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From vv.19-23, water gives way to the ordering of seasons and time. In this section, particularly v.20, there is an intertextual encounter with light and dark, day and night. Darkness (sko,toj) is set-up (ti,qhmi) and the result is that night (nu,x) comes to be. Throughout the psalm, there is no mention of day or its creation. Unlike LXX Gen 1.1-5, light is not the first act of creation, rather light is something of a divine property, as it is the divine Note avnaba,llw (v.2), evktei,nw (v.2), stega,zw (v.3), ti,qhmi (vv.3, 9, 20), qemelio,w (vv.5, 8), evxaposte,llw (vv.10, 30), poti,zw (v.13), evxanate,llw (v.14), futeu,w (v.16), pla,ssw (v.26), di,dwmi (vv.27, 28), kti,zw (v.30), avnakaini,zw (v.30). There is a cross pollination of creative and providential verbs throughout the psalm. Given that the final verb with ‘creative’ force is avnakaini,zw in v.30 with a renewing/recreating force to it, one could argue that there is little value in attempting to distinguish between the creative and the providential actions of God as set out in LXX Ps 103. What is of more interest for this study is the pervasive creative/re-creative thread that runs throughout the psalm.

See LXX Ps 103.4,19,24,32.

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cloak.58 In LXX Ps 103, as in the Hebrew, light is possibly preexisting and darkness is created, apparently opposite of LXX Gen 1.1-5.

Vv.24-26 is an argument for the praise of the Lord of creation, the Lord of the universe. While poie,w is the only LXX Gen 1.1-5 word in these verses, there are plenty of other words with creation baggage. In v.24 the psalmist states that it is in wisdom (sofi,a) that the Lord has created (poie,w). In v.25, water comes back into focus with the sea (qa,lassa) as the place where many creatures live (only a tamed sea could harbor such creation), where ships pass, and where the dragon (dra,kwn) – a plaything/playmate of the Lord's – lives.59 So, while there is little LXX Gen 1.1-5 content, given the importance of the waters previously displayed (vv.3-18) and the additional presence of the sea and the dragon, the intertextual significance of this section ought not be underrated.

Vv. 27-30 focuses more on God's providential care for creation. The idea that all life is dependent on God's favor is present. The main connection with LXX Gen 1.1-5 is v.30, where God sends (evxaposte,llw) his spirit (pneu/ma) to create (kti,zw) them (arguably all life – pa,nta of v.27) and God renews (avnakaini,zw) the face of the earth. In v.30 there is an intertextual connection with LXX Gen 1.2. When God's spirit moves upon (evpife,rw) the face (pro,swpon) of the waters (LXX Gen 1.2) the language and ideas are very similar to that of LXX Ps 103.30. As I have argued elsewhere, a viable Greek translation of (MT Gen 1.2c) could be {iyfmah y"n:P-la( tepexar:m {yiholE) axUr:w kai. pneu/ma qeou/ evpefe,reto evpi pro,swpon tw/n u`da,twn. While this is an intangible, it can be said that the ‘upon the face of’ idea of MT Gen 1.2 and LXX Ps 103.30 are similar. This coupled with the presence of God's pneu/ma as a creative force in the least adds to the intertextual possibilities of LXX Ps 103.

The final verses of the psalm, vv.31-35, serve as a conclusion. Vv. 31-32 both call for a perpetual glorification of the Lord and a recounting of who God is as Lord of the Universe. The psalmist's intentions are displayed in v.33. Following the call for perpetual glorification of the Lord in v.31a, v.33 is the psalmist's statement See LXX Ps 103.2.

The use here of dra,kwn for what reads }ftfy:wil in MT Ps 104.26 changes the intertextual possibilities from the Hebrew to the Greek. While the }ftfy:wil carries connotation from the cosmologies of the Ancient Near East, such baggage does not necessarily translate into the Greek intertextual world. In the correspondence of the MT and the LXX, dra,kwn is used to translate a range of terms: }yiNfT (LXX Exod 7.9, 10, 12; Deut 32.33; Ps 73.13, 90.13, 148.7;

Job 7.12; Mic 1.8; Isa 27.1; Jer 9.10, 28.34; Lam 4.3; Ezek 29.3, 32.1), }ftfy:wil (LXX Ps 73.14, 103.26; Job 40.25; Isa 27.1), and $fxfn (LXX Job 26.13; Amos 9.3). In extra-biblical texts dra,kwn shows up as a snake (e.g. Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. 4.1541; Homer, Iliad 22.93) and a mythical creature (e.g. Homer, Iliad 2.308, 11.39). While there may be similarities between the mythical uses in Classical literature and the mythical status of }yiNfT, dra,kwn as a mythical creature in Classical Greek literature is less entangled in the cosmic framework and more just a nasty creature, like the one with the blood-red back (evpi. nw/ta dafoino,j) that Zeus sends to gobble-up the little sparrows

as a sign to Odysseus and company of their impending struggle. (Iliad 2.308ff) Two tangential remarks are in order:

(1) A. Yarbro Collins, The Combat Myth in the Book of Revelation, (HDR 9; Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, 1976), when looking at parallels for the dragon of Rev 12 (76ff), does not mention the possible connection between the red dragon of Rev. 12.3 and that of Iliad 2; and (2) Philo, On Husbandry, 21, dealing with Moses' response to the death of the riders in the Reed Sea suggests that he prays for their complete salvation (eu;cetai swteri,an pantelh/), a prayer that he finds in LXX Gen 49.16-17, which in context comes from Jacob's last words to Dan. In turn, Philo uses LXX Gen 3.1ff and LXX Num 21.1ff to allegorically understand the place of o;fij in LXX Gen 49.17.

