«The Influence of Hedonic Shopping Motivations on Buying Decision with Gender as Dummy Variable: (A Study on Consumers at the Hardy’s Mall ...»
European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online)
Vol.5, No.31, 2013
The Influence of Hedonic Shopping Motivations on Buying
Decision with Gender as Dummy Variable:
(A Study on Consumers at the Hardy’s Mall Singaraja,
Buleleng Regency, Indonesia)
Gede Wira Kusuma*, Syafiie Idrus, Atim Djazuli
Postgraduate Program, Faculty of Economics and Business, Brawijaya University, Jalan MT. Haryono 165 Malang, East Java, Indonesia 65145 Tel. +62341-562154 * E-mail of the corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract The objective of this study is to determine the influence of hedonic shopping motivations comprising adventure shopping, gratification, role shopping, value shopping, social shopping, and idea shopping gender towards consumers’ buying decision. The respondents of this study are consumers at Hardy’s Mall Singaraja. Purposive sampling method was employed in choosing the qualified respondents who fit certain criteria namely the consumers have visited the mall and shopped more than twice and were at least graduated from senior or vocational high-school. The number of sample involved in this study is 360 respondents. The data were obtained from respondents’ responses on the questionnaires. SPSS’ dummy regression was employed to test the hypotheses. The findings demonstrate that: (1) the adventure shopping motivation positively and significantly influences buying decision, (2) the gratification shopping motivation positively but not significantly influences buying decision, (3) the role shopping motivation positively and significantly influences buying decision, (4) value shopping motivation positively and significantly influences buying decision, (5) social shopping motivation positively and significantly influences buying decision, (6) idea shopping motivation positively and significantly influences buying decision, and (7) gender significantly affects buying decision. In addition, this study indicates that value shopping motivation has prevailing influence on buying decision and that female consumers tend to be more dominant than males to shop at Hardy’s Mall Singaraja.
Keywords: Hedonic shopping motivations, gender, buying decision.
1. Introduction The tendency of shopping behavior happening today is related to consumers’ underlying motivation to shop.
Shopping activity is initially done by the consumers with rational motives regarding with the product’s benefit.
Another value influencing consumers’ shopping activity is emotional value known as hedonic. In addition, consumers will take additional aspects into their consideration covering pleasure and joy aspects (hedonism) that can be gained apart from the product benefits that can be enjoyed through shopping activity. Nowadays, consumers are more recreation-oriented that accentuates pleasure, joy, and entertainment aspects when shopping (Ma’ruf, 2008).
Most of consumers’ decision occurs in a shopping centre (McIntyre in Fam et al., 2011). Retailers may give incentives to boost sales in the shopping environment, considering that hedonic consumers would prefer memorable shopping environment. Incentives in a shopping environment can be created through the atmosphere of the shopping centre and services rendered to consumers when they are shopping (Fam et al., 2011). Hetane (2006) finds that emotional value like pleasure has positive effect on purchase decision tendencies. The result of a study conducted by Harmancioglu et al. (2009) demonstrates that pleasing someone else has positive influence on purchase decision tendencies.
Gender is treated as a dummy variable due to the various hedonic motivations between males and females in consuming a product, as stated by Kotler and Keller (2007) that motivation is one of consumer psychological processes influencing buying decision. Gender basically differs from biological sex. A human is born as a female or a male by the absolute conferment afterwards biological interpretation by culture defines a way that makes humans masculine or feminine (Mosse, 2007).
Many studies have demonstrated significant distinction about gender differences in consumer behavior. Women allocate much more time and efforts in shopping for Christmas presents than men (Fischer and Arnold, 1990). In addition, women enjoy shopping more than men (Rook and Hoch, 1985). Furthermore, women have more comprehensive and detailed information related to the product and the advertisement than the men (Kempf and Smith, 2006). Kruger and Byker (2009) discover that of all of the products being sold, women tend to be careful in choosing product before purchasing and more attentive than men. Moreover, women are more hedonic than 241 European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.5, No.31, 2013 men (Tifferet and Herstein, 2012).
In a study on the importance of entertainment in retailing strategies, Arnold and Reynolds (2003) identify the variables of consumer hedonic shopping motivation consisting of adventure, social, gratification, idea, role, and value shopping motivation. Ira, N.S (2008) reveals that variables of hedonic shopping motivation covering adventure, social, idea, role, and value shopping motivation influence buying decision, while gratification shopping motivation does not. Meanwhile, Gultekin and Leyla (2012) find that gratification shopping motivation significantly influences buying decision. Based on the explanation above, there is a gap between each study as well as the inconsistent result from different researchers. Thus, this study aims to: (1) analyze the influence of hedonic shopping motivation variables consisting of adventure, gratification, role, value, social, and idea shopping motivation on buying decision, (2) analyze the influences of gender on buying decision, (3) analyze whether or not females are more dominant to do shopping activity.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Hedonic Shopping Motivation Hedonic shopping motivation is a person’s motive to shop based on emotional responses, sensory pleasures, dreams, and aesthetic consideration (Engel and Minard, 2000). Utami (2006) in Ira, N.S (2008) mentions six hedonic shopping motivations: (1) adventure shopping motivation that occurs when consumers shop for stimulation, adventure, and the feeling of being in their own world; (2) gratification shopping motivation is when consumers shop to relieve stress, alleviate negative mood, and forget about present problems; (3) role shopping motivation that happens when consumers feel enjoyment from shopping for others rather than for their own selves; (4) value shopping motivation is when consumers assume shopping as a bargaining game, hence they seek stores that offer discounts, sales or bargains; (5) social shopping motivation that occurs when consumers feel enjoyment and gain a lot of information on potential product by shopping with family and friends, and view shopping as a social activity with other consumers or workers at the mall; (6) idea shopping motivation that happens when consumers shop to keep up with the latest fashion trends and see new products and innovations.
