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2.3.3 Uses of LXX Gen 1.1-5 Vocabulary The third set of observations centeres around the vocabulary of LXX Gen 1.1-5 and how it is used among the intertexts. The first thread here is the commodification of elements of the cosmic order; that is, the placement of the likes of the winds in the divine storehouses. One of these texts speaks of YHWH taking the wind out of his storehouses, though the word for wind is a;nemoj not pneu/ma.154 Two MT texts that spoke of God keeping the wind (axUr) in storehouses, differ in the LXX in that they refer to light being kept in storehouses.155 Another similarily worded text speaks of snow and hail being put into the storehouses,156 still another of the deeps (a;bussoi).157 As in the MT, a fifth text differs in that it shares no common language with the others, but is similar in that God is portrayed as a shopkeeper in the marketplace measuring and weighing-out the waters, the heavens, the dust of the earth along with mountains and hills.158 While the idea of God keeping cosmic stuff in storehouses is prevalent in the LXX as in the MT, the elements stored vary more than in the MT. The second thread of interest here is the prevalent portrayal of the heavens being stretched out (evktei,nw). Outside one occurrence in the psalms,159 the idea LXX Isa 42.5, 45.18, 51.13, Amos 5.7, 9.5-6, and Zech 12.1. Absent from the titular intertexts are two pericopes not included in this list, LXX Isa 48.12-13 and Prov 30.4. LXX Jer 10.12 is added to this list; LXX Jer 28.15, while similar, is not included because it has a circumstantial participle, emphasizing action, rather than an attributive participle, emphasizing the nominal aspect of the verb.

LXX Ps 33.6-9, 73.

12-17, 103.1-35, 134.5-7, 148.1-14 The creation of the nation is a theme that is seen in LXX Isa 42.5-9, 44.24-45.8, 51.9-16.

LXX Ps 134.7 LXX Jer 10.

13, 28.16 LXX Job 38.22 LXX Ps 32.7 LXX Isa 40.12 LXX Ps 103.2 – 100 –

CHAPTER TWO

of stretching out the heavens is confined to prophetic texts.160 The final thread in this set of observations is the creation of darkness by God. If we continue with the earlier observation that LXX Gen 1.1 is a statement of creation with a second creation beginning in v.3, then darkness, which is an attribute of the earth in an initial state of incompleteness (v.2), may be included as that which God created. Less of a contrast in the LXX, then, are the texts that speak of God creating darkness.161 Little needs to be said about LXX Isa 45.7, other than like its MT counterpart, it too uses the same verb as Gen 1.1, in this case, poie,w.162 Three more texts, while similar, differ in that the verb used in all three is ti,qhmi, which like its Hebrew counterpart, has more the connotation of ty$, arranging or appointing than creating. Darkness, then, has a similar image in both LXX and MT, with the strongest suggestion of God creating darkness in Isa 45.7. Given the difference between the Hebrew and Greek texts of Gen 1.1-2, however, these texts suggesting that God made darkness may be less contrastive and more complementary to LXX Gen 1.2.

2.3.4 Creative Forces External to God Another set of observations, as in the MT, are those forces external to God and of cosmic weight which bear on these creative contexts. The first thread of this section, which I called the ‘primordials’ in chapter one, is in need of a new name. As I have shown above, in the translation from the Hebrew to Greek there is a loss of some of the primordial-ness in the Hebrew. The translation of both }ftfy:wil and {InyiNaT as dra,kwn in LXX Ps 73.12-14 is a good example. In the movement from one language to another, the specificity of the Hebrew primordials is likely lost. At the same time, these creatures continue to play a significant role throughout the intertextual tapestry.163 While not as prevalent as primordials, angels have their places in the tapestry as well.164 The role of wisdom in the tapestry is also of note. As in the MT, sofi,a plays a prominent role in LXX Prov 8.22-31. As Cook points out, the Greek version of Proverbs 8 clarifies Wisdom's role in creation as being separate from the action of the Creator.165 Wisdom is also present in other texts as a tool with which God creates166 and in an apparent comparison of those who make the priestly vestments and the tapestries of the Holy of Holies and God's wisdom in numbering the clouds.167 LXX Isa 40.22 (diatei,nw), 44.24; Jer 10.12, 29.15; Zech 12.1. In MT Deutero-Isaiah there were three additional texts, MT 42.5, 48.12-13, and most likely 51.16, that spoke of the stretching out of the heavens. The idea is absent from their occurrence in the LXX.

