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While the Greek is a close translation of the Hebrew, the {fy of MT v.16 belongs to one intertextual world possibly in conversation with Ancient Near Eastern theology, whereas be,loj may bring someone familiar with Greek literature and theology into another intertextual world.

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And faithful to those ancient beginnings, Now too we shall sing a song of glory named For proud victory to celebrate the thunder And fire-flung weapon Of thunder-rousing Zeus, The blazing lightning That befits every triumph, And the swelling strains of song Shall answer the pipes' reed,… Pindar, Olympian Odes & Pythian Odes, (trans. W.H. Race; ed. W.H. Race; LCL 56; Cambridge, MS: Harvard, 1997) 170-171.

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CHAPTER TWO

As in chapter one, these two texts are addressed together because of their organic similarity. Save 10.11,99 which adds numerical weight to the intertextuality of Jer 10.11-13,100 these texts bear the same intertextual weight (poie,w( gh/( ouvrano,j( u[dwr( ouvranoj( gh/( poie,w( fw/j with the word-pair ouvrano,j/gh/ in 10.11(2x), 12, 13, 28.15, 16).

While there are variations between the two, the three major points of interest occur verbatim in both. The first of these is the idea that God creates the world by wisdom (sofi,a), similar to Prov 8.23, Sir 24.9, Wis 9.9, etc. A second point of interest is that part of God's creative action is drawing something out of ‘his storehouses’ (evk qhsaurw/n auvtou/). Finally, there is a difference here with the MT reflected in both Greek texts. This is the substitution of light (fw/j) for wind/spirit (axUr) as that which the Lord brings out of the storehouses. This raises the question of whether the translator could have been thinking, in conjunction with LXX Gen 1.1-5, that the spirit is present at the beginning, whereas the creation of light is specifically noted in LXX Gen 1.3.

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While there are significant differences between the Hebrew and Greek versions of Amos 5.8, this tiny pericope remains an important intertext to consider.101 The creation theme that runs through these verses, primarily in vv.7-8, is substantiated by a strong vocabulary common to LXX Gen 1.1-5 (poie,w( gh/( prwi,( h`me,ra( nu,x( u[dwr, including the word-pair h`me,ra/nu,x in v.8).

In Aramaic the provenance of MT Jer 10.11 is debated. See above, p.34, n.164. From the existence of its equivalent in the Greek, it can be said that MT Jer 10.11 was in the LXX Vorlage. It can also be said that there is no Aramaic residue in the Greek.

The eighth century CE uncial, codex Venetus, omits 10.11-14. Cf. J. Ziegler, ed., Jeremias, Baruch, Threni, Epistula Jeremiae, (Septuaginta - Vetus Testamentum Graecum: Auctoritate Acadamiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum., XV, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Rurprecht, 1976) 201.

In the Hebrew version of the intertextual tapestry, I include Amos 5.8 by itself. The punctuation of the Greek by J. Ziegler, ed., Duodecim prophetae, (Septuaginta - Vetus Testamentum Graecum: Auctoritate Acadamiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum., XIII, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1943), however, leads me to expand the Greek pericope to include vv.7-9. (191-192) At the same time, Ziegler's punctuation here can be called into question given the ending, ku,rioj o` qeo.j o` pantokra,twr o;noma auvtw/|, common to Amos 4.13, 5.8, and 9.6. Note also that the Hebrew intertextual tapestry includes all three of the aforementioned texts from Amos – 4.13, 5.8, and 9.5-6. LXX Amos 9.5-6 is included in the Greek list of intertexts, whereas 4.13 does not meet the criteria for inclusion in the Greek list. While 4.13 has the equivalent Greek common vocabulary as it does in the Hebrew, the intertextual marker in the Hebrew was axUr, a relatively weak intertextual marker because of its frequency, whereas its Greek equivalent, pneu/ma, occurs too frequently to warrant its use as an intertextual marker. This exclusion leaves a possible hole or tattered edge in the tapestry by imposing an artificial criterion upon the text. At the same time, limitations, artificial or not, need to be imposed in order to use a harnessed understanding of intertextuality.

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CHAPTER TWO

The possibly titular use of the attributive participle of poie,w in v.7 begins the intertextual connections given the use of poie,w in LXX Gen 1.1 as the first and primary verb of creating. The Greek text here differs from the Hebrew, which makes no mention of God in v.7. In fact the reasoning of v.7 seems to differ completely between the Hebrew and Greek. The Hebrew of v.7 refers to the addressees of v.6, there called to seek the Lord and live. These are the ones who to seek the Lord because they turn justice to wormwood and bring righteousness to the ground102 in the Hebrew of v.7. The Greek version of v.6 also contains the seeker (evkzhth,sate to.n ku,rion kai. zh,sate). The subject changes, however, in the Greek of v.7 to the Lord Maker (ku,rioj o` poiw/n103) who establishes (ti,qhmi) justice and righteousness.

