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others but bears the similarity in that YHWH is portrayed as a shopkeeper measuring and weighing-out the waters, the heavens, the dust of the earth along with mountains and hills.218 What is seen in this thread is a distinct marketplace image of the cosmic order, a distinction not seen in other parts of the tapestry. The second thread of interest here is the prevalent portrayal of the heavens being stretched out (h+n). Outside one occurrence in the psalms,219 the idea of stretching out the heavens is confined to prophetic texts,220 most prominently the intertexts of Deutero-Isaiah.221 The theme runs throughout over a quarter of intertextual tapestry making it a prominent thread.222 The final thread in this set of observations is the creation of by YHWH. Whereas darkness is part of the pree$ox created earth in MT Gen 1.2 and presumably not a creature of YHWH, there are four texts within the tapestry that MT Ps 33.6-7, 104.1-30, 135.6-7, 136.1-9, 148.1-13. On a similar note, Hoffman, “First Creation Story,” sees a collection of ‘non-Sabbath’ references, which for him are few and far between, to the First Creation Story in the places, MT Ps 33, 136, 148, centered around a common idea of creation by word. (40-41) MT Prov 8.30-31 MT Jer 4.23-38; Amos 9.5; Job 3.3-10 MT Jer 10.13, 51.

16; Ps 135.7 MT Ps 33.7 MT Job 38.12 MT Isa 40.12 MT Ps 104.2 MT Jer 10.12, 51.

15; Zech 12.1 h+n is present in MT Isa 40.22, 42.5, and 45.12. A case can also be made, as does the BHS apparatus, that the proper reading of (+n in Isa 51.16 is h+n. Additionally, in MT Isa 48.12-13, the only other MT Gen 1.1-5 intertext in Isaiah, h+n itself is not present, but in v.13 the verb, xp+, is similarly applied to {iyamf$.

N. Habel, “He Who Stretches Out the Heavens,” CBQ 34 (1972) argues that the idea of stretching out the heavens ‘does not seem to be pointing to the creation of the heavens as a structural component of the cosmos, to the construction of the over-arching firmament to hold back the celestial waters, or to the building of the sky as a cosmic storehouse, but rather to the preparation of a unique domain of Yahweh for his heavenly theophanies. The heavens are 'pitched' to be his cosmic tent where he appears in order to create.’ He also notes the possibility that ‘the sacred tent of David…may be an earthly correlative of Yahweh's cosmic tent.’ (430) The possibility of temple imagery will be revisited later on in this study.

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CHAPTER ONE

portray darkness as something created by YHWH, albeit in different ways.223 The first and least ambiguous is MT Isa

45.7 in which YHWH is portrayed as forming light and creating ()rb) darkness. This text leaves little doubt that YHWH is the progenitor of darkness. The other three texts, while similar, differ in that the verb used in all three is a verb that has more the connotation of arranging or appointing than creating. In MT 2 Sam 22.12 and MT Ps ty$, 18.12[11], darkness is appointed by YHWH as either a booth (hks) or a hiding place (rts), the connotation of creation being somewhat removed. In MT Ps 104.20 the relationship is also ambiguous. YHWH is said to arrange (ty$) darkness and it becomes night (hfl:yfl yihyiw). The sequence of events in MT Ps 104.20 could possibly be a poetic rendering of the same pattern as MT Gen 1.1-5, the difference being that instead of separating (ldb) light from darkness, darkness is arranged/appointed (ty$). While MT 2 Sam 22.12, Ps 18.12[11], and Ps 104.20 are all ambiguous, they bear the closest resemblance to the creation of darkness by YHWH in MT Isa 45.7. Darkness, then, while a minor figure overall throughout the intertextual tapestry,224 becomes prominent because of the boldness of MT Isa 45.7 with the three other texts perhaps providing a complement to the creation of darkness.

