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After all, I know when you were born, and the number of your years is many.

You went [walked] upon the treasures of snow;

The treasures of hail you have seen.

Is there a store of them for you in the season of enemies, in the day of war and battle?

Whence has the hoar-frost come or [whence] has the south wind been scattered into that which is under heaven?

Who prepared a course for violent rain and a way for the roar [thunder] Who is the father of rain?

Who is the one who has brought forth the drops of dew?

Out of whose womb/guts comes ice?

The hoar-frost of heaven, who brings it forth, or who descends just as flowing water?

–  –  –

This lengthy text comes from the opening of God's speech to Job. On the heels of Elihu's recitation about God's majesty and grandeur (ch.37), the Lord responds to Job from a dark storm and clouds (dia. lai,lapoj kai.

nefw/n). The Lord proceeds to question Job as a tenacious prosecuting attorney continually leading the witness.

While there are few actual answers given, the answers are without a doubt implied. The point of this section of questioning (vv.4-38) is to put Job in his place as a mere mortal. The Lord does this by establishing that Job is not the master of the universe. The opening question (v.4) sets the stage - pou/ h=j evn tw/| qemeliou/n me th.n gh/n* - Where were you when I laid the foundation of the earth?

There are creation themes that run throughout and a vocabulary common to LXX Gen 1.1-5 (gh/( fw/j( a;bussoj( ouvrano,j( sko,toj( u[dwr( kale,w, with the word-pairs fw/j/sko,toj in v.19 and ouvrano,j/gh/ in v.37). While the common vocabulary is spread out over the thirty-four verses, it is concentrated mostly in vv.13-19 and 30-38. It is important to state that for the purposes of looking at intertextual relationships arguments regarding the precedence of MT over LXX or vice versa are not germane.83 The assumption, rather, is that communities lived with texts as they were. This presumably means that those who used the MT thought the MT was the proper text, whereas those that had a copy of Greek Job, especially before its Theodontionic and/or Hexaplaric revisions, thought the same.84 As such, the Greek and Hebrew texts are two different texts.

H.M. Orlinsky, “Studies in the Septuagint of the Book of Job: Chapter 1,” HUCA 28 (1957), notes the proclivity of modern (pre-1957) commentators in favor of MT, stating specifically that there are very few cases when commentators refer to the LXX unless there is a problem with the MT. (72) Another example of Masoretic fundamentalism.

The asterisked material that I have left out of the above text is rather minor, though it does include a description of a pre-created earth in its use of a;baton kai. avoi,khton in v.27a, which resembles avo,ratoj kai. avkataskeu,astoj in LXX Gen 1.2, if only superficially.

‫٭‬tou/ u`eti,sai evpi. gh/n( ou- ouvk avnh,r( ‫٭‬e;rhmon( ou- ouvc u`pa,rcei a;nqrwpoj evn auvth/|( ‫٭‬tou/ corta,sai a;baton kai. avoi,khton ‫٭‬kai. tou/ evkblasth/sai e;xodon clo,hj* ↓ ‫٭‬h= dianoi,xeij mazourwq evn kairw/| auvtou/ ‫٭‬kai. {Esperon evpi. ko,mhj auvtou/ a;xeij auvta,* ↓ ‫٭‬to rain upon the earth, where there is no man, ‫٭‬a desert, where humanity does not exist in it,

–  –  –

The first section (vv.4-6) sets the stage. While this is not the Lord's first question of Job,85 the question in v.4a rhetorically begins the argument meant to humble Job and elevate the Lord as master of the cosmos, the one who laid the foundations of the earth (evn tw/| qemeliou/n me th.n gh/n). The question in v.6b completes this section, foreshadowing the grand conclusion of the pericope in v.38b with the implication that God the creator is as a master stone cutter.

The next four sections each address the creation of specific parts of the cosmos: the stars, the sea, the morning light, and humanity. While nothing is said of the creation of the great lights as in Gen 1.14-19, the creation of the stars is singled out as a moment of celebration/praise by God's angels (v.7b). The creation of the sea (qa,lassa) is outlined as a delimitation or harnessing in vv.8-11. It is notable that vv.7-11 are all in the indicative.

Questions, however, resume in vv.12-13, the creation of the morning light, and vv.14-15, the creation of humanity.

The creation of a living being (zw/on) in v.14 is reminiscent of Gen 2.7 where God forms (pla,ssw) a being from the | stuff of the earth.

The sixth section (vv.16-19) continues the line of the previous four (vv.7-15) in that the aim is to put Job in his place. In vv.16-19, God questions Job as to his intimate knowledge of the cosmos, or better his intimate relation to the cosmos. For who but the creator could walk upon the sea and in the footsteps of the abyss (a;bussoj), frighten the gates and gate-keepers of Hades, and know the lodgings of light (fw/j) and dark (sko,toj)?

