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------ )ymw hqzxh hktrwbgkw twcr)h ym( lwkm hkl htrxb r#)Z lZ)r#y hkm(k For the Dead Sea Scrolls, I used first the edition by F. García Martínez and E. Tigchelaar, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition, 2 vols. (Leiden: Brill: / Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997), then corroborating readings with the appropriate editio princeps. For the Hebrew of Ben Sira, I explored both S. Schechter and C. Taylor, The Wisdom of Ben Sira, (Amsterday: APA - Philo Press, 1979 (reprint of Cambridge Editions of 1896 & 1899)), and P.C. Beentjes, The Book of Ben Sira: A Text Edition of All Extant Hebrew Manuscripts and A Synopsis of All Parallel Hebrew Ben Sira Texts, (VTSup 68; Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1997). For the Mishnah, I used for reading the English translation of H.

Danby, The Mishnah, (Oxford: Clarendon, 1933).

For the Dead Sea Scrolls, I used M.J. Abegg et al., The Dead Sea Scrolls Concordance: Volume 1: The NonBiblical Texts from Qumran 2vols. (Leiden: Brill, 2003).

For the Dead Sea Scrolls, I used the 1999 version of The Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Reference Library, Brill, Leiden. For the Mishnah, I used the Judaic Classics Library Ver. 2.2, Davka, Chicago.

See E.L. Sukenik, The Dead Sea Scrolls of the Hebrew University, (Jerusalem: Magnes Press / The Hebrew University, 1955) plate 25. The diacritical marks in the following are my own additions from the photographs.

The beginning of line 1QM x.8 reads: {kybyw)m {t(#wnw – and you shall be saved from your enemies. These two words conclude a quotation of MT Num 10.9, and the previous section. This is clear from the switch to direct address of the divine.

There is a line of approximately 0.5” here. Perhaps a scribal error? Cf. J. van der Ploeg, Le Rouleua de La Guerre: Traduit et Annoté avec une Introduction, (STJD 2; Leiden: Brill, 1959) 137.

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which this text is a part bears some similarity to biblical psalmody and was likely meant for use in preparation for J. Carmignac, La Règle de la Guerre: Des Fils de Lumière Contre Les Fils de Ténèbres, (Paris: Letouzey et Ané,

1958) suggests the reconstruction, l) )yk l) yzr, which would render the end of the question – seers of the holy angels with opened ears, hearing deep secrets of God? For it is God who (deploys)…. (146)

Y. Yadin, The Scroll of the War of the Sons of Light against the Sons of Darkness, (trans. B.C. Rabin; Oxford:

Oxford University Press, 1962) suggests that there may have been an "apostrophe of God as creator of the heavens" in this gap as a parallel to jr) )rwbh in line 12. (307) Yadin suggests that this portion of line 14 should read, w([lc twd]lwtw, or 'the issue of his (Adam's) rib'. Yadin, Scroll of the War, 308. The difficulty with any solution to the the problem of this lacuna is pointed out by van der Ploeg, Le Rouleua de La Guerre, 138-139.

J. Duhaime, “War Scroll,” in The Dead Sea Scrolls: Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek Texts with English Translations. Volume 2: Damascus Document, War Scroll, and Related Documents (ed. J.H. Charlesworth;

Princeton Theological Seminary Dead Sea Scrolls Project; Tübingen / Louisville: Mohr Seibeck / Westminster John Knox, 1995) suggests, "the confusion of language". (119) J. Carmignac, “Les Citations de L'Ancien Testament dans 'La Guerre des Fils des Luminère Contre les Fils de Ténèbres',” RB 63 (1956) imagines that the author of 1QM did not have Gen 1.1-5 far from mind. (251) P.R. Davies, “War of the Sons of Light against the Sons of Darkness,” in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls (ed. L.H. Schiffman and J.C. VanderKam; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000) calls 1QM x.8-xiv, "a varied collection of liturgical pieces." (966) – 105 –


battle. This is evident in 1QM x.1-8a, in which the priests are given direction on the strengthening of soldiers prior to battle.20 From these exhortations in the face of the enemy, the text at hand proceeds to say something about God and God's relationship to Israel.

The above text can be separated into two parts: the interrogative (x.8a-11a) and the declarative (11b-?).

The interrogative has two questions addressed to God. The first is about the uniqueness of God as creator and actor in the cosmos, "Who is like you, O God of Israel, in the heavens and in the earth, that he could do according to your great deeds and according to your powerful strength?" This use of and {ym# locates the God of Israel and jr)

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In 1QM x.1-8a, there are two biblical quotations. The first is from Deut 20.2-4, describing the way that the priest ought to address the troops exhorting them to not fear because God will fight with them against their enemy, cf.

