC was set up to do the same for the computing and meteorological activities of the Operations Department. The TAC usually meets after the SAC session in the autumn each year.
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Council the collected opinions and recommendations of the Co-operating States, without them individually having to attend Council. Its first chairman was Dr Ivan Mersich from Hungary. The ACCS proved to be a useful Committee for maintaining contact between the Secretariat of the Centre and the States on technical and scientific issues, in addition to carrying out its formal function.
Advisory Committee of Co-operating States Chairmen Name State Term as Chairman I. Mersich Hungary 1994–1997 M. Matvijev Croatia 1998–2000 D. Hrˇ ek c Slovenia 2001–2002 J. Roskar Slovenia 2003– The Council in December 2001 set up a new Advisory Committee, the Advisory Committee for Data Policy (ACDP), which would review the Centre’s data policy, with a view to encouraging and developing use of the Centre’s forecasts for both commercial and non-commercial applications.
The ACDP representatives were experts from the Member States. Many of them had considerable experience in dealing with data policy issues relating to EUMETSAT and commercial data. Its Chairman was Mr Detlev Frömming from Germany.
Annex 3 List of abbreviations
CDC Control Data Corporation CERFACS Centre Européen de Recherche et de Formation Avancée en Calcul Scientifique CERN Conseil Européen pour la Recherché Nucléaire CFS Common File System CHA Committee of Heads of Administration (part of CCG) CLRTAP Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution CMA China Meteorological Administration CMC Canadian Meteorological Centre CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique COADS Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set COARE Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment COLA Centre for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies COS Cray Operating System COST European Cooperation in Scientific and Technical research CPU Central Processing Unit CRSG Committee of Representatives of the Secretaries-General CRP Committee of Representatives of Personnel CTBTO Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organisation CUG Cray User Group DEMETER Development of a European Multi-model Ensemble system for seasonal to inTERannual prediction DST Data Systems Test DUACS Developing Use of Altimetry for Climate Studies DYCOMS Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus DWD Deutscher Wetterdienst — the German Weather Service ECFS ECMWF File management System ECMWF European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts List of abbreviations 265
FGGE First GARP Global Experiment FNMOC Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center GARP Global Atmospheric Research Programme GATE GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment Gigabyte: 1024 megabytes (about 109 bytes) GB GCM General Circulation Model GEOSAT Geodetic Satellite GEOSS Global Earth Observation System of Systems GEMS Global and regional Earth-system (Atmosphere) Monitoring using Satellite and in-situ data GDPS Global Data-Processing System GFDL Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory GMES Global Monitoring for Environment and Security GNI Gross National Income GNP Gross National Product GOME Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment GOS Global Observing System GRIB GRIdded Binary (a code) GTS Global Telecommunication System HIRETYCS HIgh REsolution Ten Year Climate Simulation HIRLAM High-Resolution Limited Area Model HOPE Hamburg Ocean Primitive Equation HPC High-Performance Computing HPSS High Performance Storage System IAS Institute for Advanced Study IBM International Business Machines ICL International Computers Ltd ICSU International Council for Science List of abbreviations 267
MPI Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NCAR Mational Center for Atmospheric Research NCEP National Centers for Environmental Prediction (Washington) NERSC National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (California) NMC National Meteorological Center (often refers to NMC, USA) NNMI Non-linear Normal Mode Initialisation NMS National Meteorological Service NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NORPEX North Pacific Experiment NTC New Telecommunications Computer NTS National Telecommunications System NWP Numerical Weather Prediction OASIS Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil OD Operations Department (of ECMWF) OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OI Optimum Interpolation OSE Observing System Experiment OSSE Observing System Simulation Experiment PAC Policy Advisory Committee PAOB PAid OBservation: Quasi-observations from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology Petabyte: 1024 terabytes (approx. 1012 bytes) PB PCMDI Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison PE Processing Element List of abbreviations 269
THORPEX THe Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment TIGGE THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble TOGA Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere TOPSE Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox TOVS TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder Tnnn Lmm Triangular resolution at wave number nnn, with mm levels between the surface and top levels of the model atmosphere (a measure of model resolution) TRACE-P TRace And Chemical Evolution over the Pacific UA Unit of Account (of EEC — on 1 January 1972, 1 UA = £0.437) UCAR University Corporation for Atmospheric Research UCLA University of California, Los Angeles UK United Kingdom UN United Nations UNICOS A Unix variant for Cray computers UNIVAC UNIVersal Automatic Computer USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics UTC Universal Time Co-ordinated VDU Visual Display Unit WAM WAve Modelling Group WCRP World Climate Research Programme WEU Western European Union WMC World Meteorological Centre WMO World Meteorological Organization WWW World Weather Watch