In the seventh section (vv.20-23) the Lord stresses Job's limitations further, asking snidely if Job might show the Lord the boundaries of light and darkness. The Lord then proceeds to remind Job that the Lord intimately knows his life. Whereas what Job knows, snow and hail, are of little concern and neither of which will be of much help against an enemy.

–  –  –

The eighth and largest section (vv.24-37), then, returns to rhetoric similar to vv.7-15, interrogatively highlighting the Lord's place as creator and master of the cosmos. The first part of the section (vv.24-3086) has to do with the Lord's place as ruler of the waters, namely as the Father of Rain (u`etou/ path,r, v.28a). This includes the Lord's place as the source of frost,87 wind, rain, dew, ice, and the abyss (a;bussoj). V.31 returns to the stars with the mention of constellations Pleiades and Orion.88 Vv.33-35 are questions whereby God is specifically questioning Job's relationship with and knowledge of elements of the cosmos, including all that is under heaven (v.33b). V.36, in what might appear to be a strange interruption in the cosmic questioning, is a verse dedicated to knowledge of the skills of weaving and embroidery.89 While it is not entirely clear what is going on here,90 weaving and embroidery are likely not anomalous but perfectly sensible – from the vantage of the Temple. Weaving (u[fasma) is an essential skill in making the high priestly ephod91 and breastplate,92 and embroidery (poikiltiko,j) is the art of making the tapestries of the Tabernacle.93 V.37 returns to the cosmic by asking who it is that by wisdom (sofi,a) can number the clouds, and who bent heaven to earth. In this verse, we have a notable understanding of creation, that wisdom is involved albeit in numbering the clouds and that part of the Lord's creating work was bending (kli,nw) heaven to earth.

The grand conclusion of this section comes in v.38, where, returning to the question in v.6b, the Lord is declared the one who poured the earth (presumably) like the dust of earth and hewed it like stone. While the image of creator as stone mason is not prominent thoughout, its place as bookends in a sustained creation text draws out the importance of this image. This is a major difference from the MT in which v.38 is a continuation of the question in v.37b.

The picture of creation in LXX Job 38 differs from LXX Gen 1.1-5 in all but the place of God at the head of it. As was mentioned above, there is significant common vocabulary even though it is spread throughout a long text, which is undoubtedly part of the intertextual tapestry of LXX Gen 1.1-5.

2.3.9 Psalm 17.7-18 (MT Psalm 18) kai. evn tw/| qli,besqai, me evpekalesa,mhn to.n ku,rion kai. pro.j to.n qeo,n mou evke,kraxa\ h;kousen evk naou/ a`gi,ou auvtou/ fwnh/j mou( kai. h` kraugh, mou evnw,pion auvtou/ eivseleu,setai eivj ta. w=ta auvtou/) Vv. 26-27 are asterisked materials likely attributable to Origen, see above, p. 73 n.83. See J. Ziegler, ed., Iob, (Septuaginta - Vetus Testamentum Graecum: Auctoritate Acadamiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum., XI,4, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1982) 387-388, and the analysis thereof by Gentry, Asterisked Materials, 38The only vocabulary common to Gen 1.1-5 in these verses is gh/ in v.26a, the occurrence of which will be excluded from my intertextual analysis.

The MT of Job 38.30a speaks not of frost but light (rO)).

V.32 is another asterisked verse, and as vv.26-27, will be left out of my analysis, though in the case of v.32 there is no vocabulary common to Gen 1.1-5.

The question in MT Job 38.36 focuses on the gift of wisdom (hfm:kfx) and understanding (hfnyiB).

As jarring as this difference from the MT is, the fact that the Greek text explicitly says that these gifts are for women adds to the difficulty.

Cf. LXX Exod 28.8, 36.28 Cf. LXX Exod 28.17, 36.17 The only other use of poikiltiko,j in the LXX comes in LXX Exod 38.23, where Eliab, son of Achimasak, from the tribe of Dan, is called a poikiltiko,j, and is involved in the construction of the Tabernacle.

