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In short, v.2 describes the earth as first created (cf. v.1) and thus in an incomplete state. It is a dark, rough, water mass with a wind from God violently moving over it. The earth at this stage is in need of further work, work that begins in v.3.

–  –  –

2.2.4 LXX Gen 1.4 God sees in v.4 that the light was good (o[ti kalo,n),48 replicating the Hebrew bO+-yiK. Harl points out that the LXX here uses kalo,n rather than avgaqo,j because of the aesthetic, moral, and ordered intent of the word.49 The next intertextual marker, diacwri,zw, begins the process of differentiation of the unformed (avkataskeu,astoj) earth.

Light is separated from darkness. In the ordering of the raw materials of vv.1-2, light is separated from darkness.50 There is another intertextual marker in the word-pair, fw/j/sko,toj, which is a valuable intertextual marker for two Brown, Structure, Role, and Ideology, 50 n.37; Dines, “Imaging Creation,” 447-448.

While not intertextually significant enough to warrant inclusion in the list of intertexts of LXX Gen 1.1-5, the use

of o[ti kalo,n in LXX Gen 3.6 is of interest:

kai. ei=den h` gunh. o[ti kalo.n to. xu,lon eivj brw/sin kai. o[ti avresto.n toi/j ovfqalmoi/j ivdei/n kai. w`rai/o,n evstin tou/ katanoh/sai kai. labou/sa tou/ karpou/ auvtou/ e;fagen\ kai. e;dwken kai. tw/| avndri. auvth/j metV auvth/j kai. e;fagon.

–  –  –

The connection between this text and LXX Gen 1.1-5, comes in a parallel phrase in LXX Gen 1.4. The relation of these two texts rests on a slim commonality of vocabulary – o[ti kalo,n and ei=den.

kai. ei=den h` gunh. o[ti kalo.n to. xu,lon eivj brw/sin Gen 3.6a kai. ei=den o` qeo.j to. fw/j o[ti kalo,n Gen 1.4a This said, there are two things about this slim commonality that are intriguing. The first is that this simple sentence construction is repeated nearly verbatim about both God in LXX Gen 1.4 and about the woman in LXX Gen 3.6, one in an act of creation, another in an act of challenging the created order. Also, given the fact that throughout the Old Testament Greek text the ei=den + o[ti kalo,n combination happens six times, and given the fact that the first five all repeat the same formula about God within the first creation story (vv.4,8,10,12,18), the fact that the only other time that this occurs is in Gen 3.6 is of interest. The second thing is the close juxtaposition. Taking canonical shape/textual shape into consideration, it can be assumed that at a relatively early date (3rd cent. BCE), the shape of LXX Genesis was largely established. Therefore, with just two short chapters between them, two chapters that deal with very similar content, these two verbatim statements, one about the creator, one about a denigrator of creation (at least in the early theological imagination), are placed next to one another.

M. Harl, La Bible d'Alexandrie: I. La Genèse, (Paris: Éditions du Cerf, 1986) 88.

Wevers, Notes on Genesis, notes that the LXX usually renders the Hebrew prepositions }y"BU… }y"B with avna. me,son.

(3) – 57 –

CHAPTER TWO

reasons: (1) when looked at together, fw/j/sko,toj is a more significant intertextual marker than the individual words;51 and (2) fw/j/sko,toj are more likely to signal an intertextual connection to LXX Gen 1.1-5 together as they symbolize the totality of 'day', especially 'day one'.

2.2.5 LXX Gen 1.5 The first day ends with the naming of day and night, as the Hebrew )rq is translated with kale,w. Another intertextual marker comes into play in v.5, h`me,ra/nu,x.52 The unformedness (avkataskeu,astoj) of the earth in its first created state is shaped into its most basic components, that of light and dark, night and day. One could say that both elements of v.2a, avoratoj and avkataskeu,astoj, are addressed in this first day. In the creation of light, all is no longer, dark and invisible, and in the separation of light and darkness and in the naming of day and night things begin to take form. What was initially rough begins to reflect the creator's design. The pericope ends with the formula that is to be repeated throughout chapter one, kai. evge,neto e`spe,ra kai. evge,neto prwi,. Finally, there is the pronouncement of day one, h`me,ra mi,a. Like the Hebrew, the Greek maintains the use of the cardinal number on the first day, using ordinals for the remaining days.53

2.3 Intertexts of LXX Gen 1.1-5 What follows is a sketch of the individual pieces of the intertextual tapestry of LXX Gen 1.1-5. The intertextual relationships are analyzed on overall commonality, the most basic thread of which is that they all share a creation theme. In descending order of commonality, the intertexts are based on the number of individual words common to both texts (e.g. if skoto,j occurs three times in a given text, for this criterion it is only counted once).

