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of creation in this text is of particular interest. Creation takes a threefold format: the first action is a pre-creation of every spirit (lines 7-9), the second is the creation of the heavens (lines 9-13), and finally the creation of the earth and its contents, including humankind (lines 13-20).62 While the heavens and the earth are focal points, the main point of the hymn is the omnipotence and omniscience of God. Everything originates in God particularly via God's wisdom; and God knows all that will be before it is.

The initial act, or pre-act, of creation comes at the portion of the pericope with the most damage. What is first evident in this initial act of creation is that by or in wisdom ([h]ktmxbw)63 God establishes something. The reconstruction of in the gap of line 7 immediately following seems possible as it could [...htwnyk]h [h]ktmxbw

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preserved at Qumran,66 in which God creates all of the spirits. The first portion of the pericope finishes with a statement about God's omnipotence and omniscience.67 The second act of creation is the stretching out of the heavens,68 a common idea within the intertextual tapestry.69 The purpose of this act of creation is explicitly stated as God's glorification, which is likely the center point of the hymn. The remainder of the creation of the heavens is the establishment of the heavenly spirits and Heidelberg, 1963. Unpublished.), and É. Puech, “Quelque aspects de la restauration du Rouleau des Hymnes (1QH),” JJS 39 (1988) what was Sukenik's col. i is now col. ix, raising the possibility that the hymn's first line is in col. viii. There is an opening to a hymn at 1QHa viii.16 that may be the beginning of the hymn continued through col. ix.

See the three mentions of God's wisdom as central to the acts of creation: lines 7, 14, 19. Holm-Nielson, Hodayot, entitles this pericope (in his estimation, lines 1-20), "God's wisdom finds its expression in His creation." (19, 30) One might also consider rw)m in line 11 as a cognate of rw).

There is a similar two-fold description of God as creator of heavens and earth in 1QM ix.11-16.

The waw at the beginning of the word may mean that this thought is a continuation of thought from the previous lines. While the decay of the scroll at this point makes any complete understanding of the initial verses of the hymn difficult, it does seem that the lines immediately preceding this pericope were declaring the greatness of God in both power and compassion, note especially rpsm }y) (without number) in line 5 and [ht)w +]p#mb {yp) \wr)w hky#(m lkb htqdc (and slow to anger in the judg[ment and you] are just in all your works) in line 6.

While it is impossible to say for sure what was created in this pre-creation given the gap in the manuscript, a similarity between 1QS iii and 1QHa ix and may provide a clue. In 1QS iii the instruction about the nature of humanity is laid out. Central to this teaching is the fact that God established (}wk) the entire design of humanity (line 15), created ()rb) them to rule the world, and placed within them two spirits – light and darkness. The use of a }wk and )rb in the same thought is also used in 1QS iii.15-17; 1QH v.13-14, vii.15-17; also in an inverted order 11QTa xxix.9-10, MT Isa 45.18, and MT Ps 51.12. While the use of one verb does not automatically expect the other, there is at least a pattern similar to that in other texts.

1QHa ix.8-9 Cf. 4QJubileesa v.1-11 (4Q216 12 ii -13). See below, p. 116.

Cf. 1QS iii.15.

1QHa ix.9 Cf. MT 2 Sam 22.10; Isa 40.22, 42.5, 44.24, 51.13; Jer 10.12, 51.15; Zech 12.1; Ps 18.10, 104.2

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of the column does not retain what other portions of the earth the hymn originally mentioned. Whatever was there along with the seas and deeps were established with God's wisdom.72 All that is in the earth God established. The remainder of the pericope is devoted to the creation of humankind, including the foreordination of their duties and their afflictions, all according to the wisdom of God's knowledge.73 In addition to the points of intersection with the intertextual tapestry of MT Gen 1.1-5 already highlighted, the reiteration that God is creating in or by wisdom in all three sections of this text accentuates the importance of wisdom in this creative process. While there is no personification of wisdom along the lines of MT Prov 8.22-31, the general idea of God creating in or by wisdom is present elsewhere in the tapestry.74 Finally, there is a similarity in the order of creation, absent the pre-creation of every spirit, between this text and MT Zech 12.1 where God stretches the heavens, founds (dsy) the earth, and forms (rcy) the spirit of man/Adam.