1.4.4 Creative Forces External to YHWH This set of thematic observations centers on forces external to YHWH that either pose opposition or provide a helping hand to YHWH's creative actions. The first of these to be addressed are those forces that oppose YHWH's creative actions, what I am calling the ‘primordials,’ that is }ftfy:wil, {fy, bahar, {inyiNaT, and possibly {Oh:T. While the way in which YHWH and these primordials interact varies, their presence is significant. That MT Gen 1.1-5 has at least the presence of one of the words, {Oh:T,225 while likely demythologised (consciously or not), opens the door for primordials to be in play in subsequent interpretations. Also, given the presence of such primordials throughout the intertextual tapestry of MT Gen 1.1-5, such a survey of the presence of primordials within the intertextual tapestry of MT Gen 1.1-5 is warranted. To begin, Leviathan is mentioned in three texts: one portrays Leviathan as being created for YHWH to sport with,226 a second recalls that YHWH crushed Leviathan's heads and fed it to the animals of the wilderness,227 and a third places Leviathan as the monster being conjured up as a destructive force meant to help reverse the created order.228 Rahab is portrayed in two texts: in one YHWH pierces it229 and in the other pieces it.230 The Tanninim appear in four texts with a possible fifth: in two texts, including the possible inclusion, they are MT 2 Sam 22.12; Isa 45.7; Ps 18.12[11], 104.20 Among the texts of the tapestry, |e$ox does not appear in nineteen. Of the other texts where it does appear, it is either the opposite of light (MT Amos 5.8; Job 26.10) or good (MT Jer 4.23, 28; Job 3.4-6) or something from which to be saved (MT Isa 42.5).





It should also be noted that Levenson, Creation and the Persistence of Evil, convincingly suggests that the {inyiNaT of MT Gen 1.21 are a demythologised representation of the primordial }ftfy:wil. (54ff) MT Ps 104.26 MT Ps 74.14 MT Job 3.8 MT Job 26.12 MT Isa 51.9 – 45 –

CHAPTER ONE

pierced by YHWH,231 in another YHWH breaks their heads,232 in the fourth the Tanninim coupled with Yam proceed to deny that wisdom can be found in them,233 and in the final appearance the Tanninim are portrayed as a creature giving praise to God.234 Yam occurs eight times: while one appearance seems to be demythologised or merely ‘sea’,235 YHWH acts upon Yam five times – stilling,236 limiting,237 drying-up,238 dividing,239 and calling.240 It is also conjured as a destructive force to reverse the order of creation241 and personified to say that wisdom cannot be found in it.242 The final primordial to be considered is the most questionable and the only one present in MT Gen 1.2 Oh:T. Most resembling its appearance in MT Gen 1.2 are three texts in which it functions as an element of creation.243 It is also personified, once denying that wisdom can be found in it,244 and in another giving praise to YHWH.245 Along slightly different lines, there are three texts with reference to angels and/or heavenly hosts, of these one has God making his angels from the winds,246 another couples angels and hosts in praise of YHWH,247 and the third mentions that the host of heaven worships YHWH.248 To briefly summarize the place of the primordials in the intertextual tapestry, if the primordials are personified or creature-ified, YHWH always takes precedence either by being victorious or by being the object of their praise. While Levenson is correct that there is only one text in which Leviathan is created, leaving room for the pre-existence of at least this primordial,249 YHWH is always portrayed as the victor. And, YHWH has angelic hosts, related to the divine axUr, which worship/praise YHWH.

The presence of wisdom within the intertextual tapestry is also important to consider. While wisdom is personified most explicitly in MT Prov 8.22-31, its intertextual picture is supplemented by three words that function as synonyms – While does not occur in MT Prov 8.22-31, wisdom is the speaker t(d,hnwbt,rbd. hfm:kfx describing her genesis prior to YHWH's first creative act and her place with YHWH in the genesis of the world as a master worker/architect (}Omf)). Wisdom occurs in five other texts, all of which describe wisdom as an instrument MT Isa 51.9 and Job 26.13 (the honorable mention) in which the creature pierced is not called {inyiNaT but $fxfn, which when coupled with the appearances of Rahab and Yam in very close proximity likely falls into the category of primordial, if not a synonym for {inyiNaT.

MT Ps 74.13 MT Job 28.

14 MT Ps 148.7 MT Ps 104.25 MT Job 26.12 MT Prov 8.29 MT Isa 51.10 MT Ps 74.13 MT Amos 9.6 MT Job 3.8 MT Job 28.14 MT Isa 51.10; Ps 104.6; Prov 8.27, 28 MT Job 28.14 MT Ps 148.7 MT Ps 104.4 MT Ps 148.2 MT Neh 9.6 Levenson, Creation and the Persistence of Evil, 53-57.

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CHAPTER ONE

by which YHWH creates.250 Along similar lines and occasionally paired with wisdom251 is YHWH's understanding (hnwbt). While understanding is the tool by which YHWH strikes down Rahab in one text,252 it is generally similar to wisdom in that it is a tool by which YHWH creates.253 Knowledge (t(d) also comes into play in a text where

wisdom, understanding, and knowledge are placed in sequence:

By wisdom YHWH laid the foundation of the earth; he established the heavens by skill. 20By his knowledge the deeps split open and the clouds drop dew. (Prov 3.19This text strengthens the relationship between wisdom, understanding, and knowledge as tools of the creator.

