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in relation to human beings highlights a difference with MT Gen 1.1-5.179 Also in this text is another use of axUr example of God creating by stretching out (h+n) the heavens.

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diverging from the apparatus of the MT, takes the position that the text of the MT is preferable because it maintains the temple imagery, specifically of the Bethel temple.181 This reading of the MT, ‘the one who builds his way up[stairs] to heaven…,’ places MT Amos 9.6 in the company, or at least on the edge, of other creation texts associated with a cosmic temple.

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suggestion that this is an example of ‘the concept of creation by the word’ that pre-dates MT Genesis 1.183 The second is that )rq in MT Isa 48.13 actually mirrors MT Gen 1.5 where the light and darkness are named. The third option, of course, is that there is no deliberate connection whatsoever.

A. Lacocque, Zacharie 9-14, (ed. S. Amsler, et al.; Aggée, Zacharie, Malachie; Neuchatel: Delachaux et Niestlé, 1981), recognizes here a ‘post-exilic’ development of the meaning of axUr, pointing to MT Gen 2.7 and citing MT Qoh 37.8-10; Job 10.12, 27.3, Ps 104.29-30, etc. (186) While reflecting the creation context, Lacocque solely focuses on the creation of human beings, missing the possible connection to MT Gen 1.1-5. Were this text simply in conversation with MT Gen 2.7, presumably the order of heaven and earth would mimic MT Gen 2.4b – earth and heaven – rather than MT Gen 1.1.

The same phrase occurs in MT Amos 5.8.

Sweeney, Twelve Prophets, 270-271.

The larger pericope here is MT Isa 48.12-17, throughout which YHWH is reminding Israel that they were called.

The first portion of this larger reminder is vv.12-13 in which YHWH summons Israel to listen to what follows.

Westermann, Isaiah 40-66, 199ff. A slightly different division of vv.12-15 is offered by Baltzer, Deutero-Isaiah, with vv.12-13 being a subdivision thereof. (288-290) Westermann, Isaiah 40-66, 201.

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YHWH fixed (dsy) the foundation of the earth, by understanding (hfnUb:tiB) the heavens were established (}wk),185 by his knowledge the depths (tOmOh:T) are burst open ((qr),186 and clouds drop dew.

1.3.28 Nehemiah 9.6 This brief pericope contains the opening words of Ezra's confessional speech (vv.6-37), which recounts a history of the Jews from Abraham and begins with a brief account of creation (v.6). Though the vocabulary common with MT Gen 1.1-5 is quite weak (jere),{yamf$) in relation to the other texts of this chapter, there is little doubt that the subject of this verse is the creation of the world. It begins with a confessional statement, ‘You alone are YHWH.’ YHWH's first deeds recalled are the creation of the heaven, the heaven of heavens ({iyamfah-y"m:$)187 and their entire host,188 the earth and all that it is in it including the seas ({yiMaYah) and everything in them. The verse concludes with a confession that YHWH alone gives life, and that the hosts of heaven worship YHWH.

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related to MT Prov 8.22f, and thus indirectly to MT Gen 1.1-5.189 There is a temptation to place a direction on what may be an example of innerbiblical interpretation, though it is safe to say that there is a deep relationship between MT Job 28.14a and Prov 8.24. The connection with MT Gen 1.1-2, teeters precariously on the use of {Oh:T and the common tradition in MT Prov 8.24 that is reflected in MT Job 28.14a.

Perdue, Wisdom & Creation, argues for a creation motif in MT Prov 3.19-20, stating that these verses describe ‘wisdom's place in the creation of the cosmos.’ (82) Habel, “Symbolism of Wisdom,” also sees a creation motif here. He also notes a possible connection between MT Prov 3.19-20 and Gen. 3, based on the reference to the tree of life in MT Prov 3.18. (151) Again, the idea of creating the heavens by God’s understanding is common with MT Jer 10.12, 51.15; Psalm 136.5.

Of note in Prov 3.19-20 is the connection of {Oh:T and the verb, (qb (to split open), the same verb used to describe the action that befalls Tiamat in Enuma Elish, Perdue, Wisdom & Creation, 83. McKane, Proverbs, makes no reference to the creation language of MT Prov 3.20.

{iyamfah-y"m:$ is also found in MT Ps 148.4.