LXX 2 Kgdms 22.12; Ps 17.12, 103.20; Job 38.19; Isa 45.7.

In contrast, but also using poie,w is LXX Job 37.15, where God makes light out of darkness.

a;bussoj – LXX Job 38.16, 30; Ps 32.7, 76.17, 103.6, 134.6, 148.7; Prov 8.24; Isa 44.27 (not in the MT), 51.10;

qa,lassa – LXX Exod 20.11; Job 38.8, 16; Ps 32.7, 73.13, 76.20, 134.6; Amos 5.8, 9.6; Isa 51.10, 15; dra,kwn – LXX Ps 73.13-14, 103.26, 148.7.

LXX Ps 103.4, 148.

2; Job 38.7. While it may be that the use of a;ggeloj in LXX Isa 44.26 is referring to human messengers, as is likely in the MT, it is within the realm of possibility, especially intertextual possibilty, to read angels here with reference to the non-human, otherworldly type.





Cook, Septuagint of Proverbs, 223-224.

LXX Ps 103.24, Jer 10.

12, 28.15.

LXX Job 38.36-37 – 101 –

CHAPTER TWO

2.3.5 Creation and Temple Finally, the place of temple imagery deserves some attention. It is quite clear that there is no temple imagery in LXX Gen 1.1-5. In LXX Isa 40.22, however, Isaiah says of God's creative actions, ‘he is the one who stood up the heavens as an arch and stretched [it] out as a tent [skhnh,] in which to dwell.’ While skhnh, is not exclusively temple language,168 given that it is used here as God's dwelling place, it seems very possible that this is a (cosmic) temple reference.169 More clear references to a cosmic temple come in 2 Kgdms 22.7 and LXX Ps 17.7, which (as in the MT) make reference to God hearing the voice of the petitioner in his temple (nao,j)170 and coming down to rescue.171 Also, it seems plausible that LXX Job 38.36, in a shift from the MT, includes the skills necessary for the preparation of the vestments of the high priest and the tapestries of the Holy of Holies in the midst of the creation of such celestial elements as constellations, the abyss, heaven, and earth. Such an inclusion seems a deliberate reference to the Temple.

This provides a glimpse at the overall intertextual tapestry of LXX Gen 1.1-5, and like its MT counterpart in chapter one, it is an attempt to get a wider picture. While there are many details that this summary does not highlight, in the subsequent chapters in which intertexts of Gen 1.1-5 outside these ‘canonical’ boundaries are examined, some threads will be built upon, others transformed, others left to fray. The complementary, contrasting, and tattered threads of these two parallel intertextual tapestries (along with countless other texts and contexts) are foundation and conversation partners for readers and interpreters. So, from these partial vantage points of the intertextuality of Day One, we move on to part two, first the Hebrew (chapter three) and then the Greek (chapter four).

Of the 350+ occurences of skhnh,, it is used as tent/human dwelling – LXX Gen 12.8, 33.19; Exod 18.7 – often a translation of lexo), and as the tent of meeting (h` skhnh. tou/ marturi,ou) – LXX Exod 29.11, Lev 19.21, Num 17.15, a translation of d"(Om lexo). It is also used as tabernacle with reference to the temple – throughout LXX Exod 26, a translation of }fK:$im.

One can also include on the margins the idea of ascent to a heavenly divine abode or temple (?) in LXX Amos 9.6.

LXX Ps 17.7 reads – evk naou/ a`gi,ou auvtou/; 2 Kgdms 22.

7 – evk naou/ auvtou/.

Both texts in v.10 read kate,bh.

–  –  –

3.1 Introduction This chapter identifies and explores Hebrew texts that date before 200 CE and that are not included in the canon of scripture that has come to be called the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible. Whenever the category of ‘canon’ is used it has already started to deconstruct.1 A prime example of this is the book of Jubilees, a portion of which is addressed in both this chapter and the next. This text at least in one corner of early Judaism was granted a privileged status, notably by the Qumran sectarians;2 and to this day it is part of the canon of scripture of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.3 This is all to say that this chapter includes texts, some of which were authoritative, some were not, and some both. In the end, the boundaries that ‘contain’ the texts of chapters one and two are at the very least semi-permeable.