Germane to this study is the fact that in his explanation Philo uses o;fij and dra,kwn interchangeably, while the three biblical texts in the mix use only o;fij. Also, Philo's use of o;fij is exemplary of the point of this thesis. Where there is commonality, there is intertextuality. Where there is intertextuality, there is dialogue between texts and interpreter.

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of intent. The psalmist will sing the Lord's praises forever. Vv.34-35a are the psalmist's hope for the trajectory of their praise. The optatives here signal something unrealized.60 The concluding blessing (v.35b) draws the psalmist back to the initial blessing.

One final observation on LXX Ps 103 is the commingling of creation and Temple language in the psalm’s early verses. The description of God as Lord of the Universe in vv.1b-6 likely refers to who God is as Lord of the Universe and Temple. The language of clothing pervades the pericope and raises three particular points of interest.

The language of ‘clothing’ starts in v.1b, where God puts on praise and dignity. The first point of interest with the ‘clothing’ language, however, comes in v.2a, where God wraps godself in light (fw/j). Here the intertextual tapestry suggests a crossroads between the psalm and Gen 1.3f, where God creates light. As was noted above, there is no concern in the psalm to convey that light was created. Rather, it is darkness that is created in v.20, contra LXX Gen

1.2. Instead, light is portrayed as God's clothing, not something specifically created. A second point of interest is the second half of v.2 in which God is understood to be the one who stretches out (evktei,nw) the heavens (ou;ranoj) as a curtain (de,rrij). The primary clue to the presence of temple language here is the presence of de,rrij, a word used to describe the curtains used to cover the tabernacle in the Tent of Meeting (Exod 26.7-13). While this differs from the primary curtain separating the Holy of Holies from the rest of the Temple,61 it is a significant element of Temple imagery. If God is stretching out the heavens as a de,rrij, the intertextual link with the Temple/tabernacle is at least possible. A third and final point of interest here comes in v.6a where God is portrayed as putting on another cloak (i`ma,tion), this time it is the abyss (a;bussoj). Coupled with the presence of the waters (u[dwr) in v.6b, the water imagery, particularly that of Gen 1.2, is here present.

From the first few verses on, LXX Ps 103 there is strong intertextual relationship between the psalm and LXX Gen 1.2. While there are major differences (e.g. the creation of light and darkness), the language and the obvious creation context lend themselves to allow the reader to see and hear connections between the two.

2.3.2 Isaiah 42.5-9 ou[twj le,gei ku,rioj o` qeo.j o` poih,saj to.n ouvrano.n kai. ph,xaj auvto,n( o` sterew,saj th.n gh/n kai. ta. evn auvth/| kai. didou.j pnoh.n tw/| law/| tw/| evpV auvth/j kai. pneu/ma toi/j patou/sin auvth,n\ 6evgw. ku,rioj o` qeo.j evka,lesa, se evn dikaiosu,nh| kai. krath,sw th/j ceiro,j sou kai. evniscu,sw se( e;dwka, se eivj diaqh,khn ge,nouj( eivj fw/j evqnw/n( avnoi/xai ovfqalmou.j tuflw/n( evxagagei/n evk desmw/n dedeme,nouj kai. evx oi;kou fulakh/j kaqhme,nouj evn sko,tei) 8evgw. ku,rioj o` qeo,j( tou/to, mou, evstin to. o;noma\ th.n do,xan mou e`te,rw| ouv dw,sw ouvde. ta.j avreta,j mou toi/j gluptoi/j) 9ta. avpV avrch/j ivdou.

h[kasin( kai. kaina. a] evgw. avnaggelw/( kai. pro. tou/ avnatei/lai evdhlw,qh u`mi/n) Thus says the Lord God, the maker of heaven and solidifier of it, the one who firmed up the earth and that which is in it, and gives breath to the people upon it and spirit to those who walk on it; 6‘I, the Lord God, called you in righteousness and will hold your hand and strengthen you; I gave you as a covenant of a race, as a light of nations 7to open the eyes of the blind, to bring out of fetters those who are bound, and out of prison those who sit in darkness. 8I am the Lord God, this is my name. I will not give my glory to another nor my praise to graven images. 9That which is Regarding MT Ps 104, it should again benoted that E.S. Gerstenberger, Psalms Part 2 and Lamentations, (FOTL 15; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2001) sees a possible liturgical pattern in vv.31-35.

