«The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how communication preferences, learning preferences, and perceptions about online learning ...»
Korgen, K., Odell, P., & Schumacher, P. (2006). Internet use among college students:
Are there differences by race/ethnicity? Electronic Journal of Sociology, 2(2).
Retrieved on February 24, 2008 from http://epe.lacbac.gc.ca/100/201/300/ ejofsociology/2001/v05n03/content/vol005.003/korgen.html.
Knapp, M. S., & Woolverton, S. (2004). Social class and schooling. In J. A. Banks & C. A. M. Banks (Eds.), Handbook of research in multicultural education (2nd ed., pp. 656-678). San Fransico: Jossey-Bass.
Knowles, M., Holton, E., & Swanson, R. (1998). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development (5th ed.). Retrieved from ERIC database.
Kvasny, L. (2002). A conceptual framework for examining digital inequality. Eighth Americas Conference Information Systems, 1798-1805.
Kolowich, S. (2009). Recession may drive more adult students to take online classes.
Chronicle of Higher Education, 55(19), A11. Retrieved from ERIC database.
Korgen, K., Odell, P., & Schumacher, P. (2001). Internet use among college students:
Are there differences by race/ethnicity? Electronic Journal of Sociology, 2(2).
Retrieved February 7, 2007, from http://epe.lacbac.gc.ca/100/201/300/ ejofsociology/2001/v05n03/content/vol005.003/korgen.html.
Ladson-Billings, G. (2006). From the achievement gap to the education debt:
Understanding achievement in U.S. schools. American Educational Research Association presidential address, San Francisco. Retrieved December 14, 2006, from http://www.cmcgc.com/Media/WMP/260407/49_010_files/Default.htm.
Ladson-Billings, G. (2009). Race still matters: Critical race theory in education. In M.
Apple, W. Au, & L. A. Gandin (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of critical education (pp. 110-122). New York and London: Routledge.
Lenhart, A., Madden, M., & Hitlin, P. (2005). Teens and technology: Youth are leading the transition to a fully wired and mobile nation. Pew Internet and American Life Project.
LeCompte, M. D., & Schensul, J. J. (1999). Paradigms for thinking about ethnographic research. In M. D. Lecompte J. J. Schensul (Eds.), Designing and Conducting ethnographic research (pp. 41-61). Walnut Creek, CA: Alfamira Press.
Lilu, Y., & Ginter, D. (1999). Cognitive styles and distance education. Retrieved April 27, 2005, from http://www.wesga.edu/~distance/liu23.html.
Litzinger, M. E., & Bonnie, O. (1993). Accommodating diverse learning styles:
Designing instructor for electronic information sources. In L. Shirato (Ed.), What is good instruction? Library instruction for the 90s. Ann Arbor, MI: Pierian Press.
Lu, L., Yu, C.-S., Liu, C. (2003). Learning style, learning patterns, and learning performance in a Web CT-based MIS course. Information & Manangement, 40, 497-507.
McConnell, D. (2000) Implementing computer supported cooperative learning. London:
Kogan Page Limited.
MacDonald, C. (2008). The more the world changes the more the education system remains the same: Addressing the need to use emerging technologies to enhance online learning communities. In K. McFerrin et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2008 (pp. 3047-3054). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
McDougal, S. (2009). “Break It Down”: One of the Cultural and Stylist Instructional Preferences of Black Males. Journal of Negro Education, 78(4), 432-440.
Retrieved from ERIC database.
McLoughlin, C. (2001). Inclusivity and alignment: principles of pedagogy, task, and assessment design for effective cross-cultural online learning. Distance Education, 22(1), 7-29.
McGee, P. (2002).Web-based learning design: Planning for diversity. USDLA Journal, 16(2). Retrieved October 25, 2005, from http://www.usdla.org/html/journal/ MAR02_Issue/article03.html.
McGrath, V. (2009). Reviewing the evidence on how adult students learn: An examination of Knowles’ model of andragogy. Adult Learner: The Irish Journal of Adult and Community Education, 99-110. Retrieved from ERIC database.
