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Craigie, Psalms 1-50, notes another similarity between the fear evoking quality of God's actions in MT Ps 33.8 and MT Exod 15.14-15 in humans. (273) Dahood, Psalms, disagrees with seeing any connection with MT Exod 15, arguing more for a connection with MT Job 38, Ps 105, Isa 45, and Jer 10, where he sees similar mention of storehouses. (1:201) In reality, both Craigie and Dahood may be correct, in that intertextual conversations need not be mutually exclusive of the other.

Creation by word was not unique to YHWH in the ancient world as there was in ancient Egyptian theology at Memphis a transcendent god, Ptah, who created first in heart and then by word all that is. See, Anderson, Creation versus Chaos, 44-45.

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the context that contrasts the evaporation of all that is created with the eternal existence of YHWH's salvation of deliverance.156 In vv.9-10, creation by subduing appears again in a rhetorical recollection of days of old In v.9, Rahab is hacked to pieces, and the dragon (}yiNaT)157 is pierced.158 In v.10a, the primordial waters, ({edeq y"myiK).

and {Oh:t, are dried up, with v.10b serving to recall God's redemptive intervention at the Reed Sea. Deuteroay Isaiah effectively interweaves the divine warrior's victory over the chaos monsters, creation of the heavens and the earth, and God's redemptive intervention at the Reed Sea (v.10).159 The final points of contact with MT Gen 1.1-5 come in the twice-repeated formulae in vv.13 and 16, that God has stretched out the heavens and laid the foundations of the earth.

1.3.17 Proverbs 30.4 This final verse of the riddle from the Oracle of Agur (MT Prov 30.1-4)160 contains a concentration of vocabulary common to MT Gen 1.1-5 (jere),{iyam,axUr,{iyamf$). The point of the riddle is to tease out the conclusion that the actions depicted are those of God – a God who is identified by having prominence over primary elements of the world – heaven, wind, waters, the entire earth. While there is shared vocabulary with MT Gen 1.1-5 and a creation theme, MT Prov 30.4 bears a closer resemblance to other portions of the intertextual tapestry. The first colon speaks of the one who ascends to and descends from heaven, along the lines of MT 2 Sam 22.10-11/Ps 18.10Baltzer, Deutero-Isaiah, sees three sections in this pericope: vv.4-8 – ‘Divine speech on the law,’ vv.9-11 – ‘Revelatory speech by the Servant of God,’ vv.12-16 – ‘An Antiphonal Speech by God and the Servant of God.’ (349-364) Baltzer, Deutero-Isaiah, 351. Of course, Sirach 24 exemplifies the tradition of a first-created personified wisdom and the equation of wisdom and Torah. See below, pp. 161-164.

Akin to, though more hopeful than MT Jer 4.23-28.

Dragons do not appear in the First Creation Story until MT Gen 1.21.

Baltzer, Deutero-Isaiah, 356.

Gunn, “Deutero-Isaiah and the Flood,” would add an allusion to the Flood, equating hfBar {Oh:T in MT Isa 51.10 with the unique verbatim occurrence of the same in MT Gen 7.11. (502) While possible within the realm of intertextuality, Gunn's claim of allusion is a stretch.

There are a variety of opinions of who is speaking in v.4. W. McKane, Proverbs: A New Approach, (OTL;

London: SCM, 1970) asserts that it is a continuation of Agur's words of vv.1-3 (647), while Whybray, Proverbs, asserts that it is God or a representative thereof. (408-409) At this point, who the speaker is does not concern this study since it has no bearing on the relationship with MT Gen 1.1-5.

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11, in which God descends as the divine warrior with creative power in a time of need. In cola 2-4, God's creative power is portrayed as limitation, holding the wind in hand, wrapping up the waters, and limiting the earth, a creative power seen throughout the tapestry.

1.3.18 Jeremiah 10.11-13 1.3.19 Jeremiah 51.15-16 These near verbatim texts come in the midst of larger poems, the first regarding the customs and idolatry of the nation (MT Jer 10.1-16)162 and the second the defeat of Babylon (MT 51.1-33).163 While supported by common vocabulary (MT Jer 10.11-13 – axUr,{iyam,{iyamf$,jere), and jere)/{iyamf$; MT Jer 51.15-16 – axUr,{iyam,{iyamf$,jere),

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indicating the intertextual relationship with MT Gen 1.2, may additionally indicate an understanding of {yiholE) axUr in MT Gen 1.2, reading it as a possessive relationship (a commodity that can be placed in a storehouse) rather than idiomatically as a way to refer to the presence of God.166 Also of note is the creation theme common to MT Ps 104.24, Prov 3.19, 8.22ff, whereby the earth is established by God's wisdom. That this is an accident is unlikely. It may in fact highlight an intertextual relationship among MT Gen 1.2, Jer 10.12, 51.15, Prov 3.20, and 8.22ff, a thread to which I shall return in the conclusion to chapter one.167 MT Isa 40.12 portrays God as holding the earth in hand.

