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«HAER No. NY-134 Windmill at Water Mill Village of Water Mill Town of Southampton Suffolk Gounty New York PHOTOGRAPHS REDUCED COPIES OF MEASURED ...»

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23. Deed, James and Harmenah fsic7 Corwithe to Mary, William and Silas Corwithe, April 8, T818, unacknowledged and unrecorded, Corwith collection; deed, James and Harmeniah /sicj Corwithe to Mary, Silas and Abigail Corwithe, August 23, 1821, unrecorded, Corwith collection.

24. John Burnet Account Book, 1835-1839, n.p., Southampton Historical Society and Museum; Hildreth Account Book, 18; Diary of Daniel Hildreth III of Seven Ponds, 1800typescript from the original, Halsey collection; deed, Trustees...of Southampton to James Corwith, August 14, I860, recorded April 25, 1898, Liber 469 of Deeds, 7-9, SCCO.

25. Burnet Account Book", n.p.

26. Hildreth Diary, 17.

28* Bill, Corwith to Fordham, /month illegible/ 2nd, 1841.

29. Interview, Eric P. Corwith, May 2, 1978? "Address of Carlton Corwith," 1. Although we have no record of the operation of the Corwith mill, we do have a very full one for a wind-powered sawmill, owned by Daniel Hildreth of Seven Ponda.

Hildreth's diary records repairs usually (but not always) made in September, October and November, with the mill operating most frequently between November and April. However, Hildreth does record sawing in other months. This diary makes it clear that most farmers with multiple occupations and skills did not neatly compartmentalize the time spent in each of their various activities. Hildreth sewed some crops, harvested others, made pumps, bored wells, worked at a blacksmith shop, and went fishing, oystering and clamming, all sometimes in the same month. Corwith must also have attended to his farming chores, as well as fishing, oystering and clamming, in addition to running the grist mill. See Hildreth Diary, passim, and Daniel Hildreth's Book, Sept., 1853 - April, 1868. passim., typescript, Halsey Collection.

See Part III: Structure and Machinery for a discussion of the luffing mechanism.

30. Only the Ninth Census of the United States, Schedule 4: Products of Industry, Suffolk County, 1870, indicates

WINDMILL AT WATER MILL

HAER No. NY-134 (page 42) Notes (cont.) whether a mill was custom or mercantile or both. Of the five windmills listed in Southampton, East Hampton and Southold, all were custom, although one in Southold listed both custom and mercantile work. Of the windmills listed in the 1860 and 1870 Products of Industry Censuses of Southampton, only the Mill Hill Windmill, owned by Caleb Howell Corwith, operated twelve months a year.

31. Interview, Eric P. Corwith, May 2, 1978; Meade C.

Dobson, "Windmill Data—1931," typescript, folder LL 104, EHFL; various bills (see footnote #20) indicate that Corwith probably produced mainly cornmeal and feed, since when he paid in kind it was generally in corn meal. The 1850, 1860 and 1870 Products of Industry Censuses for Suffolk County indicate that most wind-powered gristmills produced mainly feed for animals.

32. Interview, Eric P. Corwith, May 2, 1978; also Edward P. Buffet, "Some Long Island Windmills," American Machinist, vol. 49, no. 16 (October 17, 1918), 725.

33. U.S. Census Office, Eighth Census of the United States, Schedule 5: Products of Industry, Suffolk County, 1860 and Ninth Census of the-United States, Schedule 4:

Products of Industry, Suffolk County, 1870, list a total of thirteen wind-driven gristmills in the towns of East Hampton, Southampton, Southold and Shelter Island; Howell, History of Southampton, 159,

34. U.S. Census Office, Seventh Census of the United States, Schedule 5: Products of Industry, Suffolk County, 1850, lists no wind-driven gristmills in the Town of Southampton, but the 1860. and 1870 Products of Industry censuses also omitted the Corwith mill; U.S. Census, Population, Suffolk County, Town of Southampton, 1850, 385;

Halsey, Sketches, n,p. has a map of Water Mill in 1850.