This is column A in Table 2.1. The second criterion is what I call the frequency ratio, thisis simply the total number of common words divided by the total number of verses in a given pericope (e.g. if there are four words common to LXX Gen 1.1-5 in a pericope that is two verses long it receives a rating of 2.00). This ratio serves to identify the concentration of common vocabulary between an intertext and the primary text. This is column B in Table 2.1. The third criterion is the total common words, including repetitions (e.g. if skoto,j occurs three times in a given text, it is counted three times). This is column C in Table 2.1. A fourth criterion for ordering the intertexts is the pericope's place in the canon, which in this case is the order as set out in Rahlf's LXX. It bears mentioning again that these are artificial criteria. I do not presume to be able to guess how my ordering might reflect the importance given to these intertexts by subsequent interpreters of LXX Gen 1.1-5, and I acknowledge that my ordering places these texts into a wholly new matrix, in a real way creating an entirely new text.





Individually, fw/j occurs 176 times and sko,toj 120 – sko,toj is treated as an intertextual marker individually, and fw/j only in the word-pair.

Given that h`me,ra occurs over 2,500 times and nu,x, 295, it is only as a word-pair that they are manageable.

Cf. Wevers, Notes on Genesis, 3.

–  –  –

Additionally, I offer two comments about the relationship between chapters one and two. First, when pericope boundaries for an individual intertext remain the same for both the MT and LXX, I do not repeat my argument in this chapter. This is simply a practical space-saver. Second, another difference that the reader will notice is that in chapter two there are comparisons of the LXX text(s) with the MT, in order to highlight changes between the Greek and Hebrew intertextual tapestries. These comparisons are not what can be called ‘Masoretic fundamentalism,’55 that is a judgment always in favor of the integrity of the MT over the LXX. This is not a textcritical study. Rather, these comparisons of the LXX text with the MT are meant to point out possible intertextual differences.

I should also state that the Greek text and my own translation of each pericope are included. While this adds substantially to the girth of this chapter, the critical editions of the LXX are far less accessible than Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. It is for the ease of the reader that text and translation are included.

The second number in parentheses is the number of IMs that appear in the pericope, whereas the first number of column A is the number of individual words common between the pericope and LXX Gen 1.1-5. Again, it should be noted that the specific intertextual markers function as beacons within a larger context of commonality. One intertextual marker, then, can draw attention to a much wider context and commonality.

I borrow this term from my doctoral supervisor, Dr. James R. Davila.

–  –  –

evplhrw,qh h` gh/ th/j kth,sew,j sou) au[th h` qa,lassa h` mega,lh kai. euvru,cwroj( evkei/ e`rpeta,( w-n ouvk e;stin avriqmo,j( zw/|a mikra. meta. mega,lwn\ evkei/ ploi/a diaporeu,ontai( dra,kwn ou-toj( o]n e;plasaj evmpai,zein auvtw/|) pa,nta pro.j se. prosdokw/sin dou/nai th.n trofh.n auvtoi/j eu;kairon) do,ntoj sou auvtoi/j sulle,xousin( avnoi,xantoj de, sou th.n cei/ra ta. su,mpanta plhsqh,sontai crhsto,thtoj) avpostre,yantoj de, sou to. pro,swpon taracqh,sontai\ avntanelei/j to. pneu/ma auvtw/n( kai. evklei,yousin kai. eivj to.n cou/n auvtw/n evpistre,yousin) evxapostelei/j to. pneu/ma, sou( kai. ktisqh,sontai( kai. avnakainiei/j to. pro,swpon th/j gh/j) h;tw h` do,xa kuri,ou eivj to.n aivw/na( euvfranqh,setai ku,rioj evpi. toi/j e;rgoij auvtou/\ o` evpible,pwn evpi. th.n gh/n kai. poiw/n auvth.n tre,mein( o` a`pto,menoj tw/n ovre,wn kai. kapni,zontai) a;|sw tw/| kuri,w| evn th/| zwh/| mou( yalw/ tw/| qew/| mou( e[wj u`pa,rcw\ h`dunqei,h auvtw/| h` dialogh, mou( evgw. de. euvfranqh,somai evpi. tw/| kuri,w|) evkli,poisan a`martwloi. avpo. th/j gh/j kai. a;nomoi( w[ste mh. u`pa,rcein auvtou,j) euvlo,gei( h` yuch, mou( to.n ku,rion) For David.

