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The simple reason for this is the large amount of asterisked text, which contains the overwhelming percentage of IMs that occur in this pericope.132 Of the twenty-eight lines, sixteen are asterisked.133 When the asterisked and error or translator's decision when the Greek was produced. If the resemblance of 32.8 and 33.4 is given precedence and the difference with the MT is charged to the translation into Greek, it must have been a very early mistake/decision, given no corrections in the mss. traditions. One must also ask, if there were variants that reflect changes in the grammatical abnormality of pneu/ma qei/on in Job 33.4a, why there was never a correction (that survived) to reflect the hyx of the MT. While this is a problem for textual critics, it is of comparative interest in how this verse may have been interpreted differently in Hebrew and Greek. All this said, 33.4b does not fit nicely into the intertextual tapestry of LXX Gen 1.15 because of its lack of common vocabulary.

There are two major variants for the neuter nominative adjective, qei/on, in v.4a – kuri,ou and qeou/, both genitive nouns. These variants suggest that at some point in the mss history some scribes made an alteration / mistake here that brought the text closer to pneu/ma qeou/ in LXX Gen 1.2. Ziegler, ed., Job - Göttingen, 358.

Below is the text and translation of Job 26 with the asterisked materials as presented by Ziegler (323-325). In my text, the symbol (‫ )٭‬represents Origen's asterisk, and (↓) represents metobelus.

u`polabw.n de. Iwb le,gei ti,ni pro,skeisai h' ti,ni me,lleij bohqei/n* po,teron ouvc w-| pollh. ivscu.j kai. w-| braci,wn krataio,j evstin* ti,ni sumbebou,leusai* ouvc w-| pa/sa sofi,a* h' ti,ni evpakolouqh,seij* ouvc w-| megi,sth du,namij* – 95 –


ti,ni avnh,ggeilaj r`hmata*, pnoh. de. ti,noj evsti.n h` evxelqou/sa evk sou/* ‫٭‬mh. gi,gantej maiwqh,sontai ‫٭‬u`poka,twqen u[datoj kai. tw/n geito,nwn auvtou/* ‫٭‬gumno.j o` a[|dhj evpw,pion auvtou/( ‫٭‬kai. ouvk e;stin peribo,laion th/| avpwlei,a|) ‫٭‬evktei,nwn bore,an evpV ouvde,n( ‫٭‬krema,zwn gh/n evpi. ouvdeno,j\ ‫٭‬desmeu,wn u[dwr evn nefe,laij auvtou( ‫٭‬kai. ouvk evrra,gh ne,foj u`poka,tw auvtou/\ ‫٭‬o` kratw/n pro,swpon qro,nou( ‫٭‬evkpeta,zwn evpV auvto.n ne,foj auvtou/) ‫٭‬pro,stagma evgu,rwsen evpi. pro,swpon u[datoj ‫٭‬me,cri suntelei,aj fwto.j meta. sko,touj) ‫٭‬stu/loi ouvranou/ evpeta,sqhsan ‫٭‬kai. evxe,sthsan avpo. th/j evpitimh,sewj auvtou/)↓ ivscu,i kate,pausen th.n qa,lassan( evpisth,mh| de. e;trwse to. kh/toj) klei/qra de. ouvranou/ dedoi,kasin auvto,n( prosta,gmati de. evqana,twsen dra,konta avposta,thn) ‫٭‬ivdou. tau/ta me,rh o`dou/ auvtou/( ‫٭‬kai. evpi. ivkma,da lo,gou avkouso,meqa evn auvtw/|)↓ sqe,noj de. bronth/j auvtou/ ti,j oi=den o`po,te poih,sei* Answering, Job said, ’To whom are you bound or who do you intend to assist?

Is it not the one with great strength and the one with a mighty arm?

To whom do you give counsel? Is it not the one with all wisdom?

Or whom will you follow? Is it not the one with the greatest power?

To whom have you reported that which was spoken?

Whose breath is it that comes out of you?

‫٭‬Shall not giants be delivered (born) ‫٭‬under water and its neighbors?

‫٭‬Hades is naked in front of him, ‫٭‬and there is no covering for destruction. [Possibly Destruction or Apoleia] ‫٭‬Stretching out the North upon nothing, ‫٭‬hanging the earth upon nothing, ‫٭‬fettering water in his clouds, ‫٭‬even a cloud is not broken under him.

‫٭‬He is the one who rules before his throne, ‫٭‬spreading his cloud upon it.

‫٭‬He has encircled the face of the waters by a command ‫٭‬until the consummation of light with darkness.