35. U.S. Census, Products of Industry, Suffolk County, 1860, 1870.

WINDMILL AT WATER MILL

HAER No. NY-134 (page 43)

Notes (cont.)

36. "photos of old postcards,"#s 26 and"27, folder DFB 117, EHFL; these photographs have no date but appear to be c. 1889. William Wallace Tooker photographed several eastern Long Island windmills c. 1889 and these may be among his.

However, photocopies of Tooker's other windmill photographs are located in folder DFA.42, EHFL. Hildreth Diary, 35;

Freese, Windmills, 35; for a more detailed discussion of the windshaft see Part IIJ: Structure and Machinery.

37. Burnet Account Book, n.p.? John Reynolds, Windmills & Watermills (New York, 1970), 104-105, 108; Wailes, "Windmills," 16.

38. U.S. Census, Population, Suffolk County, Town of Southampton, 1850, 385; U.S. Census, Population, Suffolk' County, Town of Southampton, 1860, 148; Hildreth Diary, 35.

39. "Samuel Corwith," Portrait and Biographical Record of Suffolk.County, New.York (New York, 1896), 738; "Caleb H.

Corwith: One of the Pillars of the (Arch haB Fallen," typescript of an obituary in the Southampton Press, n.d., c.

1902, in the possession of Mrs. Evelyn C. Hansen, Southampton, N.Y.; assessment rolls, Town of Southampton, 1856-1862, list both James and Samuel as owners of the property,

40. U.S. Census, Population, Suffolk County, Town of Southampton, 1860, 132; U.S. Census, Agriculture, Suffolk County, Town of Southampton, 1860, however, lists James Corwith with a farm valued at $2,000; assessment rolls, Town of Southampton, 1860.





41. Deed, Trustees...of Southampton to James Corwith, August 14, 1860, recorded April 25, 1898, Liber 469 of Deeds, 7-9, SCCO.

- Obituary, "James Corwithe," Corrector (July 11, 1963), 31$; "Mortuary Records Compiled by Members of the Southampton Colony Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution," 8, typescript, EHFL? an inscription on Corwith*s gravestone in

WINDMILL AT WATER MILL

HAER No. NY-134 (page 44)

Notes (cont.)Water Mill gives his age as eighty-two.

43. Deed, Caleb H. Corwithe and Caroline Corwithe, Charles W. Corwithe and Susan M Corwithe, and Leander J.

Corwithe and Helen R. Corwithe to Samuel Corwithe, January 12, 1864, recorded May 31, 1864, Liber 126 of Deeds, 408-409, SCCO; Silas W. Corwithe and Anna L. Corwithe to Samuel Corwithe, January 12, 1864, recorded May 31, 1864, Liber 126 of Deeds, 410-411, SCCO.

44. "Samuel Corwithe," Portrait and Biographical Record, 738; James L. Havens Account Book, 1858-1865, n.p., Bridgeham£ton Historical Society.

–  –  –

48. U.S. Census, Agriculture, Suffolk County, Town of Southampton, 1880; Hildreth Book, 5.

49- U.S. Census, Industry, Suffolk County, Towns of East Hampton, Southampton and Southold, 1870, 1880.

50. Assessment rolls, Town of Southampton, 1887, assessed Lombard and Ayres as non-resident property owners;

interview, Dr. Arthur Corwith, May 19, 1977; interview.

Sister Dolores Matheis, O.P., April 25, 1977, 51. "Address of Carlton Corwith," 1.

52. Deed, Samuel Corwithe and Sarah H. Corwithe to Marshall Ayrea and Josiah Lombard, October 6, 1888, recorded April 25, 1898, Liber 466 of Deeds, 596-598, SCCO.