Carmignac, “Les Citations,” 236. After the role of the priest is defined, the role of the officers is described (1QM x.5-8a). They too are to gird up the soldiers, encouraging the faithful and making the fearful retreat. Then they recall the words of Moses, quoting Num 10.9, another passage that God will remember and save the faithful army,

cf. Carmignac, “Les Citations,” 237. J.J. Collins, Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls, (LDSS; London:

Routledge, 1997) notes that there are similar pre-battle exhortations in the Maccabean books (1 Macc 4.9, 30, 7.41;

2 Macc 12.15) recalling biblical examples of defeat of the enemy. (99) The same interrogative formula is used in 1QM xiii.13-14, MT Ps 35.10, 71.19, and in MT Deut 33.29 of Israel, in MT 1 Sam 26.15 of Abner.

The second question apparently ends in the lacuna in the middle of line 11.

As Carmignac, “Les Citations,” notes, there is a resemblance between 1QM x.10-13 and Sir 17.7-13 (251), though lacking the Hebrew of this portion of Ben Sira any direct relation is impossible to ascertain.

Yadin, Scroll of the War, suggests this as a balance to the titular use of the participle, jr) )rwbh, in line 12.

(307) A similar pattern of 'creator of heaven + contents & creator of earth + contents' is found in 1QH ix 9-19, which may suggest that the participle in the lacuna was a form of h+n following the wording of 1QH ix.9, {ym# hty+n ht)w. While the similarities between the two texts need not be stretched too far, there are parallels in their content that at least open the possibility of the use h+n in line 11.

While {ym# does not appear in line 11, barring any direct repetition of jr)/{ym# from line 8, {yqx# can function as a synonym. BDB, s.v.

Cf. van der Ploeg, Le Rouleua de La Guerre, 138.

See Yadin, Scroll of the War, 231, for a survey of the uses of twxwr as synonyms for angels and within titles of God in the DSS.

The parallelism between )#m and hl#mm as identified by Yadin, Scroll of the War, 307, does not seem likely.

– 106 –


poses some difficulty, less likely is that these twxwr reflect a meteorological phenomenon.29 The titular use of )rb in line 12 bears little resemblance to its active use in MT Genesis 1, though titling God as the creator of the earth bears at least a general resemblance to the theme of Genesis 1 and the rest of the creation accounts in the Hebrew Bible. Finally, at the end of line 13 again is intertextually related to the deeps of MT Gen 1.2 though not {wht directly, as it is found here in the plural. Of note is the observation of van der Ploeg that this occurrence of {wht

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intertextual tapestry of MT Gen 1.1-5,34 all of which are in relation to the regulation or boundrification of some form of water. 1QM x.12f, however, may well be35 interested in both earthy36 and watery37 boundaries. The use of in 1QM x.13 has both thematic similarity with Genesis 138 and a concrete connection with MT Isa 42.5.39 hy)c)c

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1QM x.14 the intertextual relationship with the First Creation Story continues with reference to the creation of Duhaime, “War Scroll,” 117, also notes the possibility that it could read "the rising of winds" per B. Jongeling, Le rouleau de la guerre des manuscrits de Qumrân, (Studia Semitica Neerlandica 4; Assen: Van Gorcum, 1962) 251van der Ploeg, Le Rouleua de La Guerre, 138.

MT 2 Sam 22.12 & Ps 18.12. Also, Deut 33.26 states that God rides through the {yqx# to the aid of Israel.

MT Prov 8.28.

MT Jer 10.13, 51.

16, Ps 33.7, 135.7, Job 38.22 MT Ps 148.6 (waters, though possibly angels, hosts (v.2), sun, moon, and stars (v.3), highest heaven and waters (v.4)); Prov 8.29 (sea); Job 26.10 (waters), 28.26 (rain).

I suggest this with some hesitation as there is a lacuna in the middle of the list in 1QM x.13.

1QM x.13 – wilderness, steppe, and its produce.

1QM x.13 – the circle of the seas, the reservoirs of the rivers, and the rift of the depths.

MT Gen 1.29, also 11-12, 22, 28.

Also of note is the (damaged) occurrence of hy)c)c in 1QHa v.15. See below, p. 115.

Also similar are MT Prov 8.27, a circle on the face of the deep ({wht), and Isa 40.22, in which God the creator is found above the circle of the earth.

Similarly, MT Ps 74.15a has God breaking open (the earth) for spring (}y(m) and torrent (lxn).

– 107 –


animals and birds,42 the (image) of Adam,43 and his generations.44 Also, there is a possible allusion to the Babel story45 in 1QM x.14.