The idea of God creating heaven and earth and all their hosts first occurs in MT Gen 2.1, at the conclusion of the first six days of the first creation story. Similar are the creation themes in MT Isa 45.12; Ps 33.6, 148.1-2.

Habel, Job, asserts that the background of MT Job 28.14 is in MT Prov 8.22-31 and notes the allusion to MT Gen

1.2 present in the occurrence of {Oh:T. (398) Perdue, Wisdom & Creation, similarly acknowledges the connection to MT Prov 8. (186) Dhorme, Job, notes the allusion to MT Gen 1.2. (407) Pope, Job, equates {Oh:T with ‘the primeval oceans that have their sources in the depths of the earth,’ but makes no mention of other textual connections. (203) – 40 –

CHAPTER ONE

1.4 Conclusions – The Larger MT Tapestry While inevitably limiting the intertextuality of MT Gen 1.1-5, what follows is an attempt to step back for a wider view of the material – a few glimpses of the intertextual tapestry. While it is clear that certain intertexts identified above are stronger than others, a large net is cast in order to see as many connections as possible. In concluding chapter one, I look at four general areas of thematic commonality – common threads woven throughout the tapestry: (1) YHWH's place and/or action in the creative event; (2) some observations on forms among the intertexts; (3) some utilizations of MT Gen 1.1-5 vocabulary; and (4) the place of creative forces external to YHWH within the cosmogonic frameworks. Table 1.2 provides a broad overview of these thematic threads and the tapestry as a whole.





1.4.1 YHWH’s place and/or action It goes without saying that in the creation intertexts of MT Gen 1.1-5 and ancient Israelite cosmogonies of the Hebrew Bible in general, YHWH is at the center. To borrow from J. Levenson, ‘mastery’ is the quintessence of creation texts throughout the Hebrew Bible, YHWH being the master, the supreme creator.190 Levenson's critique and modification of Y. Kaufmann's claim that ‘mastery’ is at the center of all Israelite religion191 is helpful and allows the diversity of creation texts within the Hebrew Bible to be opened up. Nearly all of the intertexts of MT Gen 1.1-5 portray the mastery of YHWH. At the same time, Levenson's definition does not stretch far enough to cover the whole of the tapestry. For example, mastery does not explain YHWH's place in texts such as the two that portray a reversal of the created order, MT Jer 4.23-28 and MT Job 3.3-10. Also, mastery is not adequate to describe YHWH's involvement in the near-verbatim texts of MT 2 Sam 22.5-20 and MT Ps 18.5-20, where the essence of YHWH's actions are better described as deliverance or rescue. Beyond these texts, however, mastery does encompass the general place of YHWH in MT Gen 1.1-5 and its intertexts.

Along with this general observation about YHWH's place in these texts, I offer three more specific observations. The first is of those texts where YHWH's creative actions involve establishing cosmic boundaries either around or between certain elements of creation. Most often YHWH's boundaries are placed around forms of water,192 but also between light and dark,193 between earth and God's dwelling,194 and between seasons.195 Outside of these texts, YHWH's creation by boundrification is not present. This allows us to consider YHWH's creation of boundaries as a unique thread in the intertextual tapestry. A second, less prominent thread, which is intimately Levenson, Creation and the Persistence of Evil, 1-13.

Levenson borrows the idea of ‘mastery’ from Y. Kaufmann, The Religion of Israel: From Its Beginnings to the Babylonian Exile, (trans. M. Greenberg; Chicago: University of Chicago, 1960) who asserts that the basic idea of all Israelite religion is ‘that God is supreme over all,’(60) and in turn claims that there are no theogonic myths present in the Hebrew Bible. (60ff) Levenson, Creation and the Persistence of Evil, critiques Kaufmann's argument at the point where Kaufmann harmonizes the varied texts about Leviathan to conform with those that ‘explicitly state the creatureliness and subordination of the monstrous adversaries of YHWH.’ Levenson’s critique is summarized as follows: ‘To make this assumption…is to harmonize without warrant and to doom ourselves to miss the rich interplay of theologies and the historical dynamics behind the biblical text.’(8) {iyam - MT Isa 40.12; Ps 104.9, 148.6; Job 26.10; {ay - MT Job 38.10, Prov 8.29; {Oh:T - MT Prov 8.27.

MT Gen 1.4; Job 26.