There is debate over the integrity of the MT Jer 10.1-16. Carroll, Jeremiah, 254f, Holladay, Jeremiah, 322f, see an integrity of vv.1-16; Bright, Jeremiah, however, sees a conglomeration of miscellaneous sayings. (75ff) Cf. Carroll, Jeremiah, 841.

The argument is divided between those who see MT Jer 10.11 as a late post-exilic gloss and those who see it as an organic portion of Jeremiah. On the one hand, Bright, Jeremiah, prefers reading Jer 10.11 as ‘an obvious gloss’ that points to a complex redaction history; ultimately leaving the verse out of his own translation of the text (79);





McKane, Jeremiah, points to a variance between )qr) and )(r) as linguistic evidence for the composition of MT Jer 10.11 in 5th century BCE (218); and finally, Carroll, Jeremiah, while less definite in his dating, assumes a general origin of MT Jer 10.11 in the Babylonian or Persian periods. (256-257) On the other hand, Holladay, Jeremiah, asserts that there are Aramaic puns used in MT Jer 20.3-6, on the basis of which he argues that MT Jer

10.11 is not a late gloss but part of the original Jeremiah text (325, 544).

Carroll, Jeremiah, notes similarities between the ‘incantation’ against foreign gods of MT Jer 10.11 and the antiidol portions of Deutero-Isaiah (e.g. MT Isa 40.9-20). He further states that the ‘incantation of v.11 is a denial of the cosmic creative powers of the Babylonian gods in favour of Yahweh’ (257).

The identical phrase occurs in MT Ps 135.7.

Also of note is the likely dependence of the Hymn to the Creator (11QPsa xxvi.9-15) on these Jeremiah texts.

See below, p.124.

– 36 –

CHAPTER ONE

1.3.20 Psalm 135.5-7 At the beginning of a rehearsal of YHWH’s greatness and mighty acts, comes a statement about YHWH’s providence that includes vocabulary common to MT Gen 1.1-5 (axUr,{Oh:t,jere),{iyamf$). The occurrence of in v. 6 comes in a recitation of YHWH's domain that contains other primary elements of creation – heaven, {Oh:T

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the two texts. The occurrence of axUr in v. 7 is reminiscent of MT Jer 10.13 and 51.16 in its near verbatim use of the phrase wyftOr:cO)"m - he releases the wind from his storehouses. What is probable is that in axUr there is an axUr-)"cOm intertextual crossroads between a number of texts – MT Gen 1.2, Jer 10.13/51.16, and Ps 135.7.

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resemblance lies more in a reversal of the created order than a mimicking of any act of creation itself.170 What compels me to envision this text in a creation context is Job’s curse, actually his wish in the midst of his anguish and anger to reverse the created order as he laments the day of his birth.171 Finally, the reference to Leviathan (3.8b), the primordial chaos monster, strengthens the broader intertextual possibilities.172 Gerstenberger, Psalms 2 and Lamentations, sees two ‘hymnic chants’ in vv.4-5 both beginning with yiK, and based on this liturgical conclusion separates them from vv.6-12. (377-380) While this may well be true, there is an inner unity in vv.5-7 on the basis of a common creation theme. This is noticed by Weiser, Psalms, who sees vv.5-7 as a unit liturgically attributable to a solo voice answering on behalf of the congregation regarding the greatness of God as displayed by God's creative actions. (789-790) In this case, I side with Weiser's judgment.

D.J.A. Clines, Job 1-20, (WBC 17; Waco, TX: Word Books, 1989), Habel, Job,, and Dhorme, Job, xxxvi, see vv.3-10 as unit.

M. Fishbane, “Jeremiah IV 23-26 and Job III 3-13: A Recovered Use of the Creation Pattern,” VT 21 (1971), provides a convincing argument for a connection with MT Genesis 1. He draws parallels to other ancient Near Eastern cosmogonies and magical texts asserting that ‘the whole thrust of the text of Job iii 1-13 is to provide a systematic bouleversement, or reversal, of the cosmicising acts of creation described in Gen i-ii 4a. Job in the process of cursing the day of his birth (v. 1), binds spell to spell in his articulation of an absolute and unrestrained death wish for himself and the entire creation.’ (153) Clines, Job 1-20, takes issue with Fishbane's reading of MT Job 3.4-5 in a magical context, especially his magical reading of $rd in MT Job 3.4. (84) (Cf. Fishbane, “A Recovered Use of the Creation Pattern,” 155.) At the same time Clines notes that Job's invocation of darkness in v.4 uses the ‘same phrasing exactly as Gen 1.’ (84) While Fishbane argues that MT Job 3 resembles MT Genesis 1, V.

