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While ‘beget’ is a theologically charged word, it is the most fitting rendition of genna,w, the causal of gi,gnomai.

Cook, Septuagint of Proverbs, 201ff. It should be noted that Cook understands the translator of LXX Proverbs as a ‘conservative Jewish-schooled scribe, who was anti non-Jewish, especially Hellenistic, interpretations of the creation.’ (246) Also, he sees this translator as an interpreter of the Hebrew text as much as a translator, referring to the end product as an ‘exegetical/theological’ and ‘religious’ work. (317) In the above translation, I rendered kti,zw as ‘brought into being’ so as not to confuse it with poie,w, even though the semantic domain of kti,zw surely contains the meaning ‘to create’.

See Appendix B.

– 67 –

CHAPTER TWO

8.23, then, is unique in its reminiscence of LXX Gen 1.1, especially given the list of things in the following verses before which Wisdom was created. In vv.22-25 there are a series of pro, phrases which function both to situate the genesis of Wisdom and to place the act of creating not with Wisdom but with God.71 Included in this series of ‘pro, + a substantive infinitive’ phrases are the earth (gh/), the abysses (a;bussoi), the fountains of water (ta.j phga.j tw/n u`da,twn), mountains, and hills. All of these are created secondarily to Wisdom. This series ends differently in the Greek than in the Hebrew. The climax of the list in the MT is yiT:lflOx, a rare passive Polal of lUx,72 whereas in the LXX reads genna/| me,73 an active indicative. This shift to the active voice further reinforces Cook's assertion that the translator of LXX Proverbs is here strengthening the understanding that it is God who is the primary and sole creator. The rest of the pericope, vv.26-31, continues to strengthen the place of God as creator by subtly clarifying that Wisdom was a passive observer and active worshipper of God's larger creative activity. In this section much of God's creative forming of heaven and earth is attested. One final difference between MT and LXX of note comes in v.31. Here the Hebrew participles that continue Wisdom's worshipping of God's creative activity in v.30 of the MT become active third person singular verbs with God as the subject. Again, the ambiguity of who is doing the creating is lessened by the Greek's use of active third person verbs.74 A possible intertextual connection with LXX Gen 1.2 comes in v.26a: ku,rioj evpoi,hsen cw,raj kai.

avoikh,touj. Given the infrequency of avo,ratoj and avkataskeu,astoj in LXX Gen 1.2, it is not out of the question that LXX Prov 8.26a is an attempt at understanding the equally obscure of the MT. Given the fact that in Uhobfw Uhot

–  –  –

avoi,khtoj. Leaning against this possibility is the above argument for the closeness between LXX Genesis and LXX Proverbs at the point of evn avrch/| in v.23. While impossible to prove, such a connection between the two texts is at least intertextually possible given the strength of the vocabulary common to LXX Gen 1.1-5 and LXX Prov 8.22-31.

2.3.4 Isaiah 44.24-45.8 44.24 ou[twj le,gei ku,rioj o` lutrou,meno,j se kai. o` pla,sswn se evk koili,aj( VEgw. ku,rioj o` suntelw/n pa,nta evxe,teina to.n ouvrano.n mo,noj kai. evstere,wsa th.n gh/n) 25ti,j e[teroj diaskeda,sei shmei/a evggastrimu,qwn kai. mantei,aj avpo. kardi,aj avpostre,fwn froni,mouj eivj ta. ovpi,sw kai. th.n boulh.n auvtw/n mwreu,wn 26kai. i`stw/n r`h,mata paido.j auvtou/ kai. th.n boulh.n tw/n avgge,lwn auvtou/ avlhqeu,wn* o` le,gwn Ierousalhm( Katoikhqh,sh|( kai. tai/j po,lesi th/j Ioudai,aj( Oivkodomhqh,sesqe( kai. ta.

e;rhma auvth/j avnatelei/\ 27o` le,gwn th/| avbu,ssw|( VErhmwqh,sh|( kai. tou.j potamou,j sou xhranw/\ 28o` le,gwn Ku,rw|( fronei/n( kai. Pa,nta ta. qelh,mata, mou poih,sei\ o` le,gwn Ierousalhm( Oivkodomhqh,sh|( kai. to.n oi=kon to.n a[gio,n mou qemeliw,sw) 45:1 ou[twj le,gei ku,rioj o` qeo.j tw/| cristw/| mou Ku,rw|( ou- evkra,thsa th/j dexia/j evpakou/sai e;mprosqen auvtou/ e;qnh( kai. ivscu.n basile,wn diarrh,xw( avnoi,xw e;mprosqen auvtou/ qu,raj( kai. po,leij ouv sugkleisqh,sontai 2VEgw. e;mprosqe,n sou Cf. Cook, Septuagint of Proverbs, 223-224.

For creative connotation, see also LXX Ps 51.7, Job 15.7, and possibly LXX Job 26.5, though BDB, s.v., prefers to read LXX Job 26.5 as to ‘be made to writhe,’ in line with the primary meaning of the verb.