‫[٭‬The] pillars of heaven are spread out ‫٭‬and astonished by his criticism. ↓ With power he kept the sea in check, and with knowledge he crippled the sea monster.

The barriers of heaven dread him, and with a command he slew the rebel dragon.

‫٭‬See, these are parts of his way;

‫٭‬we shall give ear to him upon the inner juices of [his] word. ↓ The strength of his thunder, who knows when he will do it?

– 96 –


unasterisked materials are used, the common vocabulary, while not as strong as its Hebrew counterpart, is formidable (u[dwr( gh/( fw/j( sko,toj( ouvrano,j, with the word-pair fw/j/sko,toj in v.10b). However, when the unasterisked material alone is considered (as above) the only word common to LXX Gen 1.1-5 that appears is ouvrano,j, which by itself is hardly enough to warrant its inclusion in the list of intertexts.

The problem, then, is clear. Given that this study is looking at intertextual relationships and their impact on the interpretations of Gen 1.1-5 prior to 200 CE, ought the asterisked materials of Origen (d.253/4 CE) be excluded from consideration prima facie? The answer is a qualified yes. In Ziegler's second (bottom) apparatus of LXX Job 26,134 as analyzed by Gentry,135 there is no evidence of the asterisked materials from Theodontionic recensions. If the asterisked materials are not attributable to Theodotion, they are likely from Origen. Thus, the asterisked materials likely post-date 200 CE and do not fall within the parameters of this study. Presumably, the unasterisked materials alone are the closest representation of the Old Greek text that was the basis for the fifth column of Origen's Hexapla.136 There were other versions that existed prior to 200 CE, most notably The Three (oi` trei/j), Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion, represented respectively in the third, fourth, and sixth columns of the Hexapla.137 While Theodotion's and Aquila's translations likely existed in the second century CE with the former probably from before the turn of the era, and given that we have no full textual representation of either, it is difficult to include any fuller text of LXX Job 26 than the unasterisked material alone.

2.3 Conclusions – The Larger Greek Tapestry The above textual examinations offer glimpses of the relationships of individual texts with LXX Gen 1.1-5.

As at the end of chapter one, what follows is an attempt to step back for a wider view of the material. While it is clear that certain intertexts identified above are stronger than others, it is important to cast as large a net as possible.

In concluding chapter two, I look at general areas of thematic commonality – common threads woven throughout the tapestry roughly following the same categories as in chapter one: (1) God's place and/or action; (2) observations on common forms among the intertexts; (3) some common utilizations of LXX Gen 1.1-5 vocabulary; (4) the place of creative forces external to YHWH within the cosmogonic frameworks; and (5) the mixture of Temple and creation imagery. A broad overview of these thematic threads and the tapestry as a whole is provided in Table 2.2 below.

This fuller text of LXX Job 26 is Job's response to Bildad's cynical probing in ch 25 that questions God's interest in the likes of humanity. Job's response (ch 26) is to appeal to the all-powerful, creator God whose innermost self is available in his word (v.14b).

See Ziegler's text, Ziegler, ed., Job - Göttingen, 323-325. Gentry, Asterisked Materials, makes no corrections of Ziegler's text of Job 26.

Ziegler, ed., Job - Göttingen, 324-325.

Gentry, Asterisked Materials, 38-83.

This is further substantiated, at least in part, by the absence of Job 26.5-11 from the Sahidic version, a version which according to Gentry, Asterisked Materials, never contained the asterisked additions and thus falls closer to the Old Greek. (1) In addition, there were other translations floating about, at least three of which were known to Origen. Jobes and Silva, Invitation, 37-43.

–  –  –

2.3.1 God’s place and/or action As with the intertextual tapestry of MT Gen 1.1-5, an overarching description of God's role in the Greek texts is mastery.139 The idea that God created both good and evil remains in LXX Isa 45.7, and as in the Hebrew, this idea does not appear in other texts. The one text which displays a reversal of the created order, LXX Job 3.3-10, The symbol □ indicates a tangential inclusion.

Again, I borrow the idea of 'mastery' from J.D. Levenson, Creation and the Persistence of Evil: The Jewish Drama of Divine Omnipotence, (2nd revised ed.; Princeton: Princeton University, 1988 & 1994) 1-13.

