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«A Master’s Thesis by DENĠZ AKSOY Department of International Relations Ġhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University Ankara September 2011 To 2009-2011 ...»

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EUROSCEPTICISM OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN POLAND AND

CZECH REPUBLIC

A Master’s Thesis

by

DENĠZ AKSOY

Department of International Relations

Ġhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University

Ankara

September 2011

To 2009-2011 Bilkent IR Graduate Students

EUROSCEPTICISM OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN POLAND AND

CZECH REPUBLIC

Graduate School of Economics and Social Sciences of Ġhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University by

DENĠZ AKSOY

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of

MASTER OF ARTS

in

THE DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

ĠHSAN DOĞRAMACI BILKENT UNIVERSITY

ANKARA

September 2011 I certify that I have read this thesis and have found that it is fully adequate, in scope and in quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts in International Relations.

--------------------------------- Assist. Prof. Dimitris Tsarouhas Supervisor I certify that I have read this thesis and have found that it is fully adequate, in scope and in quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts in International Relations.

--------------------------------- Assist. Prof. Ali Tekin Examining Committee Member I certify that I have read this thesis and have found that it is fully adequate, in scope and in quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts in International Relations.

--------------------------------- Assist. Prof. Zeki Sarıgil Examining Committee Member Approval of the Graduate School of Economics and Social Sciences

--------------------------------- Prof. Dr. Erdal Erel Director

ABSTRACT

EUROSCEPTICISM OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN POLAND AND CZECH

REPUBLIC

Aksoy, Deniz M.A., Department of International Relations Supervisor: Assist. Prof.Dimitris Tsarouhas September 2011 This study is an attempt to explore the distinctive character of Europeanization of the Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) and seeks to contribute to the development of the literature on Europeanization of political parties. The main inquiry is to analyze the relationship between Europeanization of political parties and party-level Euroscepticism. The study argues that party-level Euroscepticism is not merely an effect, but also a clear manifestation of Europeanization process.

Keywords: Europeanization of political parties, party-level Euroscepticism iii

–  –  –

Bu çalıĢma Orta ve Doğu Avrupa ülkelerinin AvrupalılaĢma sürecinin ayırd edici özelliklerini belirlemeye ve siyasi partilerin AvrupalılaĢması literatürüne katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. Siyasi partilerin AvrupalılaĢma süreci ile partilerin avrupa kuĢkucu politikaları arasındaki iliĢki çalıĢmanın temel araĢtırma odağını oluĢturmaktadır.Bu çerçevede, çalıĢma Avrupa kuĢkucu parti politikalarının Avrupa BütünleĢme sürecinin sadece bir sonucu olmaktan ziyade, AvrupalılaĢma sürecinin açık bir göstergesi olduğu fikrini savunmaktadır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Siyasi partilerin AvrupalılaĢması, siyasi partilerin Avrupa kuĢkuculuğu

–  –  –

It is an honor for me to thank those who made this thesis possible. I owe my deepest gratitude to my parents and brother for their heavenly support throughout my study. My expression of thanks likewise will never suffice.

This thesis would not have been possible without the guidance, friendship, patience, motivation and support of my thesis supervisor, Asst. Prof. Dimitris Tsarouhas, who has always been invaluable on both an academic and a personal level, for which I am extremely grateful.

I would like to acknowledge the academic and financial support of Bilkent University and the Department of International Relations. I am grateful to the University library for its facilities and the help of librarians.

Finally, I am deeply indebted to many of my colleagues for their unequivocal friendship and personal support throughout the last two years. It is a great pleasue to thank those; Ġsmail Erkam Sula, Ġlke Taylan Yurdakul, AyĢe Yedekçi,YaĢar Kemal ġan and I would like to thank Hakan Yavuzyılmaz for providing me with feedback and assistance, which have been a valuable support.

Last but not the least, I would like to thank the founders of the Society of Young Academics (SYA) for organizing academic discussions and social activities, which promote a more stimulating and interactive academic and social environment at Bilkent University.

v TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………........iii ÖZET……………………………………………………………………………...iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS…………………………………………………………v TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………vi LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………....viii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS……………………………………………………ix CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION…………………………………………. …….1 CHAPTER II: EUROPEANIZATION AS A FRAMEWORK…………………..7





2.1 A Review of the Literature on Europeanization…………………….......7 2.1.1. Conceptualizing the Europeanization of CEECs…………..17

2.2 Political Parties and Europeanization…………………………………..24 2.2.1 The Evolution of Modern Political Parties…………………24 2.2.2 The Classification of Party Models………………………...26

2.3 The Europeanization of Political Parties Literature……………………29

CHAPTER III: EUROPEAN INTEGRATION AND THE POLITICS OF

EUROSCEPTICISM…………………………………………………………….35

3.1 Euroscepticism and Party Attitudes toward European Integration in Western Europe……………………………………………………………38 vi

3.2 Impact of the European Issue on the National Politics of the CEECs:

“Return to Europe”………………………………………………………...49 3.2.1 Euroscepticism and Party Attitudes toward European Integration in Central and Eastern Europe………………………53 3.2.2 Conceptualization of Party-Based Euroscepticism in the Context of Central and Eastern European Countries……………56