McKee, T. (2010). Thirty years of distance education: Personal reflections. Retrieved
June 9, 2010, from http://18.104.22.168/scholar?q=cache:aJETcbTgME8J:
Merriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study application in education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Merriam, S. B. & Associates. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Examples of discussion and analysis. San Fransisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
Mertens, D. M. (1998). Research methods in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative and qualitative approaches (pp. 6-23). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Middleton, L., & Chambers, V. (2010). Approaching digital equity: Is WiFi the great leveler? Information Technology and People, 23(1), 4-22.
Moore, M. (1996). Theory of transactional distance. In D. Keegen (Ed.), Theoretical principals of distance education (pp. 22-38). New York: Routledge.
Morse, K. (2003). Does one size fit all? Exploring asynchronous learning in a multicultural environment. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 7(1), 37Murray, T. (2003). Power and relationship in online teaching and learning. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from www.education.duq.edu/institutes/pdf/papers2003/ murray.
Nagel, D. (2009). Most college students to take classes online by 2014. Retrieved June 6, 2010, from http://campustechnology.com/articles/2009/10/28/most-collegestudents-to-take-classes-online-by-2014.aspx.
Nasseh, B. (1997). A brief history of distance education. Retrieved November 12, 2006, from http://www.seniornet.org/edu/art/history.html.
National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education. (2008). The state of America’s black colleges 2008: Expanding access, ensuring success, promoting global competitiveness. Silver Spring, MD: Beckham Publications Group, Inc.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2001). Post secondary education quick information system. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved April 25, 2005, from http://nces.ed.gov/survey/peqis/publications/2003017.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2006-2007). Distance education at degree granting post secondary institutions. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved July 17, 2006, from http://nces.ed.gov/survey/peqis/publications/2003017.
National Center for Education Statistics (2008). Distance education at degree-granting postsecondary institutions: 2006-07. U.S. Department of education. Retrieved May 25, 2009, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2009044.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2009). Digest of education statistics: 2009.
U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved February 19, 2010, from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d09/ch_3.asp.
Newell, T (2000). The global digital divide and its effect on women scientist worldwide.
AWIS Magazine, 29(4). Retieved February 22, 2008 from http://www.climate.montana.edu/diversity/global digital divide.doc.
Ogbu, J. U. (1999). Beyond language: Ebonics, proper English, and identity in a Black American speech community. American Educational Research Journal, 36(2), 147-182.
Okapala, A., & Okapala, C. (1991). Faculty adoption of education technologies in higher learning. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 24(4), 262-268.
Okumba, T., Walker, K., Hu, X., & Watson, A. (2010). An exploration of African American students’ attitudes toward online learning. Urban Education.
doi: 10.1177/0042085910377516 Orapin, D., Gray, D., & Williams, M. (2007). Transactional distance theory applied when designing international accounting online courses. The Texas Journal of Distance Learning [Online Serial], 4(1), 13-24.
Orbe, M. (1994). “Remember, it’s always Whites’ ball”: Descriptions of African American male communication. Communication Quarterly, 42(3), 287-300.
Retrieved from ERIC database.
Parry, M. (2009). Online Education: Growing, but Painfully. Chronicle of Higher Education, 55(38). Retrieved from ERIC database.
Pearson, T. (1998). Falling behind: A technology crisis facing minority students.
Retrieved October 5, 2002, from http://www.cise.ufl.edu/tpearson.htm.
Peshkin, A. ( 2000). The nature of interpretation in qualitative research. Educational Researcher, 29(9), 5-9.
Pew Internet and American Life Project. (2008). The lives of teens and their technology.
Retrieved July 24, 2010, from http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2008/WritingTechnology-and-Teens/04-The-Lives-of-Teens-and-Their-Technology/03-Teensgo-online-from-a-wide-range-of-locations.aspx?r=1.
Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5). Retrieved June 15, 2005 from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants - Part1.pdf.
Price, M. A. (2009). Are distance education programs at historically minority institutions in the University of North Carolina System mission or market driven? An empirical and qualitative study. Dissertation. North Carolina State University.