Though again, it is evident that the personification of wisdom seen in MT Prov 8.22-31 is unique within the intertextual tapestry of MT Gen 1.1-5. One final text similar to this wisdom thread bears mention on far looser grounds – a tattered thread of the tapestry perhaps. In MT Ps 33.6 comes a phrase that bears a similarity to MT Ps

104.26 and 136.6 with the substitution of rbd for hmkx and hnwbt respectively. Admittedly this is a tattered thread, but one that sticks out only to be noticed.

1.4.5 Creation and Temple Though not obviously inherent in the text of MT Gen 1.1-5, within the wider intertextual tapestry of Day One there are bits and pieces of temple imagery.254 Deutero-Isaiah speaks of the post-exilic rebuilding of Jerusalem and the earthly Temple.255 There are also at least two, maybe three, texts that speak of a divine, possibly heavenly temple. The first of these is really two – the repeated text of MT 2 Sam 22.7 and Ps 18.7[6]. Here the psalmist calls out to YHWH from his distress, and YHWH from his temple (Olfky"h"m) hears the cry. The idea that this is a heavenly temple is confirmed in MT 2 Sam 22.10 / Ps 18.10 [9] in that YHWH comes down (dry) to deal with the problem. In the opposite direction, MT Amos 9.6 may speak of the building of stairs up to the cosmic temple. The final text comes back to Deutero-Isaiah, where God sits above the circle of the earth and stretches out the heavens like a veil, possibly a description of a cosmic temple.256 One final word, the information compiled above is a reconstruction of the intertextual tapestry from which ancient interpreters working with a precursor of the Masoretic Text would have drawn their interpretations.

Utilizing intertextuality, the tapestry sketched above provides a broad base for reading and analysing the ways that Day One (MT Gen 1.1-5) was read and understood by later interpreters and their communities. While there are many threads woven into this grand tapestry, some of clashing colors, others complementary, still others tattered, the MT Jer 10.12, 51.

15; Ps 104.24; Prov 3.19; Job 28.12 MT Jer 10.12, 51.

15; Job 28.12 MT Job 26.12 MT Jer 10.12, 51.

15; Ps 136.5; Prov 3.19; Job 28.12 Margaret Barker, The Great High Priest: The Temple Roots of Christian Liturgy (London: T&T Clark, 2003), argues that Gen 1.1-5 is a Second Temple description of the Holy of Holies. (155-159) While Barker’s argument is rather persuasive, that subsequent Jewish and Christian interpreters of Day One and the Holy of Holies understood that there was a relationship between the two is less circumstantial and has more substance.

MT Isa 44.28 MT Isa 40.

22. Cf. Barker, “Beyond the Veil of the Temple,” 19.

–  –  –

portion of the tapestry sketched above is an intertextual view of Day One as it appears in the MT of the Hebrew Bible. The next step, then, is to see what sort of tapestry appears upon a similar examination of the Greek equivalents.

–  –  –

2.1 Introduction While not a replica of chapter one, this chapter follows the same pattern of inquiry in order to sketch the intertextual tapestry of Gen 1.1-5 in the Greek equivalents of the books of the Hebrew Bible, sometimes called the Septuagint.1 As with chapter one, the purpose of chapter two is to sketch this Greek intertextual tapestry in order to get a picture of the intertextuality of LXX Gen 1.1-5, to provide a foundation for comparing subsequent interpretations and to trace their interconnectedness within the biblical text of the interpreter. As throughout the thesis, I presume that the specific text one is interpreting and the language world in which that text exists shapes interpretation. Given that the two intertextual tapestries, Hebrew and Greek, are different, it should follow that there are different threads of interpretation based on the language world of text/interpreter. In chapters three and four, this will be tested using the tapestries of the first two chapters as a background against which to read later interpretations.2 The plan for this chapter begins with a brief word about how I define LXX for this study. I then move to a discussion of the criteria used for establishing intertextuality, followed by an examination of the primary text, LXX Gen 1.1-5 both by individual bits and bobs and as a structural whole. As in chapter one, the largest portion of the chapter is the analysis of the individual intertexts as they relate to the primary text in Greek and when necessary in this chapter to their Hebrew equivalents. Finally, I sketch a broader picture of the intertextual tapestry by analyzing some common thematic threads as they appear in the overall tapestry.



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