53i Lombard and Ayres acquired a total of approximately twenty acres in six -separate parcels recorded in Libers of Deeds, 312, pp. 475-477; 324, pp. 92-94; 329, pp. 132-133; 380, pp. 33-35; 396, pp. 460-461; and 466, pp. 596-598, SCCO? the Town of Southampton assessed them in 1888 for twenty acres valued at $20,000, including the windmill; Dennis P. Sobin, Dynamics of Community Change; The Case.of.Long Island's Declining "Gold" Coast" "(Port Washington, N.Y., 1968), 25analyzes the development of the "Gold Coast," tracing the shift in landholding patterns from farms to estates,

WINDMILL AT WATER MILL

HAER No. NY-134 (page 45) Notes (cont.) between 1890 and 1930. The same phenonmenon occurred to a lesser extent on the South Fork in Southampton and East Hampton. Several other windmills were incorporated into, or moved to, estates including the Beebe mill, the Hayground mill and the Shelter Island mill. Others, such as the Good Ground mill,became part of summer houses.

54. Albert J. Halsey,"Sequel to Hildreth Diaries," January, 1973, 3, typescript, Halsey collection.

55. "Photos of old postcards," #s 26 and 27, DFB 117, EHFL.

56. Assessment rolls. Town of Southampton, 1896.

57. Deed, Marshall Ayres and Francis N. Ayres and Josiah Lombard and Alice R. Lombard to Samuel Corwith, December 10, 1895, recorded April 27, 1898, Liber 467 of Deeds, 264-266, SCCO; deed, Samuel Corwith and Sarah H.

Corwith to James H. Corwith, February 15, 1896, recorded April 25, 1898, Liber 466 ^of Deeds, 598-599, SCCO.

58'. Deed, James H. Corwith and Mary W. Corwith to Edward L. Keyes, April 20:. 1-898, recorded May 9, 1898, Liber 467 of Deeds, 412-414, SCCO.

59* Elizabeth H. White, "The Water Mill Windmill," Southampton Press (September 8, 1932, n.p., clipping in the Southampton Colonial Society Scrapbook, 655.

60. Photographs, probably taken by Edward P. Buffet for his article "Some Long Island Windmills," in the American Machinist, folder CD 17, EHFL; postcard, c. 1903, located in box "Mills and Milling," Suffolk County Historical Society;

two postcards, c. 1906, in the possession of Barton McGuirs, Water Mill, N.Y.

* Deed, Edward L. Keyes to Edward p. Morse, December 23, 1909, recorded January 21, 1910, Liber 712 of Deeds, 233SCCO; White, "Water Mill Windmill," Southampton Colonial Society Scrapbook, 655; interview. Sister Dolores Matheis, O.P., April 25, 1977.

* Deed, Edward P, Morse and Ada M. Morse to Irene Ann Coleman, September 25, 1929, recorded October 2, 1929, Liber 1460 of Deeds, 300-303, SCCO; deed, Irene Ann Coleman to Huns of the Order of St. Dominic of the City of Brooklyn, June 8, 1931, Liber 1585 of Deeds, 549-551; deed. Nuns of the

WINDMILL AT WATER MILL

HAER No. NY-134 (page 46) No t es (cont.) Order of St. Dominic of the City of Brooklyn to Ancell H.

Ball and ors.. Trustees of Water Mill Park, September 10, 1932, recorded September 20, 1932, Liber 1671 of Deeds, 17SCCO; deed, Nuns of the Order of St. Dominic of the City of Brooklyn to the Water Mill Village Improvement Association, Inc., May 17, 1934, recorded June 8, 1934, Liber 1766 of Deeds, 475-477.

- Buffet, "Some Long Island Windmills," 727; photographs c. 1918, folder CD 17, EHFL; photograph, Julv 30, 1919, folder JJ7, EHFL; photograph, C 1930, JF89, EHFL.

64. "Address of Carlton Corwith," 1; "L.I. Windmill Accepted for Museum," New York Herald Tribune, n.p., clipping in folder JJ7, EHFL; interview, Eric P. Corwith, May 2, 1978; interview, Miss Eleanor Corwith, May 9, 1977.