– 79 –


kai. evsaleu,qh kai. e;ntromoj evgenh,qh h` gh/( kai. ta. qeme,lia tw/n ovre,wn evtara,cqhsan kai. evsaleu,qhsan( o[ti wvrgi,sqh auvtoi/j o` qeo,j avne,bh kapno.j evn ovrgh/| auvtou/( kai. pu/r avpo. prosw,pou auvtou/ kateflo,gisen( a;nqrakej avnh,fqhsan avpV auvtou/) kai. e;klinen ouvrano.n kai. kate,bh( kai. gno,foj u`po. tou.j po,daj auvtou/) kai. evpe,bh evpi. ceroubin kai. evpeta,sqh( evpeta,sqh evpi. pteru,gwn avne,mwn) kai. e;qeto sko,toj avpokrufh.n auvtou/\ ku,klw| auvtou/ h` skhnh. auvtou/( skoteino.n u[dwr evn nefe,laij ave,rwn) avpo. th/j thlaugh,sewj evnw,pion auvtou/ ai` nefe,lai dih/lqon( ca,laza kai. a;nqrakej puro,j) kai. evbro,nthsen evx ouvranou/ ku,rioj( kai. o` u[yistoj e;dwken fwnh.n auvtou/\ kai. evxape,steilen be,lh kai. evsko,rpisen auvtou.j kai. avstrapa.j evplh,qunen kai. suneta,raxen auvtou,j) kai. w;fqhsan ai` phgai. tw/n u`da,twn( kai. avnekalu,fqh ta. qeme,lia th/j oivkoume,nhj avpo. evpitimh,sew,j sou( ku,rie( avpo. evmpneu,sewj pneu,matoj ovrgh/j sou) evxape,steilen evx u[youj kai. e;labe,n me( prosela,beto, me evx u`da,twn pollw/n) r`u,setai, me evx evcqrw/n mou dunatw/n kai. evk tw/n misou,ntwn me( o[ti evsterew,qhsan u`pe.r evme,) And in my distress I called upon the Lord and before my God I screamed;

He heard my voice out of his holy temple, And my cry before him will go up into his ears.

And the earth shook and was trembling, and the foundations of the mountains were disturbed and they shook, because God was angry with them.

Smoke went up in his anger, and fire burst into flame in his presence, [so that] coals were kindled by it.

And he bent the heavens and came down, and gloom was under his feet.

And he mounted on cherubs and flew, he flew upon wings of wind.

He made darkness his hiding-place;

around him was his tent, dark water in clouds of air.

From the splendor before him the clouds passed through, there was hail and coals of fire.

And the Lord thundered out of heaven, and the Most High uttered his voice;

and he sent out a bolt and scattered them and he multiplied lightning and confounded them.

And fountains of water appeared, and the foundations of the world were uncovered from your rebuke, Lord, from the blowing breath of your wrath.

–  –  –

It is important to note from the outset that these two texts are considerably more different in their Greek versions than in their Hebrew.94 While the texts as a whole differ more in their LXX versions than in the MT, the vocabulary common to Gen 1.1-5 (LXX Ps 17.7-20 – gh/( ouvrano,j( sko,toj( pneu/ma( u[dwr; and LXX 2 Kgdms 22.7 gh/( ouvrano,j( sko,toj( pneu/ma( u[dwr) remains largely the same, with the exception that LXX Ps 17.16 reads ai` phgai. tw/n u`da,twn, whereas 2 Kgdms 22.16 uses avfe,seij qala,sshj.95 As in the Hebrew, 2 Kingdoms 22 and its parallel, LXX Psalm 17 (MT Psalm 18),96 are psalms that recall in cosmic terms God's intervention in the midst of battle. By and large, the Greek and Hebrew mirror each other.

The Cambridge text of 2 Kgdms 22 is based on Codex Vaticanus, for which there are no major textual variants affecting the intertextual relationship with LXX Gen 1.1-5. Minor variants, however, include a manuscript that changes gno,foj in v.10 to gh/ and the replacement in one manuscript of avfe,seij with a;bussoi in v.16.97 While neither of these minor variants greatly affects the relationship with LXX Gen 1.1-5, what they can suggest is that the intertextual relationship already present is attested by the minor scribal/editorial changes that lean toward strengthening the relationship with LXX Gen 1.1-5.

In addition, two other points are worth highlighting. The first is the presence of temple language in v.7, where God hears David's voice from God's holy temple (evk naou/ a`gi,ou auvtou/). A second point is that the language of v.15, in particular God's hurling of lightning-missiles (be,loj) from heaven, may bear an intertextual relationship with Greek mythology. In Pindar's Olympian Ode 10.78-84 (mid-5th c. BCE), set at the Olympic games, there is a lightning-bolt-throwing portrait of Zeus.98 While there is at least a superficial connection with 2 Kgdms 22.15 and See Appendix C.

Statistically, while this slight difference is not noticed in individual common words (Column A in Table 2.1), it is noticed in a slight difference in frequency ratio (Column B) and total common words (Column C).

When comparing these two Greek texts it is apparent that they were either translated by the same person who did not recognize their similarity, or much more likely that they were translated by two different hands.

Brooke, McLean, and Thackery, eds., I and II Samuel - Cambridge, 186-187.

,Arcai/j de prote,raij e`po,menoi kai. nun evpwnumi,an ca,rin ni,kaj avgerw,cou keladhso,meqa bronta,n kai, purpa,lamou be,loj ovriskturou Dio,j evn a[panti kratei/ – 82 –


Ps 17.15 with common use of be,loj, it should be noted that both texts are songs/poems praising the cosmic attributes of a god and that god's intervention in the world. While I do not want to make too much of this intertextual resemblance, I cite it to note the different intertextual worlds to which the Greek and the Hebrew texts belong.

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