10, 38.19-20 MT Isa 40.22 MT Ps 74.17

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related to the whole of the First Creation Story, is creation by speech or word. Of the four texts that use creation by the speech or word of YHWH, two speak of creation of the heavens and heavenly host,204 one of waters,205 and the last of morning.206 A third thread comes in the radical idea that YHWH is the creator of everything, including both good and evil. Exemplified in only one text, MT Isa 45.7, this thread is in need of highlighting because of its stark contrast with the greater whole. Without an appearance anywhere else in the intertextual tapestry of MT Gen 1.1-5, this bold and unique assertion stands alone as a possible point of influence for subsequent interpretations, in particular those leaning toward an idea of creatio ex nihilo. The fourth thread that bears highlighting is the place of YHWH's wrath as a catalyst, not necessarily a creative catalyst. In three texts, the anger of YHWH promotes YHWH's actions. In the first two of these texts, YHWH's wrath is the catalyst for YHWH's actions against the enemies of David,207 and in the third YHWH's anger is the catalyst for a reversal of the created order.208 Here again, it is not so much the prominence of this thread that bears highlighting as the contrast with the rest of the texts, the contrast being that there must be a motivation other than wrath for YHWH's creative actions throughout the rest of the intertextual tapestry.

To sum up, YHWH's actions are most often a description of YHWH's mastery of creation. Occasionally, specific, delimitative actions whereby YHWH establishes boundaries around or between elements of creation and/or YHWH’s creation by word are used to express this mastery. And, there are two minor points that bear repeating because they stand out when contrasted with the rest of the intertexts of MT Gen 1.1-5, YHWH as creator of good and evil and YHWH's wrath as catalyst.

1.4.2 Observations on Form The second set of observations concern the form that the intertexts take. The first thread of this set is the titular intertext that introduces or lauds YHWH as creator. Of the nine titular intertexts of MT Gen 1.1-5, six are straightforward texts that announce who YHWH is by stating that YHWH is creator,209 one is YHWH's selfproclamation as first and last and creator,210 and the final is a riddle for which the implied answer is YHWH.211 What is of interest about these texts is that they highlight the idea of creator as central to who YHWH is. Such an idea, focused upon by early Christians who understood the Trinitarian person of Father as creator, is reflected in the early creeds of the church. Another thread that falls under the heading of form comes in intertexts that focus on offering MT Ps 33.6 says that heaven was created by the word of YHWH (hwhy rab:diB), and the heavenly host by the breath of his mouth (wyiP axUr:b). MT Ps 148.5, with reference to the angels and hosts and celestial lights/beings (vv.2-4), says that God commanded (hwc) and they existed.

MT Amos 9.6 MT Job 38.

12 expects a negative answer to God’s question, ‘Have you commanded (hwc) the moring since your days began?’ This implies that YHWH is the one who did command.

MT 2 Sam 22.5-20; Ps 18.5-20 MT Jer 4.23-28 MT Isa 42.5, 45.

18, 51.13; Amos 4.13, 5.8, 9.5-6; and Zech 12.1.

MT Isa 48.12-13 MT Prov 30.

4 – 43 –

CHAPTER ONE

praise to YHWH for YHWH's creative actions. Not surprisingly, all of these texts are psalms,212 with the one tangential exception in Wisdom’s rejoicing in the presence of YHWH.213 These are of interest as they offer early evidence that creation was a subject within the liturgical texts of ancient Israel. The final thread under the heading of form is the reversal of the created order. While only found in three texts,214 the idea of a reversal of YHWH's created order provides enough dissonance with the rest of the intertexts to warrant mention. These three texts are a bright, clashing thread that adds vibrancy to the rest of the intertextual tapestry.

1.4.3 Uses of MT Gen 1.1-5 Vocabulary The third set of observations center around the vocabulary of MT Gen 1.1-5 and how it is used among the intertexts. The first thread here is the commodification of elements of the cosmic order in association with YHWH’s cosmic storehouses (tOr:cO)). Three of these texts speak of YHWH taking the wind (axUr) out of his storehouses215 with a similar wording in two others that speak of the deeps216 and snow and hail.217 Another text speaks of a gift to Cyrus as the treasures of darkness (|e$ox A sixth text differs in that it shares no common language with the tOr:cO)).



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