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Within a larger explanation of and justification for the Sabbath (LXX Exod 20.8-11) comes this reasoning that recalls the First Creation Story of LXX Gen 1.1-2.4a.116 While the thematic connection to the First Creation Story is quite apparent, the intertextual connection with LXX Gen 1.1-5 is further substantiated by common vocabulary (poie,w( ouvrano,j( gh/( h`me,ra with the word-pair ouvrano,j/gh/). Of primary interest here is the strong resemblance between LXX Exod 20.11 and LXX Gen 1.1. While LXX Exod 20.11 has the anarthrous ku,rioj as the subject and LXX Gen 1.1 has an articulated qeo,j,117 the verb (poie,w) and the first half of the predicate (to.n ouvrano.n kai. th.n gh/n) resemble LXX Gen 1.1b verbatim. It is the use of poie,w in the Greek, where the MT reads hf&f(, that prompts me to include this text in the current chapter. The predicate continues by recalling the creation of the sea (qa,lassa – see LXX Gen 1.10) and all that is in heaven, earth, and the sea.

–  –  –

LXX Exod 31.17 resembles LXX Exod 20.11, and like LXX Exod 20.11 it also resembles LXX Gen 1.1.

Again, this is a justification for the Sabbath based on the principles set out in the First Creation Story – that is that God rested on the seventh day. Like LXX Exod 20.11, 31.17 is taken out of a larger context of Sabbath justification (vv.12-17) and an even wider context of the detailed account of the giving of the law to Moses on Sinai. The creation theme is present as a justification for something else; and the commonality with LXX Gen 1.1-5 is borne M. Noth, Exodus: A Commentary, (trans. J.S. Bowden; OTL; London: SCM, 1962) commenting on the MT recognizes the dependence of the terminology of MT Exod 20.11 on the creation account of MT Gen 1 (164); also B.S. Childs, Exodus: A Commentary, (OTL; London: SCM, 1974) 415.

In the case of ku,rioj, it most often corresponds to the Hebrew }Odf) with an article and hwhy without.

–  –  –

out of a common vocabulary (poie,w( ouvrano,j( gh/( h`me,ra with the word-pair ouvrano,j/gh/). Also like LXX Exod 20.11, it is the use of poie,w rather than hf&f(, that warrants its inclusion in the list of Greek intertexts.

2.3.20 Zechariah 12.1 lh/mma lo,gou kuri,ou evpi. to.n Israhl\ le,gei ku,rioj evktei,nwn ouvrano.n kai. qemeliw/n gh/n kai. pla,sswn pneu/ma avnqrw,pou evn auvtw/|)))

–  –  –

In this brief titular creation account, the intertextual connection with LXX Gen 1.1-5 is based on a rather slim common vocabulary (ouvrano,j( gh/( pneu/ma, with the word-pair ouvrano,j/gh/).118 Of interest in this pericope are the creative actions that God asserts, stretching out (evktei,nw) heaven, founding (qemelio,w) earth, and molding (pla,ssw) the human spirit. An obvious difference with LXX Gen 1.1-5 is the use of pneu/ma, which is associated not with God but with humanity.119 By and large, then, LXX Zech 12.1 is intertextually related to LXX Gen 1.1-5 in the coupling of heaven and earth but differs in its creative actions and in its use of pneu/ma. LXX Zech 12.1 belongs on the margins.

–  –  –

This second intertext from Amos closely resembles the first, 5.7-9. It bears a similar creation theme and repeats LXX Amos 5.8b verbatim in 9.6b. In favor of its inclusion in this list is its vocabulary common to LXX Gen 1.1-5 (gh/( ouvrano,j( u[dwr, with the word-pair ouvrano,j/gh/ in v.6). Most of what can be said by way of intertextuality has already been said in the comment on LXX Amos 5.8b above. What can be added about 9.5-6 specifically comes in comparison with the Hebrew of Amos 9.6a. In the MT the second phrase of the verse reads, While in this pericope there are technically no intertextual markers as defined above, given both pneu/ma and ouvrano,j/gh occur too frequently to be of much use, as it is included in the Hebrew list and there is little if any change in the Greek, I include it if only on a tattered edge of the tapestry where my method itself begins to unravel.

While the majority of the mss. read avnqrw,pou, Alexandrinus significantly reads auvtou/, cf. Ziegler, ed., Göttingen

- Minor Prophets, 318. Thinking in intertextual terms, the fact that a major uncial such as Alexandrinus would have read something along the lines of, ‘molded his spirit in it/him,’ would have increased the likelihood of an intertextual connection LXX Gen 1.1-5 by the reader of that ms.