The vast majority of texts in this chapter come from the cache of scrolls and scroll fragments discovered in caves in or near Wadi Qumran between 1946 and 1955. Some of these texts are ‘sectarian,’4 others are ambiguous in their relation to the sectarian texts,5 and still others are clearly not of sectarian origin.6 While these categories continue to be debated and refined, this study is less interested the background of the scrolls and more interested in the scrolls as texts, that is, their textuality.7 The attention given to texts from the Dead Sea is on their intertextual relationships with MT Gen 1.1-5 and the larger Hebrew intertextual tapestry. It is an accident of history and time that most of the extra-biblical Hebrew texts that date from before 200 CE come from these caves around the Dead Sea. The corpus of extant Hebrew texts from 200 CE and earlier would be quite sparse without them.

In addition to the Dead Sea Scrolls, this study takes into account two portions of the Hebrew text of Ben Sira or Sirach. While the Hebrew manuscripts of Ben Sira are medieval, it is probable that they are at least related to the Hebrew Vorlage.

Finally, in an excursus near the end of the chapter, I include two brief portions of the Mishnah. While it is likely that many of the traditions preserved in the Mishnah predate 200 CE, I include these texts on the margins of this study because while most of the sayings are attributed to Tannaim from the first and second centuries CE, the The assessment of the text and canon of the Hebrew Bible in light of the Dead Sea Scrolls by E. Ulrich, “Our Sharper Focus on the Bible and Theology Thanks to the Dead Sea Scrolls,” CBQ 66 (2004), highlights the need to theologically rethink the hermeneutical enterprise of interpreting scripture in light of the “shadowy beginnings” (24) of what is now known as the Bible.

The presence of at least six copies (4QJubileesa, c-g and possibly 4QpapJubileesb) of Jubilees from among the fragments of Cave 4 itself suggests that this was an important text. J.C. VanderKam, “The Origins and Purposes of the Book of Jubilees,” in Studies in the Book of Jubilees (ed. M. Albani and J. Frey; Texte und Studien zum Antikem Judentum 65; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1997) suggests that Jubilees was ‘an authoritative work inheritited by the Qumran community’ and also points out in brief that the calendar of the Qumran sectarians reflects the harmonization of the solar and the lunar cycles more in line with the Enochic Book of the Luminaries (1 En 72-82), suggesting that the sectarians did not completely appropriate the 364-day calendar of Jubilees. (3) R.W. Cowley, “The Biblical Canon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church today,” OstSt 23 (1974) 318-323.

E.g. 1QS – The Community Rule E.g. 4QWorks of God (4Q392) E.g. 4QJubileesa

M.L. Grossman, Reading for History in the Damascus Document: A Methodological Study, (STDJ 45; Leiden:

Brill, 2002) argues that the Dead Sea Scrolls ought to be taken as literary texts not merely as historical evidence. (x) – 103 –

CHAPTER THREE

final form of the whole did not reach a state of completion until the first decades of the third century CE. As such, I attempt to balance the precarious proximity of these texts to the historical boundary of this study with what their inclusion adds to the study as a whole.

Few of the texts in this chapter could be called a complete ‘pericope,’ because of the fragmentary nature of the textual evidence. In addition to the inherent difficulties in reading and understanding fragmentary texts, the fragmentary nature of most of the texts in this chapter poses a particular problem within the bounds of this study.

The precision in identification and ranking intertexts that is attempted in chapters one and two crumbles into a pile of fragments from the very beginning of this chapter. It is with caution, then, that these texts are ordered based on (rough) similarity with MT Gen 1.1-5, using the criteria of common intertextual markers and a creation theme.

In addition, the accident of history and time that is the Dead Sea Scrolls, mentioned above, points to the accidental and partial nature of the pool of possible texts. There is a tease-effect when working with these Dead Sea fragments. What one sees on the leather points the informed imagination along trajectories that would be fascinating to explore, though with no leather and no letters, one is forced back to the partial nature of the texts that remain. The evidence is partial, and with it are the conclusions.

The texts in this chapter have been identified by reading,8 by concordance,9 and by electronic search.10

3.2 Hebrew Afterlives

What follows are the intertexts of MT Gen 1.1-5. While they are ranked by their commonality with MT Gen 1.1-5, this is done mostly for the sake of having ‘an order’ rather than an inherent value that this ranking has given the fragmentary nature of the evidence. With this in mind, I do not include a table with rankings and ratios, as it would over systematize and misrepresent what is an eclectic, fragmentary, and inevitably partial collection.

1QM x.8-1811 3.2.1 {ylwdgh hky#(mk h#(y r#) jr)bw {Z[ym]#Xb l)r#y l) hkwmk )ym12



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