Bless the Lord, my soul.

O Lord my God, you are very great, You are clothed with praise and dignity, Wrapping [yourself] with light as with a garment, stretching out the heavens as though a curtain;

Who covers his chambers in waters, who makes the clouds his chariot, who walks upon the wings of the wind, Who makes his angels spirits and his ministers a flaming fire.

He laid the foundation of the earth upon her certainty, it shall not be moved forever.

The abyss, as a garment, is his covering, waters stand upon the mountains;

From your rebuke they shall flee, from the voice of your thunder they shall fear.

They go up to the mountains and come down to the plains, to a place that you founded for them.

You set a boundary, one which they shall not pass over, neither shall they turn around to cover the earth.

He sends forth fountains among the ravines, the waters shall run between the mountains.

They shall give drink to all the wild animals of the field, all the wild animals of the field will drink.

By them the birds of heaven shall make their home;

in the midst of the rocks they shall utter a sound.

While he waters the mountains from his chambers:

by the fruit of your works the earth shall eat its fill.

– 61 –

CHAPTER TWO

He causes grass to grow for the flocks, and green plant[s] for the service of people, in order to bring bread out of the earth;

and wine gladdens the person's heart,

to make his face cheerful with oil:

and bread strengthens a person's heart.

The trees of the plain shall eat their fill, the cedars of Lebanon which he planted.

There the sparrows will build nests;

and the house of the heron takes the lead among them.

The high mountains are for deer, rock is refuge for the rabbits.

He made the moon for seasons:

the sun knows its setting.

You set up darkness, and night became;

in it all the wild beasts of the forest will move about, young lions roaring for prey, and to seek meat for themselves from God.

The sun arises, and they shall be gathered together and lie down in their dens.

A person shall go out for his work and for his labor until evening.

How great are your works, O Lord, in wisdom you have made them all.

The earth is filled with your possessions.

This is the sea, great and wide;

in that place are beasts innumerable, small animals and large.

There go ships;

this dragon that you formed to sport in it.

All expect you to give them food in due season.

When you have given [it] to them, they will gather [it], and when you have opened your hand, they will all be filled with goodness.

But when you turn your face away, they will be troubled;

you will take away their breath, and they shall [be] forsaken, and they will return to their dust.

You will send out your Spirit, and they will be created;

and you will renew the face of the earth.

Let the glory of the Lord be forever, the Lord will rejoice in his works;

who looks upon the earth, and makes it tremble;

who touches the mountains, and they smoke.

I will sing to the Lord with my life;

I will play [an stringed instrument] for my God while I exist.

May my ponderings be sweet to him, and I will rejoice in the Lord.

May the sinners [be] forsaken from the earth, and transgressors, so that they will be no more.

Bless the Lord, O my soul.

–  –  –

What can be seen by a closer look at LXX Ps 103 is that the creative concerns of the psalmist center around God's relationship with the ‘waters,’ that is a combination of u[dwr (first appearing in v.3), a;bussoj (v.6), phgh, (v.10), and qa,lassa (v.25). Within the description of who God is as Lord of the Universe (vv.1b-6) the waters play a primary, though not an ultimate, role. The waters (u[dwr) are described as the roof of God's chambers in v.3; followed in v.6 with a statement that God's clothing (i`ma,tion) is the abyss (a;bussoj). Vv.6-9 follow this with a description of God's ordering of and control over the waters, ultimately placing a boundary (o[rion) around them. From the sending forth of the fountains (phgh,) in v.10, the now tamed waters are a means by which God providentially cares for the world, including everything from habitation for the birds to wine for the merriment of humanity.

From vv.11-18, there is little LXX Gen 1.1-5 vocabulary present.



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