CHAPTER IV: EUROSCEPTICISM AS A REALIGNING ISSUE IN POLISH

PARTY POLITICS………………………………………………………………66

4.1 The Main Features of the Polish Party System………………………..70

4.2 The Analysis of Polish Parliamentary Elections and Presidential Elections………………………………………………………………...…72

4.3 The June 2003 Polish EU Accession Referendum…………………….89

4.4 The June 2004 European Parliament Election…………………………92

CHAPTER V: EUROSCEPTICISM AS A FEATURE OF MAINSTREAM

PARTY POLITICS IN CZECH REPUBLIC…………………………………...95

5.1 The Analysis of Czech Parliamentary Elections………………………97

5.2 The 2003 Czech EU Accession Referendum…………………………117

5.3 The 2004 European Parliament Election……………………………..119 CHAPTER VI: CONCLUSION……………………………………………….122 BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………..133

–  –  –

1. Table 1: Political Parties in the 1997 Polish Parliament………………...73

2. Table 2: Four Main Candidates in the October 2000 Polish Presidential Election……………………………………………………………..77 Table 3: Political Parties in the 2001 Polish Parliament…………………84 3.

4. Table 4: Political Parties in the 2005 Polish Parliament…………………87

5. Table 5: The June 2003 Polish EU Accession Referendum……………..90 Table 6: The June 2004 Polish Election to the European Parliament…...92 6.

7. Table 7: 1998 Chamber of Deputies Election Results…………………...98

8. Table 8: 2002 Chamber of Deputies Election Results………………….104

9. Table 9: 2006 Chamber of Deputies Election Results………………….112

10. Table 10: The June 2003 EU Accession Referendum Results in the Czech Republic………………………………………………………….117

11. Table 11: The 2004 European Parliament Elections Turnout in the CEECs……………………………………………………………………120

12. Table 12: Czech Political Parties Standing in the 2004 European Parliament Elections………………………………………………….121

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Euroscepticism is not a new, nor a threatening phenomenon in the history of European integration. From the famous 1988 Bruges Speech of Margaret Thatcher to Vaclav Klaus‟s speech to the European Parliament on 12 February 2009 at the beginning of the Czech EU Presidency, nothing much has really changed in terms of the source of opposition to European integration. In both cases, Euroscepticism serves as an outright manifestation of the concerns and reservations of those who oppose further integration beyond economic cooperation, and the transformation of the EU into a supranational political entity. However, what has dramatically changed is that Euroscepticism can no longer be conceived of as a marginal political attitude towards European integration which can be described with reference to a singular “Thatcherite” rhetoric. “The Bruges Speech” by Margaret Thatcher was the first outright manifestation of a Eurosceptic political discourse, which expressed the concerns of those who oppose further integration beyond inter-state economic cooperation and the transformation of the Union into a supranational political entity.

The politics of Euroscepticism and its discourse have become one of the defining characteristics of the European political landscape. As Leconte (2010: 12) describes: “what was considered a Eurosceptic discourse in the Thatcher era has

–  –  –

accompanied the development of European integration. Its size and salience grows as the scale of European integration becomes wider, bigger and deeper. In this sense, Euroscepticism has acquired importance more than ever as the Union has become a supranational political entity and reached its greatest size yet with twenty seven members. In light of these developments, the issues of Europe and European integration become the major themes of domestic political discussion and contestation.It is in this context that the salience of the politics of Euroscepticism dramatically increased in terms of its impact on party politics of member, new member and candidate states.

It is no longer possible to assume the existence of a permissive consensus, which had been widely endorsed throughout the post war era, concerning the direction and nature of European integration at the political level. The end of the elite consensus on the limits and nature of European integration reached its peak with the controversies surrounding the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1991 (Leconte, 2010: 45). Since the 1990s, the age of the „permissive consensus‟ about the European integration was started to be replaced by the age of a „constraining dissensus‟ (Steenbergen et al., 2007: 14). In this process, the national governments and political parties have become the central actors as the most direct channels of influence for the expression of public and party political Euroscepticism both at the national and EU levels. In all these respects, Euroscepticism has become “a corollary of increasing European integration” (Taggart, 1998: 363), and the increasing academic interest in the study of Europeanization of political parties, party politics and party-level Euroscepticism

–  –  –

the EU on national political structures.

According to Mair (2008: 154), there are three main research strands in the European integration and political parties literature. First, the study of transnational party federations and their potential to create substantial party activity at the European level; secondly the study of the nature and dynamics of the parties and party systems in the European Parliament and finally the study of the impact and role of Europe in shaping party programs, party ideology, party systems and party competition at the national level. The present study belongs to third strand of research and seeks to contribute to the development of the literature on the Europeanization of political parties. It does so by focusing on the impact of European integration on domestic party politics. In doing so, it also recognizes the limits to which West European party based concepts and analytical tools can contribute to our understanding of the Europeanization of party systems and party politics in Central and Eastern Europe. It also highlights the necessity for the further development of the Europeanization framework, which can account for the differences between the Western and Eastern European party systems and their effects on the countries‟ respective extent of Europeanization.

The study of party-based Euroscepticism in two countries of Central and Eastern Europe demonstrates the multifaceted nature of Euroscepticism. Euroscepticism is not conceived as a stable position and attitude towards the issues of Europe and European integration on the basis of a particular party political ideology. It features across the left-right political spectrum and cuts across the mainstream dimensions of political competition. This study further seeks to demonstrate that, in contrast to the rational institutionalist accounts of Europeanization, the politics

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