Forstman Pettys, “Let there be Darkness: Continuity and Discontinuity in the 'Curse' of Job 3,” JSOT 98 (2002) looks at MT Job 3 through rhetorical and intertextual lenses and sees in Job's use of the creation language of MT Genesis 1 a profound reinterpretation of the ordered language of creation to fit the chaos of Job's experience. (89This is in line with Habel, Job, ‘In v.

5, Job invokes a reversal of that event [the creation of light] whereby the 'darkness' once more 'reclaims'…Job's day with all the light that gives it existence.’ (107) Also, Clines, Job 1-20, :

‘Job begins his maledictions with a parodic reversal of the first divine word at creation,’ also noting the parallel structure of rO) yih:y in MT Gen 1.3 and |e$ox yih:y in MT Job 3.4. (84) Fishbane, “A Recovered Use of the Creation Pattern,” notes the connection of Leviathan to the cosmic context of MT Job 3.4-5 in light of other ancient Near Eastern mythology where such a creature is summoned to combat light and the cosmos in general. (158-161) – 37 –

CHAPTER ONE

1.3.22 Psalm 74.12-17 In the midst of a psalm calling for God's intervention on the side of God's people in trouble, vv.12-17 is a hymnic pause in the argument of the psalm that reminds God who God is.173 It is God who created the earth by subduing the primordial creatures, and ordering time via day and night, summer and winter, that can defeat the enemies of the people.174 The intertextual relationship with MT Gen 1.1-5 is apparent in the shared vocabulary (rO),hflyfl,{Oy,{iyfm,jere), and In the second person, God is confronted by creative deeds. In v.13, hflyfl/{Oy).

there is creation by limitation with the dividing the sea ({ay). In v.13b-14 the dragons ({yinyiNat)175 and Leviathans (}ftfy:wil)176 are dashed. God is here the divine warrior, a theme repeated elsewhere throughout the tapestry.177 In v.16 God is told that day and night are God's, as it is God who established the luminaries (rO)fm) and the sun, similar to MT Gen 1.14-19. And again in v.16, there is creation by limitation in the fixing of the bounds of the earth.

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commonalities with MT Amos 5.8-9 and 9.6-8. While doxological in character, this passage provides yet another titular example of YHWH as creator. What differs in this text, say from MT Jer 32.17, is that for which YHWH is lauded. The totality, jere)/{iyamf$, that is the subject of YHWH's title in MT Jer 32.17, is less complete in MT Amos

4.13 referring to mountains, wind, etc.178 1.3.24 Zechariah 12.1 In a similar fashion to MT Isa 42.5, MT Zech 12.1 is a titular intertext of MT Gen 1.1-5, based on a rather slim commonality of vocabulary (axUr,jere),{iyamf$, and jere)/{iyamf$). The creation context is present; however, the Gerstenberger, Psalms 2 and Lamentations, sees vv.12-17 as a hymn unit within the larger psalm. (77-79) Anderson, Psalms, refers to a difference of opinion among scholars whether MT Ps 74.12-17 is referring to creation, Heilsgeschichte, or both. (543) Gerstenberger, Psalms 2 and Lamentations, sees vv.12-17 in particular as ‘a powerful reminder that God once took seriously his creative potentialities over against the whole world.’ (79) Limburg, Psalms, prefers to see vv.12-17 as a reference to the Exodus event. (251) Whatever the answer is to this problem on an organic level, intertextually it is likely that MT Ps 74.12-17 is in relationship with both creation and Exodus events. It should be noted that while MT Exodus 15 in particular does not meet the criteria established for intertextuality in this study because it lacks a creation theme, it does contain some vocabulary common with MT Gen 1.1-5 (jere),{iyam,axUr,{Oh:t).

An example of this can be seen by the one creature/god that the First Creation Story shares with MT Psalm 74, the {yinyiNat. Where as MT Ps 74.13 depicts the act of creation as victory over the {yinyiNat, Mt Gen 1.21 simply places the great sea monsters among the creatures first created. While both texts effectively put the {yinyiNat below God, the Genesis text, by having God create the sea monsters as part of a well-ordered world, subdued by the pen of the Priestly storyteller, a different tack than the dashing of heads in MT Psalm 74. MT Gen 1.21 unquestionably places God before and above the sea monsters.

Dahood, Psalms, suggests that the mythological elements in the psalm pervade even the structure. He hypothesizes that the seven statements that utilize hfTa) in reference to YHWH function as a symbolic destruction of the seven heads of the Leviathan. (2.205) While an intriguing possibility, it seems just as likely that seven statements reflect the divine perfection of the number seven or nothing at all.

MT Isa 51.9-10, Ps 33.

7, 104.26, Job 26.12-13 The MT of Amos 4.13 is corrupt and as a result difficult to comprehend. The corruptions, however, do not affect the vocabulary common to MT Gen 1.1-5.

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