As in the Hebrew, it is v.8 that contains a wealth of common vocabulary. The verse begins with a series of circumstantial participles, including another occurrence of poie,w, attributing to God the creation of all things. A notable difference between the Hebrew and Greek of v.8 is the absence in the Greek of the astrological references to Pleiades and Orion present in the Hebrew.104 The second word that arises is prwi,, common with LXX Gen 1.5 and an hapax legomenon among the texts of this chapter. This is coupled in the Greek with skia.n qana,tou,105 an equivalent of the Hebrew, tewfm:lac. The final phrase in this series of circumstantial participles includes the word-pair, h`me,ra/nu,x, with the attribution to God of the darkening of day into night. It is under these circumstances of creating and controlling all, notably the rhythm of day and night (with a possible metaphorical reference to life and death, cf.





skia.n qana,tou), that God calls106 the water of the sea (to. u[dwr th/j qala,sshj) to cover the face of the earth. As in other texts, in the Semitism, evpi. prosw,pou th/j gh/j (v.8), there is a closer resemblance to MT Gen 1.2, {Oh:t y"n:P-la( and {iyfMfh y"n:P-la(, than LXX Gen 1.2, evpa,nw th/j avbu,ssou and evpa,nw tou/ u[datoj. While v.9 needs be included in the pericope, it has no substantial intertextual connection with LXX Gen 1.1-5.

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The creation context here is without question. The vocabulary common with LXX Gen 1.1-5 (ouvrano,j( pneu/ma( u[dwr( a;bussoj( gh/) substantiates its inclusion in this list. In addition to the common vocabulary, the main thrust of this pericope is creation by word or speech. This parallels the method of creation in LXX Gen 1.3 (kai.

ei=pen o` Qeo.j) and LXX Gen 1.5 (kai. evka,lesen o` Qeo.j). Of additional interest is the placement of the abyss in storehouses (evn qhsauroi/j) in v.7. In the midst of a psalm of twenty-two verses, these four verses represent the most concentrated section about creation and who God is as creator.

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The creation context here is without question. The intertextual link with LXX Gen 1.1-5 is substantial (gh/( u[dwr( h`me,ra( nu,x, with the word pair h`me,ra/nu,x in v.16107). There are a few issues of interest with this pericope.108 Though outside the bounds of the above pericope, another issue arises in LXX Ps 73.2 with the LXX Gen 1.1-5 intertextual marker, avrch,. In the MT, v.2 has {edeQ, bearing no intertextual weight with MT Gen 1.1-5. The Greek

text of v.2a, however, reads:

mnh,sqhti th/j sunagwgh/j sou( h-j evkth,sw avpV avrch/j\ Remember your congregation, which you acquired from the beginning;

At the beginning of a psalm that is asking for deliverance from the enemies of people comes this plea for God to remember that these are God's own people. While the Greek of v.2a follows logically from the Hebrew,

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deliberate (the translator could have transliterated the Hebrew words maintaining some reference to the ancient Near Eastern deities) or a mere function of translation is impossible to say. It is possible, however, to comment on the outcome. First of all, the use of dra,kwn for both {yinyiNat and }ftfy:wil erases any difference between the two. Second, a dra,kwn in the ancient Greek world can be either a mythic dragon figure or a snake.109 What differs, then, between the Hebrew (MT Psalm 74) and Greek (LXX Psalm 73) are the possible intertextual intersections. While the Hebrew has definite intersections with other stories, both Hebrew and from around the ancient Near East, the Greek may include some residue from the Ancient Near East but more likely refers more to a generic dragon or a serpent the likes into which Moses turned his staff.110 All in all, as its Hebrew counterpart, LXX Ps 73.12-19 remains a substantial intertext with LXX Gen 1.1-5.

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understanding that one is a translation of the other, the use of avrch, means that there is even more weight behind placing LXX Ps 73 among the Greek intertexts of LXX Gen 1.1-5.

Two minor textual issues are notable. The mention of the destruction of the temple in vv.4-8 places the temple within a relatively close proximity of creation language, though it must be said that there is no creation language intertwined with the account of the destruction of the temple. A second minor observation is the presence of two

textual differences between the MT and the Greek text within vv.12-17. The MT of v.14b reads:

;{yiYic:l {f(:l lfkA)am UNen:TiT You gave him [Leviathan] as food to people, to the wild-beasts of the desert.