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larger admonition that the addressee cling to the covenant and study God's words, i.e. the Law (see line 3).79 While both top and bottom margins of the column are missing, the fragment itself has nearly eight lines of continuous text with both margins intact. This provides substantial text for analysis and, while not complete, does provide a good glimpse at the wider context.

The fragment begins in the middle of a series of infinitives (lines 2-4) that are ‘a characterization of God's elect as those privileged with divine knowledge,’ a section which ‘serves to invoke wonder at God's gracious dealings with man.’80 Falk's reading is strengthened by a return to these ideas in lines 7 and 8, particularly with the idea that there is a chasm between God the creator and humanity or flesh (r#b) in line 8 and the seeming call to This line is particularly vexing. Nitzan, “Idea of Creation,” translates the first portion of line 8, We ‘are flesh for learning that which is subject to our understanding...’ Her translation of the line is based on a perceived relationship with Job 15.9. Falk, DJD XXIX, records that Strugnell in his notes translated, "We are flesh – can we not understand? With what would it be in our power to per[form won]ders and portents without number?" (31) Falk rightly notes that the subject cannot be humans. It must be God who is responsible for the wonders and signs, citing Job 5.9. Given the content of the fragment in general and the proceeding line (9) in particular, it seems most likely that these wonders and signs like winds, lightning, and luminaries would be attributed to the handiwork of God.

D. Falk, “Biblical Adaptation in 4Q392 Works of God and 4Q393 Communal Confession,” in The Provo International Conference on the Dead Sea Scrolls: Technological Innovations, New Texts, and Reformulated Issues (ed. D.W. Parry and E. Ulrich; STDJ 30; Leiden: Brill, 1999) suggests that 4Q392 and 4Q393 are related but not the same composition. In 4Q392, he sees a text, the purpose of which is 'to reflect on the wonder of election', whereas he sees 4Q393 as 'perhaps...a liturgical prayer of confession.' (137). Similarly, Nitzan, “Idea of Creation,” sees 4Q392 as a 'sapiential admonition' that directs the addressee to adhere to the covenant by means of knowledge provided by the Law. (255-6) Falk, DJD XXIX.30 – 113 –


ponder why this God of immense power is with them to do such great things. It is the same God who created light from darkness that has chosen the community of the text.81 While {ym# occurs at the end of line 3, it is used to locate God and is not the focus of any creative energy.

Even though the words of God’s mouth are meant for study, they are not in this context creative.82 The creation foci of the text are light and who God is as creator of the whole. In this vein, God is said to have created ()rb) darkness (\#x) and light (rw)) for himself. This is reminiscent of MT Isa 45.783 where God takes credit for both the formation of light and the creation of darkness. Surprisingly, neither Falk or Nitzan note this connection. Given the uniqueness of the attribution of the creation of both light and darkness to God within the Hebrew Bible, such a similarity with 4Q392 1 is significant. The focus remains the creation of light and darkness in lines 5-7. Creation of and dominion over light and darkness are central to the text. God's dwelling is the light of lights ({trw) and rw)) darkness (hlp)) leads to or comes to rest (hxn)85 in God's presence.86 The next phrases of 4Q392 1 continue the light/darkness theme adding the idea that God alone is able to separate light from darkness. This is a significant connection with MT Gen 1.4, where, after the creation of light and pronouncing it good, God separates light from darkness.87 The statement from Genesis is a positive naming of God as the one who separates, whereas the statement from 4Q392 1 moves from the negative in that no one except God separates light from darkness. Other than the way of addressing God and a grammatical difference,88 the ideas of these two texts are quite close.