–  –  –

bears no concern of God's mastery but dwells on Job's lament.140 A variation on mastery is God as master stonemason in LXX Job 38.4-38.141 Also like the MT, mastery is not an entirely adequate term to describe God's cosmic intervention in 2 Kgdms 22.7-18 and LXX Ps 17.7-18.142 More specific observations about God's mastery come in the idea of creation via the establishment of boundaries – around water,143 between earth and God's dwelling,144 and generally around everything.145 A second thread of the idea of mastery, already mentioned above, is that God creates by speech, a thread clearly evident in the primary text, LXX Gen 1.1-5. Creation by speech is mentioned elsewhere, mostly with reference to the creation of heaven,146 the waters in/above the heavens,147 the waters of the sea,148 and humans.149 A similar idea comes in God's creation by will (qe,lw) as seen in LXX Ps 134.6, where it states that all that has been created has been willed by God. While this is not equivalent to creation by speech, it is closer to the idea of creation by speech than other metaphors (e.g. stonemason, joiner, etc) used for God's creative actions. As in the MT there is the minor though significant idea of God's mastery in the creation of both good (peace) and evil in LXX Isa 45.7. While this is a minor thread that does not correlate with any other intertexts in this chapter, its uniqueness sets it apart within the tapestry.

Another thread is the idea of creation out of God's wrath, which is exemplified by 2 Kgdms 22 and LXX Ps 17. I am also including here LXX Amos 9.5, in which God takes hold of the earth and shakes it, causing its inhabitants to mourn.150 To summarize, God's place in creation is largely the same in both the MT and LXX lists in that mastery is the main theme for God's action. God as boundary maker is, if anything, less frequent in the LXX. Also, of interest is the recurrent idea of God creating by speech.

LXX Jer 4.23-28, unlike its MT counterpart, is not included for lack of significant commonality.

Most notably where the MT reads Uhobfw Uhot in v.23, such an intertextual connection is absent with the LXX's use of ouvqe,n.

The shadow of God as stonemason is in the beginning of the MT pericope, the reiteration of the idea in LXX

38.38 that is not present in the MT strengthens the idea.

The picture of God's otherworldy entry onto the earthly stage ‘upon the wings of the wind/s’ (evpi. pteru,gwn avne,mwn [Ps 17.11] / avne,mou [2 Kgdms 22.11]) is also found in LXX Ps 103.3, as in the MT. One can add a similar,

thought not verbatim, wording in LXX Prov 8.27 that is not found in the MT:

h`ni,ka h`toi,mazen to.n ouvrano,n sumparh,mhn auvtw/|( kai. o[te avfw,rizen to.n e`autou/ qro,non evpV avne,mwn) When he prepared heaven, I was present with him, also when he marked off his throne upon [the] winds.

While not identical with Ps 17.11 / 2 Kgdms 22.11, there is a notable similarity, especially given that it is not present in the Hebrew.

u[dwr – LXX Ps 103.9f, Isa 40.12; qala,ssa – LXX Job 38.10. Notably missing from this list are the boundrification of {fy in MT Ps 148.6 and Prov 8.29 and of {Oh:T in MT Prov 8.27. All three of these examples are missing in the LXX.

LXX Job 38.19-20, Isa 40.

22 LXX Ps 73.17, Isa 45.18 LXX Ps 32.6, 148.5 LXX Jer 28.16 (eivj fwnh.n e;qeto h=coj u[datoj evn tw/| ouvranw/); Ps 148.5 | LXX Amos 5.8, 9.6 LXX Ps 32.9, 103.30 MT Jer 4.23-28 was part of this thread in chapter one, but this text is not included in this chapter.

– 99 –


2.3.2 Observations on Form The second set of thematic observations centers largely on the form of the intertext. The first thread of this set is the titular intertext that introduces or lauds God as creator, of which there are seven.151 What is of interest about these texts is that they hold up the place of creator as central to who God is. A second form-related thread is that of praise. Not surprisingly most of these texts are psalms,152 though two are not: LXX Prov 8.30 speaks of wisdom rejoicing in God and the completion of God's creative activity, and LXX Isa 51.11 speaks of the rejoicing of the returnees to their home, a result of the creative power exerted by God in creating a people/nation.153 These texts, especially the Psalms, are of interest as they offer evidence that creation was a subject within the liturgical texts of Greek-speaking ancient Judaism. The final thread under the heading of form is the reversal of the created order.

The complexion of this thread differs slightly from the MT in that LXX Job 4.23-28 is not included. Along with LXX Job 3.3-10, which portrays Job's wish that the day of his birth and with it the created order might be overturned, one can include, if tangentially, LXX Amos 9.5, in which God is about shaking-up the world, a possible Day of the Lord allusion.

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