Puzziferro, M., & Shelton, K. (2008). A model for developing high-quality online courses: Integrating a systems approach with learning theory. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 12(3-4), 119-136. Retrieved from ERIC database.
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (pp. 5-29). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Reiser, R. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: part II: A history of instructional design. Educational Technology Research and Development, 49(2), 57-67.
Roach, R. (2002, April 29). Johnson C. Smith among yahoos top wired schools. Black Issues in Higher Education, 19(4), 40.
Rovai, A. P., Gallien, L. B., Jr., & Wighting, M. (2005). Cultural and interpersonal factors affecting African American academic performance in higher education: A review and synthesis of research and literature. The Journal of Negro Education.
Retrieved August 3, 2007, from http://libproxy.encg.edu:2074/pqdlink?index= 3&did=992506141$SRChMode=3&sid=3Fmt=3.
Rovai, A. P., & Ponton, M. K. (2005). An examination of sense of classroom community and learning among African American and Caucasian graduate students. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 9(3), 77-92.
Saint, N. (2010). Why Is Twitter more popular with Black people than White people?
Retrieved June 6, 2010, from http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?
Schlossberg, N. K., Lynch, A. Q., & Chickering, A. W. (1989). Improving higher education for adults. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Schran, T. H. (2006). Conceptualizing and proposing qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Servon, L. (2002). Bridging the digital divide: Technology, community, and public policy. London: Blackwell Publishers.
Shealey, M., Lue, M., Brooks, M., & McCray, E. (2005). Examining the legacy of “Brown”: The impact on special education and teacher practice. Remedial and Special Education, 26(2), 113-121. Retrieved from ERIC database.
Sleeter, C., & Delgado Bernal, D. (2004). Critical pedagogy, critical race theory, and antiracist education: Implications for multicultural education. In J. A. Banks & C.
A. M. Banks (Eds.), Handbook of research multicultural education (2nd ed., pp.
240-260). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Sloan Consortium. (2009). Learning on demand: Online education in the United States.
Needham, MA: Author.
Smith, M. (2010). Frontline: College, Inc. Retrieved June 15, 2010, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/collegeinc/view/.
Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Stake, R. E. (2005). Qualitative case studies. In. N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed., pp. 443-66). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Telg, R., & Connor, L. (1997). Evolving communication to inform and educate. Retrieved February 24, 2008, from http://www.ag.auburn.edu/auxiliary/nsdl/sctcsa/ Proceedings/1997/Telg.pdf.
Trower, C., & Chait, R. P. (2002, March-April). Faculty diversity. Harvard Magazine.
March-April 2002. Retrieved on December 04, 2006, from http://www-harvardmagazine.com/online/030218.html.
Tynes, B. M, Giang, M. T, & Thompson, G. T. (2008, August). CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11(4), 459-465. doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.0085 University of North Carolina: A 16-campus university. (2003). The University of North Carolina institutional profiles 2003-2004. Retrieved June 20, 2006, from http://www.ga.unc.edu/UNC_Schools/profiles/current/.
U. S. Census Report. (2003). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved February 6, 2007, from http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p23-208.pdf.
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2008).
Distance Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions: 2006-07.
U.S. Department of Commerce. (2000). Falling through the net: Toward digital inclusion. Retrieved February 19, 2002 from http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/ fttn00/contents00.html. Washington, DC: National Telecommunications and Information Administration.
United Negro College Fund. (2007). Our member colleges. Retrieved April 09, 2006, from http://www.uncf.org/members/aboutHBCU.asp.
Uzner, S. (2009). Questions of culture in distance learning: A research review. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(3).
Vanderpool, L. (2009). Factors that determine the success among traditional and nontraditional students in online education. Ed.D. dissertation, Union University,
United States—Tennessee. Retrieved June 6, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses:
Full Text. (Publication No. AAT 3364083) Walker, F. R. (2003). An Afrocentric rhetorical analysis of Johnnie Cochran’s closing argument in the O. J. Simpson trial. In R. L. Jackson & E. B. Richardson (Eds.), Understanding African American rhetoric: Classical origins to contemporary innovations (pp. 245-262). New York: Routledge.