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Hfdfs:y jere)-la( OtfDugA)aw, with the object of God's founding action being his vault. If there is a metaphorical meaning it is the bonds of slavery as in MT Isa 58.6, though more likely it means the vaults of heaven.120 In for hfDugA), addition, when one compares the object in the first half of 9.6a, hflA(am, with hfDugA), there seems to be logic to the pair based on some sort of heavenly abode. In comparison, the Greek text of the second phrase of 9.6a has th.n evpaggeli,an auvtou/, his promise.121 When the second phrase in the Greek is compared to the first (avna,basin auvtou) it seems to lack the internal logic of the Hebrew. Exactly what picture of the world is painted is unclear.

–  –  –

BDB, s.v.

There are later Greek versions, including Aquila, that read de,smh/bundle(s) for evpaggeli,an, which seems to be a closer reflection of the MT. Ziegler, ed., Göttingen - Minor Prophets, 203.





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Job's lament of his own birth, which in Greek is a series of optative wishes that the very day of his birth might be reversed, is not a pure creation text. However, its language of creation-reversal along with vocabulary common to LXX Gen 1.1-5 (h`me,ra( nu,x( sko,toj, along with h`me,ra/nu,x in vv.3 and 6), warrant its inclusion. There are two points of difference between the MT and the LXX that affect the intertextual relationship of the pericope with LXX Gen 1.1-5. The first is the addition of h`me,ra in v.6a.122 Intertextually, this results in an additional wordpair common to LXX Gen 1.1-5.123 A second difference may be an accident of translation. In v.9a of the MT we find: rO):l-waq:y; the LXX, however, assumes the subject, ta. a'stra th/j nukto.j evkei,nhj, from the first phrase, and reads simply u`pomei,nai. In the Greek of v.9b, then, there is no equivalent of In an already tenuous intertext, rO).

the move from four common words in the Hebrew to three in the Greek moves LXX Job 3.3-10 farther down on the list. Finally, the Greek of Job 3.8 is worthy of note.124 MT 3.8b reads, }ftfy:wil r"ro( {yidyitA(fh; whereas in the LXX it reads, o` me,llwn to. me,ga kh/toj ceirw,sasqai. There are three notable differences: the number of the subject (plural in Hebrew, singular in Greek), the translation of Leviathan into ‘the great sea monster,’125 and the different connotations of the final verb – one meaning to rouse, the other to master, handle, or subdue.126 Effectively, the great Leviathan is tamed, though a far cry from the same in MT Job 41.17 [EV 25].

2.3.23 Psalm 76.17-21 (MT Psalm 77) ei;dosa,n se u[data o` qeo,j( ei;dosa,n se u[data kai. evfobh,qhsan( kai. evtara,cqhsan a;bussoi( plh/qoj h;couj u`da,twn) fwnh.n e;dwkan ai` nefe,lai( kai. ga.r ta. be,lh sou diaporeu,ontai\ fwnh. th/j bronth/j sou evn tw/| trocw/|( e;fanan ai` avstrapai, sou th/| oivkoume,nh|( evsaleu,qh kai. e;ntromoj evgenh,qh h` gh/) MT lepo) Uh"xfQiy )Uhah hfl:yaLah, May deep darkness carry away that night...

LXX kataraqei,h h` h`me,ra kai. h` nu.x evkei,nh.

May that day and night be cursed.

It should be noted that Job 3.6a-b are not present in Sinaiticus, though there is little if any other evidence for this.

Ziegler, ed., Job - Göttingen, 223.

The MT of v.8a reads: {Oy-y"r:ro) Uhub:Qiy. A possible correction (which has been adopted in the NRSV) for this is offered in the apparatus of BHS by replacing {Oy with {fy. Given the presence of Leviathan in v.8b, there may be a basis for seeing {fy as a mythic counterpart balancing both portions of the verse. The Greek manuscripts, however, read h`me,ra instead of qa,lassa or the like, calling into question this correction.

While there are no major mss. that reflect a transliteration of Leviathan into Greek characters, Aquila and Symmachus both transliterate into Leuiaqa,n, with Theodotion opting for dra,konta. Ziegler, ed., Job - Göttingen,

223. It should also be noted that the two examples in Job (9.13, 26.12) where Rahab (bahfr), like Leviathan in Job 3.8, is translated with kh/toj.

The Hebrew verb, rU( in the Polel, has the connotation of rousing or inciting (BDB, s.v.), whereas the Greek verb, ceiro,w (derived from the Greek word for hand – cei,r), has the connotation of handling, managing, mastering, etc (LSJ, s.v.).

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The above pericope is the final section of LXX Ps 76. While it contains language common to LXX Gen 1.1-5 (u`dwr( a;bussoj( gh/) and hints at creation, it is as likely an Exodus text as a creation text, especially given the reference to Moses and Aaron in v.21. The major focus of this passage is God's mastery of cosmic elements such as water, the abyss, and meteorological phenomena like thunder, lightning, earthquakes, etc. The language fits well into a cosmological description of who God is, especially in relation to the waters and the abyss of LXX Gen 1.2.127 As with 2 Kgdms 22.15 and LXX Ps 17.15, one could consider an intertextual connection between LXX Ps 76.19 and a Greek understanding of Zeus.