The obscure word, {yiYic:l, is likely an animation of hfYic, meaning dryness or drought, suggesting that yic is a wildbeast or desert-dweller. (BDB, s.v.) The Greek text, without textual variants, renders v.14b:

e;dwkaj auvto.n brw/ma laoi/j toi/j Aivqi,oyin) You gave him [dra,kwn] as meat to the peoples of Ethiopia.

To further substantiate this variation, LXX Ps 71.9 (MT 72) also renders {yiYic as Aivqi,opej. Whether this has any relevance to the creation context of vv.12-17, I do not know. More likely, it will not affect subsequent interpretations of the creation elements. It may, however, be the Greek understanding of the obscure reference to peoples or wild-beasts of the desert as a possibly perjorative, possibly not, reference to Ethiopians. A final minor textual issue is the transliteration in v.15 of }fty") into Hqam in the Greek text. While }fty"), meaning ‘ever-flowing, perpetual, etc.,’ is translated cei,marroj in Amos 5.24, it is strangely enough transliterated in LXX Ps 72.15, read in the Göttingen edition as a capatalized proper name, the River Etham. (See A. Rahlfs, ed., Psalmi cum Odis, (Septuaginta - Vetus Testamentum Graecum: Auctoritate Acadamiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum., 10, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1931) 206) Again, this is likely a textual oddity that will not come into play with the creation context.109 LSJ, s.v.

Exod 7.9f.

Many mss. omit the second evgw, eivmi. Cf. Ziegler, ed., Göttingen - Isaiah, 294.

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This pericope, coming shortly after Isa 44.24-45.8, is an extended titular statement about God as creator and the purpose of God's creation. At the beginning of a larger argument for turning the people from idols to the true creator God (vv.18-25), vv.18-19 stand out as a foundation for this turning. That is, it is toward the God, who created the cosmos for a purpose, that the people are called to (re)turn. Regarding its intertextual relationship with LXX Gen 1.1-5, the creation theme of these verses is substantiated by common vocabulary (poie,w( ouvrano,j( gh/( sko,toj112 with the word-pair ouvrano,j/gh/ in v.19). While the Greek of Isa 45.18-19 conveys something similar to the Hebrew (i.e., that God did not create the world for nothing – in Gk keno,j and krufh/), the Greek does not convey the same intertextual connection as the Hebrew. The Hebrew includes two occurrences of lending to a unique Uhot connection with MT Gen 1.2. At the same time, there is a similarity in the use of diori,zw in LXX Isa 45.18 and diacwri,zw in LXX Gen 1.4.113 Otherwise, the Greek vocabulary does not bear as strong a resemblance as the Hebrew, and thus is a more marginal inclusion in the intertextual tapestry.

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LXX Ps 134 is a song of thanksgiving for the great deeds of the Lord; vv.5-7 thereof give thanks for God's work in creation.115 The intertextual relationship with LXX Gen 1.1-5 is bolstered by common vocabulary (poie,w( ouvrano,j( gh/( a;bussoj, with the word-pair ouvrano,j/gh/ in v.6). With v.5 as an introductory remark about the greatness of the Lord above all other gods, vv.6-7 substantiate this claim by attributing to the Lord the creation of heaven and earth, the seas and abysses, and meteorological phenomena. Of interest here are God's willing (evqe,lw) and thus making (poie,w) it all. It is not necessarily creation by speech, but a creating that originates in the will of the creator, Actually a close derivative of sko,toj –the adjectival form skoteino,j.

Ottley, Book of Isaiah, 2.321.

Rahlfs, ed., Psalms - Göttingen, 316, opts for three cola based on Sinaiticus among others. In other mss., there are two cola, either 6a-b & 6c or 6a & 6b-c.

Following the punctuation of Ralhfs, ed., Psalms - Göttingen, vv.5-7 are one unit. (134)

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differences do affect the relationship between the psalm and LXX Gen 1.1-5, it is likely given the commonality of vocabulary that remains that the effect on the relationship is minor.

2.3.18 Exod 20.11 evn ga.r e]x h`me,raij evpoi,hsen ku,rioj to.n ouvrano.n kai. th.n gh/n kai. th.n qa,lassan kai. pa,nta ta. evn auvtoi/j kai. kate,pausen th/| h`me,ra| th/| e`bdo,mh|\ dia. tou/to euvlo,ghsen ku,rioj th.n h`me,ran th.n e`bdo,mhn kai. h`gi,asen auvth,n)

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