Rex Wailes visited eastern Long Island's windmills in the summer of 1932, according to Meade C. Dobson, "Long Island Windmills," New York Sun (September 13, 1933), 26, folder JF 111, EHFL. Wailes, "Windmills," 8, states that the tailpole and shingles are recent replacements at the time he inspected the mill. Glass negatives May 9, 1935 and October 31, 1937, taken by Fred Benedict, in* the possession of Barton McGuire, Water Mill, N.Y.

65. Interview, Eric P. Corwith, May 2, 1978; interview, James L. Burnett, May 5, 1978; on site inspection, May 5, 19On site inspection. May 5, 1978; Kenneth Crews, "Windmill at Water Mill," HAER-SPL1A survey report, August, 1975; Paxton and Hefner, "Windmill at Water Mill," National Register, August, 1977, item no. 7, p. 1; Wailes, "Windmills," 18.

67. Both the Pantigo and Gardiner mills are approximately the same diameter at the base, but are taller.

68- Buffet, "Some Long Island Windmills," 728-729.

–  –  –

71. Wailes, "Notes/1 105.

72. Freese, Windmills, 8-9.

73. Wailes, "Notes," 128.

74. Halsey, Sketches, 28.

75. These are the Farris Mill, West Yarmouth, Mass., before 1782; the Chatham Mill, Chatham, Mass., 1797; "Old Mill," Nantucket, Mass., 1746 and Boyd Mill, Newport, R.I., 1810. See Wailes, "Notes," 106, 109, 117, and 124, 5-Ibid., 109; letter, Niall Roberts to the author.

May 20, 1978, indicates that five mills in Lincolnshire built after 1815 have "dead curbs."Roberts to the author, May 20, 1978, 1; Reynolds, Windmills, 86 states: "early curbs were dead. In later years it became customary for a 'live'curb to be fitted."

78. Wailes, "Notes," 106.

79. Photograph c. 1889, #27, DFB 117, EHFL.

80. Wailes, "Windmills," 13, mentions the Amagansett, Mill Hill,. Montauk Point and Good Ground mills as having flywheels which are replacements; Jagger,"The Mill Hill Windmill," 21

81. interview, Eric P. Corwith, May 2, 1978.

82. Roberts to the author. May 20, 1978, 1; Freese, Windmills, 9, 35.

83. Reynolds, Windmills, 98; Freese, Windmills, 63.

–  –  –

87. Reynolds, Windmills, 104, 107; Freese, Windmills, 11-12; Hildreth Account Book, 18.

88. Reynolds, Windmills, 104; Freese, Windmills, 41.

89. Hefner and Paxton, "Beebe Windmill," 13; Hefner, "Gardiner;s Island Windmill," 15-16; Paxton and Hefner, "Hook Windmill," National Register, item no. 7, page 2;

Paxton and Hefner, "Pantigo windmill," National Register, item no. 7, page 1.

90. Reynolds, Windmills, 104, 112; Freese, Windmills, 12-13.

91. Freese, Windmills, 11.

92. Hefner, "Gardiner's Island Windmill," 16; Paxton and Hefner, "Beebe Windmill," National Register,item no. 7, page 2; Paxton and Hefner^ "Gardiner Windmill," National Register, item no. 7, page 2.

93. Freese, Windmills," 11.

94. Downward facing trundle Wheels are found on the Gardiner Windmill and the Pantigo Windmill.

95. Interview, Eric P. Corwith, June 8, 1978;photograph, c. 1889, #27, DFB 117, EHFL, suggests that the windshaft had just been replaced.

96* on site inspection, May 5, 1978; interview, James L. Burnett, May 5, 1978.

97, Hildreth Diary, 17. Hildretn also mentions cutting timber for a new shaft for the Wainscott mill (1813), in 1861 and replacing the shaft in his own saw mill (.1822), in 1871.

See Hildreth Diary, 16, 35.

98, Freese, Windmills, 23, 35.



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