Cook, Septuagint of Proverbs, states that there are mss with a passive form of genna,w in v.25. (225) As there is no critical edition of LXX Proverbs, on this point I must rely on Cook's analysis of the mss.

Cook, Septuagint of Proverbs, 233-234.

–  –  –

This text includes most of Cyrus' commissioning, the whole of which extends through v.13. While primarily dealing with Cyrus, there is a creation theme along with vocabulary common with LXX Gen 1.1-5 woven throughout (ouvrano,j( gh/( a;bussoj( poie,w( sko,toj( avo,ratoj( kale,w( fw/j with the word-pairs ouvrano,j/gh/ in 44.24,

45.8 and fw/j/sko,toj in 45.7). Creation in this text is bound to Deutero-Isaiah's argument that it is God, the creator of all (45.7b), who can do something as absurd as using Cyrus, a foreign king who does not know God (45.4b, 5b), to liberate the chosen people (44.24) and rebuild the land and the temple (44.26-28).75 The creation language solidifies God's place as supreme creator, exemplified by the titular references to God as creator of heaven and earth (44.24, 45.8). This is also extended to include light (fw/j) and darkness (sko,toj), peace and evil, and everything else (45.7) As in LXX Isa 42.5, evstere,wsa is used in conjuction with earth, resembling LXX Gen 1.7ff.





–  –  –

There are (at least) two additional points of interest specific to the intertextual relation between LXX Gen 1.1-5 and LXX Isa 44.24-45.8. The first of these is the presence of a;bussoj in 44.27.76 In the Hebrew of this verse77 is the hapax legomenon, which draws no intertextual comparison with MT Gen 1.1-5. One might assume hflUC,

–  –  –

Isa 44.24-45.8 and LXX Gen 1.1-5. Two final points of contact are worthy of brief mention. The first are the similar uses of kale,w in LXX Gen 1.5 and LXX Isa 45.4, the former God's creative naming of night and day and the latter God's calling of Cyrus by name. The second is the use of the word-pair, fw/j/sko,toj, in 45.7. As in the Hebrew this is the one point where God takes credit for the creation of light and darkness.

–  –  –

Another creation intertext from Deutero-Isaiah substantiated by strong common vocabulary (evn avrch,|( u[dwr( a;bussoj( poie,w( ouvrano,j( gh/( with the word-pairs, evn avrch/, in v.9 and ouvrano,j/gh/ in vv.13, 16), this text | makes even more explicit the connection between who God is as creator and the deliverance of an exiled people. It is God who whipped the sea (qa,lassa) and the great waters of the abyss (u[dwr avbu,ssou plh/qoj) who will bring the people/Jerusalem back into joy and worship. The people are asked if they have forgotten, not the God of deliverance, but the God who made them, the heaven and the earth (v.13). It is this God who controls the sea (qa,llasa), though concerning both qa,llasa and a'bussoj, it seems unlikely that they bear any baggage from Ancient

Near Eastern cosmologies. One angle from which to view this demythologizing is the transliteration of tO)fb:c hfwh:y

/ ku,rioj sabawq in v.15. Could not the translator have also transliterated {fy and {Oh:T from vv. 10 and 15 in order to retain any connection with ancient Near Eastern cosmologies? One final intertextual note is the occurrence of evn avrch/| in v.9, the Gen 1.1-5 equivalent, tyi$)"r, is not present in the Hebrew ({edeq y"myiK). This said, Isa 51.9-16 has more intertextual commonality with Gen 1.1-5 than its Hebrew counterpart.

–  –  –

Ps 148 is a song enjoining all elements of creation to praise the Lord that is full of creation language and vocabulary common with Gen 1.1-5 (ouvrano,j( fw/j( u[dwr( gh/( a;bussoj( with the word-pair ouvrano,j/gh/ in v.13).

There are several points of interest in LXX Ps 148. The first comes in v.3, where light is the final element of the list of illuminata that is to praise the Lord. The list of sun, moon, stars, and light is of particular interest because of its difference from the MT. Where v.3b in the MT reads, rO) y"b:kOK-lfK, the Greek text reads pa,nta ta. a;stra kai. to.

fw/j. Light is intimately connected to stars via a construct relationship in the MT, whereas the stars and the light (to.

fw/j) are independent of one another in the Greek, separated by kai, just as sun and moon in the preceding couplet in v.3a. The addition of the conjunction in v.3b could suggest a thought of Genesis 1, wherein light (to. fw/j) is created on Day One and the other celestial lights on the fourth day. A second point of interest comes in v.4b with the distinction of the waters above the heavens. While impossible to determine and outside the bounds of this study, there is a possible intertextual resemblance between v.4b and the second day of creation in MT Gen 1.6-8. A third point of interest comes in v.5b. The middle colon, absent from the MT, reads, o[ti auvto.j ei=pen( kai. evgenh,qhsan.