2.2 Gender Gender is assumed as a linear category, starting with social orientation of femininity and masculinity. Females are only allowed to conduct feminine function and sexual orientation, while males are only allowed to conduct masculine function and sexual orientation.
Nauly (2002) explains that masculinity is culturally ideal characteristics for men, while femininity is culturally ideal characteristics for women.
2.3 Buying Decision Kotler and Keller (2007) propose five stages of buying decision processes. The stages are: (1) problem/need recognition, (2) information search, (3) evaluation of alternatives, (4) purchase decision, (5) post-purchase behavior. The model emphasizes that buying process begins before the purchase and becomes far-reaching after the purchase.
3.1 The Influence of Hedonic Shopping Motivations on Buying Decision Arnold and Reynolds (2003) conducted a study on the importance of entertainment in retailing strategies. The study successfully identifies six variables of hedonic shopping motivation consisting of adventure, gratification, role, value, social, and idea shopping motivation. Ira, N.S (2008) reveals that variables of hedonic shopping motivation including adventure, social, idea, role, and value shopping motivation influence buying decision, while gratification shopping motivation does not. Based on the explanation above, the following hypotheses are
H1 : Adventure shopping motivation positively and significantly influences buying decision.
H2 : Gratification shopping motivation positively and significantly influences buying decision.
H3 : Role shopping motivation positively and significantly influences buying decision.
H4 : Value shopping motivation positively and significantly influences buying decision.
H5 : Social shopping motivation positively and significantly influences buying decision.
H6 : Idea shopping motivation positively and significantly influences buying decision.
3.2 The Influence of Gender on Buying Decision Gender is defined as a person’s sexual identity. Gender is expected to have sensitivity towards consumer buying behavior (Mai and Zhao, 2004). Gender is assumed as a linear category, starting with social orientation of femininity and masculinity. Females are only allowed to conduct feminine function and sexual orientation, while males are only allowed to conduct masculine function and sexual orientation.
Many studies have suggested significant differences of consumer behavior between each gender. Women enjoy
shopping more than men (Rook and Hoch, 1985). Tifferet and Herstein (2012) present a finding that women are
more hedonic than men. The hypothesis based on the explanation above is:
H7 : Gender significantly influences buying decision.
4. Research Method
4.1 Research Approach This study is an explanatory research aimed at testing the causality of each variable through hypotheses testing.
The research method employed is survey.
4.2 Setting The study is conducted at Hardy’s Mall Singaraja, Buleleng, Indonesia based on the consideration that this mall is a prestigious place in Buleleng where relevant information can be acquired.
4.3 Sample and Population The populations of study are consumers who visit and shop at Hardy’s Mall Singaraja. The selected respondents were men and women visiting Hardy’s Mall Singaraja. The sum of population was not exactly known since there were too many people shopping at the mall. According to Sekaran, U. (2006), if the population is not known then the sample should be at least ten times the tested variables. In that case, 400 questionnaires were handed out and 360 of which were considered for final analysis (male 180, female 180).
4.4. Analysis Method 4.4.1 Dummy Regression Analysis According to Bambang, S. (2008), dummy regression is a facility of regression that can be used for accommodation in a case where there is an independent variable containing nominal or ordinal variable.
Therefore, all types of data from independent variable can be presented in regression equation.
The formula of dummy regression used is as follows:
Y = β0 + β1X1 + β2X2 + β3X3 + β4X4 + β5X5 + β6X6 + β7X7D1 + e
β0 Y = Buying decision X4 = Value shopping = intercept β1...βn X1 = Adventure shopping X5 = Social shopping =Coefficient regression X2 = Gratification shopping X6 = Idea shopping e = Error X3 = Role shopping X7 = Gender (Male = 1, Female = 0) 4.4.2 Classical Assumption Test Heteroscedasticity test is a situation in which every error has different variants. Heteroscedasticity is tested using “rank spearman”, a coefficient correlation test that correlates residual absolute regression results with all of the independent variables. If the significance of correlation is less than 0.05 (5%) then the regression contains heteroscedasticity, and vice versa (Santoso, 2002). Multicolinearity test is intended to test whether the regression model has a perfect or high rate of correlation with independent variable (Ghozali, 2009).
Normality test aims to test whether or not residual variable has normal distribution in the regression model, considering that t and F tests assume residual value to follow up normal distribution. If the assumption is not met then the statistical analysis becomes invalid for the small sample (Ghozali, 2009). Normality assumption is eligible if the data used are relatively large (n30). Statistical test that can be applied to test the residual normality is non-parametric statistical analysis Kolmogorov-Sminov (KS) (Ghozali, 2009).
4.5 Hypothesis Test Hypotheses are tested using t test. t test is performed to find out the partial effect of independent variable on dependent variables (Sugiyono, 2007).
5. Findings and Discussion
5.1 Dummy Regression Analysis In regression analysis, dependent variables are often affected not only by ratio scales (revenue, price, and cost) but also by nominal or qualitative variable such as gender. Qualitative variable, e.g. gender, seems to affect dependent variables and thus has to be included in independent variables. The qualitative variable is quantified by determining an artificial variable with a value of 1 or 0.1 which shows the existence of attribute and 0 which does not. A variable assumed to have value of 1 or 0 is called as dummy variable (Ghozali, 2009). Multiple regression analysis is used because there is more than one independent variable.
From the results shown above, two models of regression for both female and male are determined.