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This verse comes near the end of Elihu's discourse (chs 32-37) and in the context of his proclamation of the majesty and power of God. The intertextual resemblance with LXX Gen 1.1-5 comes in v.15b (fw/j( sko,toj( poie,w, with the pair fw/j/sko,toj). It should be acknowledged at the outset of this section that as a clip out of a larger context this verse does not bear much intertextual weight. It is, however, of interest for two reasons. The first is its While it is God's command of the waters, notably u`dwr and a;bussoj, that draws the most attention to LXX Gen 1.2, there is one additional element of LXX Ps 76 outside of the above pericope that strengthens its inclusion. This

is the occurrence of avrch, in v.12, where the MT has {edeq:

evmnh,sqhn tw/n e;rgwn kuri,ou( o[ti mnhsqh,somai avpo. th/j avrch/j tw/n qaumasi,wn sou I remembered the works of the Lord, for I will remember your marvelous [works] from the beginning.

While the Hebrew version of v.12, does not necessarily recall MT Gen 1.1, the possibility of reading the Greek version of v.12 in light of LXX Gen 1.1, or vice versa, is quite plausible.

–  –  –

shine forth [from] his cloud?). The first and most obvious difference is that the Hebrew is in the form of a question, while the Greek is indicative.128 A second, minor difference is in person and number in the verb in v.15a. The third and most significant difference is the whole of v.15b. The expression in the Hebrew is likely a reference to rays of light or lightning coming from a cloud. In the Greek, however, there is a completely different statement, possibly a clarification of the obscure Hebrew version. There is no reference to cloud in the Greek, rather God makes (poie,w) light (fw/j) out of darkness (sko,toj). All three of these words also occur in LXX Gen 1.1-5, with light being the first of all things created (LXX Gen 1.3) and darkness being a quality ascribed to the earth in LXX Gen 1.2. While this intertext is a bit threadbare in intertextual markers and plucked out of context, it makes up ground in its uniqueness.

Because it differs significantly from the MT and because it could be read as restating a creation process similar to LXX Gen 1.1-5, it is worthy of inclusion.

–  –  –

Near the beginning of Elihu's discourse (chs 32-37), which is sandwiched between Job's last defense (chs 29-31), God's speech, and the conclusion of the book (chs 38-42), comes a possible intertext with LXX Gen 1.1-5.

LXX Job 33.4 comes amidst an early section of Elihu's discourses in which he goes on about his need to speak out in defense of God.

129 While Job 33.4 more readily reflects an idea similar to God breathing life into Adam in the second creation story (LXX Gen 2.7), the vocabulary of v.4a is reminiscent enough of LXX Gen 1.1-2 to at least be mentioned.130 The combination of pneu/ma qei/on131 and the verb poie,w are the intertextual points of contact between Ziegler, ed., Job - Göttingen, 381.

E. Dhorme, A Commentary on the Book of Job, (trans. H. Knight; London: Nelson, 1967) when looking at the MT places v.4 after v.6, where Elihu claims a similar genesis to Job, being formed from clay (yinf)-{ag yiT:caroq remox"m).

(489) Such a move would likely clarify an intertextual relationship with MT Gen 2.

Job 33.4b is deserving of a brief note. V.4a closely reflects the MT, while v.4b varies significantly. MT Job

33.4b reads: ;yin"Yax:T yaDa$ tam:$in:w – the breath of Shaddai gives me life. The Greek verb, dida,skw, differs significantly from the MT's hyx. In addition, there are no variant readings that reflect anything closer to the MT. One explanation of this difference may be the similarity of LXX Job 32.8 and 33.4.

32.8 avlla. pneu/ma, evstin evn brotoi/j( pnoh. de. pantokra,toro,j evstin h` dida,skousa\ 33.4 pneu/ma qei/on to. poih/sa,n me( pnoh. de. pantokra,toroj h` dida,skousa, me) While the verses resemble each other throughout, the second halves differ in only one word. The verbatim repetition of pnoh. de. pantokra,toroj followed by the same attributive participle is too close to ignore. One could assume, then, that this difference with the MT either reflects a variation in the Hebrew text or that this was a scribal

–  –  –

LXX Gen 1.1-5 and LXX Job 33.

This said, whether accusative or genitive, LXX Job 33.4 dangles on the tattered margins of the intertextual tapestry.

–  –  –

Job 26, which was fifth in the list of intertexts in chapter one, is relegated to an excursus in chapter two.



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