– 72 –

CHAPTER TWO

This colon bears a resemblance to LXX Gen 1.3 and Genesis 1 in general, where God creates by speaking. While it is possible that LXX Ps 148.5b is an expansion of MT v.5b in light of Genesis 1, it is impossible to prove. What can be said with certainty, however, is that the presence of this additional colon strengthens the intertextual relationship with LXX Gen 1.1-5.

–  –  –

Again, we encounter creation in Deutero-Isaiah, weighty with vocabulary common to LXX Gen 1.1-5 (u[dwr( ouvrano,j( gh/( poie,w( avrch,( kale,w with the word-pair ouvrano,j/gh/ in vv.12, 21-22). As is common in DeuteroIsaiah, the creation themes are woven into an argument about who God is. And again, the boundaries of this pericope differ from its equivalent text in chapter one, which included vv.27-31. While one might be able to make the argument for the inclusion of these verses in the Greek, the vocabulary does not warrant it.

The pericope begins with images of the grandness of God – measuring the water (u[dwr), the heavens (ouvrano,j), and the earth (gh/) with God's hand. This is followed by an argument for the supremity of God in vv.13In v.13, there is an interesting difference from the Hebrew that affects the intertextuality of the pericope. The object of MT 40.13a is which, as I argued in the previous chapter, bears at least a tacit resemblance to hfwh:y axUr, in MT Gen 1.2; whereas the object of v.13a in the Greek is nou/n ku,riou, leaving no trace of a possible {yiholE) axUr

–  –  –

MT Gen 1.2, though not strongly as its obvious reference here is earthly rulers.

The Greek text, on the other hand, lacks the primary object, 'rulers,' leaving th.n de. gh/n w`j ouvde.n evpoi,hsen (He makes the earth as nothing). Vv.23-24 point out the smallness of the creation and specifically humanity in comparison to the creator God. The pericope ends with a call for the addressees to see the grandness of God, the one who calls (kale,w) all by name and from whom nothing escapes.

The main points of interest about this pericope are its grand image of God's relation to creation, holding it all in the palm of his hand (v.12), the picture of God as dwelling above/in the heavens (v.22), the possible temple allusion in v.22 where God stretches out the heavens as a tent (skh,nh) in which to dwell,80 the report that God created the earth as nothing (v.23), and that God calls (kale,w) all by name.

2.3.8 Job 38.4-38 pou/ h=j evn tw/| qemeliou/n me th.n gh/n* avpa,ggeilon de, moi( eiv evpi,sth| su,nesin) ti,j e;qeto ta. me,tra auvth/j( eiv oi=daj* h' ti,j o` evpagagw.n sparti,on evpV auvth/j* evpi. ti,noj oi` kri,koi auvth/j peph,gasin* ti,j de, evstin o` balw.n li,qon gwniai/on evpV auvth/j* o[te evgenh,qhsan a;stra( Ziegler, ed., Göttingen - Isaiah, reports that Aquila's version of v.13a read tij estaqmhsato pneuma kuriou, similarily Symmachus via Jerome. (268-269) While skhnh, is not used exclusively with reference to the Temple (e.g. Gen 33.19, Neh 8.14-16, etc.), it is used frequently to refer to the Tent of Meeting or the Tabernacle. One notable use with reference to God comes in theophany at the tent prior to Moses’ death (LXX Deut 31.15).

–  –  –

– 75 –

CHAPTER TWO

ti,j de. e;dwken gunaixi.n u`fa,smatoj sofi,an h' poikiltikh.n evpisth,mhn* ti,j de. o` avriqmw/n ne,fh sofi,a|( ouvrano.n de. eivj gh/n e;klinen* ke,cutai de. w[sper gh/ koni,a( keko,llhka de. auvto.n w[sper li,qw| ku,bon) Where were you when I laid the foundation of the earth?

Report to me if you were conscious [of it].

Who set its measures, if you know?

Or who placed a line upon it?

Upon what were its rings fastened?

Who is the one who laid a corner stone upon it?

When the stars were made, all my angels praised me with a loud voice.

I fortified the sea with gates, when it rushed forth coming out of her mother's womb.

I established a cloud for her clothing, I swaddled her with mist.

I set boundaries to her, placing bars and gates around.

And I said to her, ‘As far as this you will come and not cross over, but within yourself your waves shall thrash about.’ Or did I arrange the morning light [which is] upon you, or did the morning star see his own appointed [place] to seize the wings of the earth, to cast the unholy out of her?

Or did you, taking hold of earth-clay, mold a life [living creature or image], and did you place speeched-being upon the earth?

Have you taken away light from the unholy, the arm of the haughty have you broken?

Did you go [walk] upon the source of the sea, in the footsteps of the abyss have you walked?

Do the gates of death open for you with fear, the gate-keepers of Hades, when seeing you, cower?

Have you been instructed as to the breadth of that which is under heaven?

Surely tell me how great it is.

In what sort of earth does light lodge, and what is the place of darkness?

On the one hand might you bring me to their boundaries?

On the other will you instruct me on their paths?



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