What is clear about the extant portions of 1QM x.8a-18 is that God is the unparalleled creator, that God creates by boundrification, and that there is a significant intertextual confluence of phrases and concepts common with the larger tapestry of MT Gen 1.1-5.

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The emphasis in this portion of 1QHa is celestial and likely liturgical. The intertextual connection with MT Gen 1.1-5, anchored by intertextual markers shared with Gen 1.1-5 (rw),\#wh,ty#rb rqwb,br(,hlyl,{wy), comes most directly from MT Gen 1.3-5 and the creation of light and the distinguishing between night and day.

This particular portion appears to come at the beginning of a longer hymn written in the first person. While the MT Gen 1.20-25 MT Gen 1.27 MT Gen 2.4a, as likely is Gen 5.1.

MT Gen 11.1-9.

Given the possibility that the generations of Adam is an encompassing reference to the stories of Adam and Eve (MT Gen 2.4b-5.32), the elements of the first chapters of Genesis that this psalm appears to lack any reference to the Giants (MT Gen 6.1-7) or the Flood (Gen 6.9-9.29). In addition the direction of the psalm moves from the first chapter of Genesis to history of the patriarchs in line 15. This sequence suggests that the intention was not an imitation of the first chapter of Genesis.

Sukenik, DSS of the Hebrew University, plate 46. Sukenik labels this column as col. 12.

There are three points of erasure in this text, one in line 7, identified by Sukenik as a tav, and two yods in line 10.

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counterpart – the dominion of light.54 There is a marked similarity, though absent any obvious angelic forces, with 1QS iii.19-iv.1, especially iii.19-22. While sun, moon, and stars are not mentioned by name in 1QHa xx.4-11, there is distinct resemblance with MT Gen 1.16 and MT Ps 136.8-9, in both of which the sun (v.8) and the moon and stars (v.9) have dominion (hl#mm) over their respective portions of the day.

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S. Holm-Nielson, Hodayot: Psalms from Qumran, (Acta Theologica Danica 2; Aarhus: Universitetsforlaget,

1960) suggests that the hymn begins at 1QHa xix.29, though he himself says that it is only "with every reservation" that he suggests any beginning considering the disrepair of the manuscript (199 n.1). I concur with this in so far as it seems possible that 1QHa xx.4 is as good a beginning as any, though no certain determination can be made without the complete text. It should also be noted that Holm-Nielson suggests a pericope beginning in the lost lines at the top of col. xx extending through line 11a. If the tentative reconstruction of lyk#ml prior to twdw[h is correct, it seems the hymn would commence at the beginning of line 4.

1QHa xx.11f Cf. 1QHa xx.4 Cf. 1QHa xx.10-11 Cf. MT Amos 9.6; Ps 33.6, 148.5; Job 38.12 There appears to be fluidity in the morphology of ty#)r with the ) present sometimes (e.g. 1QS vi.5; 1QM i.1) and absent others (e.g. 1QS x.5; 1QH xx.6; 4QSd [4Q258] frag. 5 i.2), sometimes with both forms in the same text.

Cf. 1QHa xx.4-5 Sukenik, DSS of the Hebrew University, plate 35.

The photograph of plate 35 shows solid dots above and below the letters in this word.

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This text is a portion of a larger hymn the bounds of which are not entirely clear given the disrepair of the scroll at this point.59 The sapiential nature of this portion is quite clear.60 The intertextual markers of MT Gen 1.1Sukenik notes that hkxwkb is written over an erasure and that the x is ‘traced over cancelled t.’ See the margin of Sukenik’s transcription of plate 35.

M.A. Knibb, The Qumran Community, (Cambridge Commentaries on Writings of the Jewish and Christian World

- 200 BC to 200 AD 2; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987) offers an alternative reconstruction for the beginning of line 10: "...for your glory, all [their (heavens') hosts] you [appointed] according to your will..." hknwcrl htwnyk[h {)bc] lwk hkdwbkl. (159 – Hebrew reconstruction my own.) This seems plausible given the similarity to MT Isa 45.12.

Throughout this pericope there is a hole that runs vertically from the top of the column ending in the middle of line 20. The general disrepair of the top five lines makes any final conclusion about the hymn's beginning impossible to make. Originally labeled as col. i by Sukenik, the beginning of the hymn would have been de facto

the beginning of the column. Following the reconstructions by H. Stegemann, “Rekonstruktion der Hodajot:

Ursprüngliche Gestalt und kritisch bearbeiteter Text der Hymnernrolle aus Höhl 1 von Qumran" (Dissertation:

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