More likely the katape,tasma of Exod 26.31ff; Lev. 4.6; Matt. 27.51; Heb 9.3; Josephus, B.J. 5.212.

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This pericope completes what is commonly referred to as the First Servant Song. A creation theme runs throughout these verses, though it is a commingling of the creation of the cosmos and the creation of the chosen people. The intertextual relationship with LXX Gen 1.1-5 is evident in the wealth of common vocabulary (poie,w( ouvrano,j( gh/( pneu/ma( kale,w( fw/j( sko,toj( avrch, with the word-pair ouvrano,j/gh/ in v.5). Regarding the relation of the Hebrew and the Greek, Isa 42.5-8 translates the Hebrew similarly to LXX Gen 1.1-5, especially concerning vocabulary common to both.

The pericope begins with a titular announcement that the Lord is the maker (poie,w) and solidifier (ph,gnumi)62 of heaven, the one who firms up (stereo,w)63 the earth and all that is in it and gives breath (pnoh,, pneu/ma) to the people. Similar to LXX Gen 1.1-5, the initial creative action is poie,w followed by a coupling of heaven and earth, albeit with other creative verbs included. While pneu/ma does occur here, as in the MT it is not to be understood as divine breath but the breath of life that God gives to people.

Vv.6-9 contain a direct quotation in which the Lord speaks. The focus here moves away from who God is as creator of the cosmos to what God will do in creating a chosen people. While there is undoubtedly a change of focus, there are intertextual connections between the creation language of LXX Gen 1.1-5 and LXX Isa 42.6-9 that weave together these two ‘creations’. For instance, in v.6 God calls (kale,w) in righteousness, whereas in LXX Gen

1.5 God orders day one by calling/naming night and day. Also, the people are created as a light of the nations (fw/j evqnw/n) with one purpose being to bring those out who sit in darkness (sko,toj). The final intertextual touchstone between LXX Isa 42.5-8 and LXX Gen 1.1-5 comes in the use of avrch, in v.9, speaking specifically of things that are from the beginning.64 Proverbs 8.22-3165 2.3.3 ku,rioj e;ktise,n me avrch.n o`dw/n auvtou/ eivj e;rga auvtou/( pro. tou/ aivw/noj evqemeli,wse,n me evn avrch/| pro. tou/ th.n gh/n poih/sai kai. pro. tou/ ta.j avbu,ssouj poih/sai( pro. tou/ proelqei/n ta.j phga.j tw/n u`da,twn( pro. tou/ o;rh e`drasqh/nai( pro. de. pa,ntwn bounw/n genna/| me) ku,rioj evpoi,hsen cw,raj kai. avoikh,touj kai. a;kra oivkou,mena th/j u`pV ouvrano,n) h`ni,ka h`toi,mazen to.n ouvrano,n( sumparh,mhn auvtw/|( One might have expected evktei,nw, similar to LXX Zech 12.1.

The use of stereo,w bears an intertextual connection with stere,wma or firmament in LXX Gen 1.6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20. Cf. R.R. Ottley, The Book of Isaiah according to the Septuagint (Codex Alexandrinus), 2 vols.


University Press, 1906) 2.307.

This may be a case where the Greek of Isa 42.9 is more closely connected to Gen 1.1 than the Hebrew, as the Hebrew has tOno$)irfh. While related to tyi$)"r, it is more of an interpretive leap from tOno$)irfh to tyi$)"r than it is from the dative of avrch, in LXX Gen 1.1 to the genitive in LXX Isa 42.9.

As there is not a Göttingen or Larger Cambridge edition of Proverbs, the text and versification is taken primarily from A. Rahlfs, ed., Septuaginta, 2nd ed.; Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1935 & 1979) with reference to the text of J. Cook, The Septuagint of Proverbs - Jewish and/or Hellenistic Proverbs?: Concerning the Hellenistic Colouring of LXX Proverbs, (VTSup 69; Leiden: Brill, 1997) 218-234.

–  –  –

Given the common vocabulary with LXX Gen 1.1-5 (e.n avrch/|( gh/( a;bussoj( u[dwr( ouvrano,j( h`me,ra) and the common creation context the intertextual relationship is unmistakable. What is of interest, then, are the significant though subtle changes between the Hebrew and Greek versions. As an overarching difference, I concur with J.

Cook that there are in the Greek version clarifications of the relationship between God and Wisdom and Wisdom's role in creating.68 The intertextual relationship with LXX Gen 1.1-5 is first seen in v.22, where Wisdom claims that she is the first (avrch,) that God created (kti,zw).69 The intertextual connection is strengthened in v.23 with the occurrence of evn avrch|. While evn avrch/| is not a unique turn of phrase in the LXX, occurring thirty times,70 there are only three / occurrences in a creation context – LXX Gen 1.1; Prov 8.23; and Isa 51.9. Of these three, Isa 51.9 is a marginal inclusion as it deals more with the creation of Jerusalem/Israel than the cosmos. The occurrence of evn avrch/| in Prov I concur here with the rendering of eivj by Cook, Septuagint of Proverbs, as showing purpose. (220-221) Also, LSJ, s.v.

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