To say conclusively that 4Q392 is a sectarian text is impossible. However, Falk, DJD XXIX, suggests that there are features that increase the probability that 4Q392 is at least of a "sectarian character": (1) a resemblance to the Hodayot in vocabulary and style, (2) "the requirement to examine human ways," (3) a likely substitution of ynwd) for hwhy (see 4Q392 1,3), and (4) the use of {trw)/{wtrw), which only appears in sectarian texts, namely the Hodayot and Songs of Sabbath Sacrifice. (27) Cf. 1QHa xx.9 ;hl)-lk h#( hwhy yn) (r )rwbw {wl# h#( \#x )rwbw rw) rcwy Falk, notes that {trw)/{wtrw) only occurs in other sectarian texts at Qumran, namely the Hodayot and the Songs of Sabbath Sacrifice. He cites this along with the ‘stylistic, verbal, and thematic resemblances to the Hodayot, the requirement to examine human ways, a probable substitution of ynwd) for the tetragrammaton,’ as features that could lead toward the association of 4Q392 with the Qumran community. (27) Regarding the character and usage of {trw)/{wtrw), Falk notes that it ‘is reserved for descriptions of the light associated with God's presence and his heavenly dwelling.’ (31) The meaning of hxn in BH is ‘lead’ with no connotations of ‘rest’, cf. BDB, s.v. Jastrow notes a use of hxn as ‘rest’ in Genesis Rabbah s. 10, though this use does not exclude the emergence of the meaning ‘rest’ at an earlier stage. (s.v.) Also, the four occurrences of hxn in the non-biblical texts from Qumran likely read ‘lead’ rather than ‘rest’. Three of the four are in the same line from the Rule of the Community (1QS IX.18, 4Q256 XVIII.1, 4Q259 III.16). The fourth is in 4Q408 (4QMorning and Evening Prayer) 1+1a, 7, and is quite fragmentary. It is, however, another intertext of MT Gen 1.1-5 and is addressed below.

In addition to the resemblance of MT Isa 45.7 with 4Q392 1 4b, there is also a similarity with MT Isa 45.3a:

\#x twrcw) \l yttnw - ‘and I will give to you the treasures (treasuries) of darkness.’ While not identical to the phrase from 4Q392, both deal with darkness and the presence or actions of God.

87 MT Gen 1.4b \#xh }ybw rw)h }yb {yhl) ldbyw 4Q392 1,5b-6a \#xl rw)h }yb lydbhl wm( }y)w

The grammatical construction of 4Q392 1 5-6 occurs near MT Gen 1.4 in MT Gen 1.6b:

{yml {ym }yb lydbm yhyw.

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found in the tapestry of MT Gen 1.1-5, especially in MT Ps 104.4 where God makes messengers of the twxwr,95 and in the coupling of lightning and wind in MT Jer 10.13, 51.16, Ps 136.7. Falk also recognizes these connections, though he also attempts to work the sequence of MT Job 5.9-11 into the mix.96 It should also be noted that Falk, in an article on biblical adaptation in 4Q392 and 4Q393, argued convincingly for an overall structure of this work (4Q392 + 4Q393) based on Nehemiah 9.97 Falk's argument is that the author of 4Q392-3 has Nehemiah 9 as a general framework while using a plethora of other biblical and nonbiblical texts to flesh out the argument.98 As was seen above, 4Q392 1 is an intertextual nexus, including MT Gen 1.1-5 and a handful of its intertexts. In addition to the weaving of biblical texts, 4Q392 also bears significant resemblance to other texts found at Qumran, namely 1QHa IX.7-20 and 11QPsa Hymn to the Creator.

The difficulty of this passage is noted by Falk, DJD XXIX.31.

The lack of personification of any of these lights strengthens the connection to Gen 1 where these lights are part of a grand cosmic design without any equation with celestial beings and/or angels.

Gen 1.14-19 Nitzan, “Idea of Creation,” suggests that 4Q392 is ‘drawing a distinction between the primordial darkness and light created on the first day (Gen 1.1-5), “that He created for Himself...” (lines 4b-6a) and the light of the luminaries created on the fourth day (Gen 1.14-19).’ (255) Falk, DJD XXIX.31.

See above, p.18.

MT Jer 10.13, 51.

16 and MT Ps 104.4, 135.7 Falk, DJD XXIX.31-32. There seems to be room for seeing MT Job 5.9-11 as intertextually significant with line 7 based on their common use of xqr and )lp, though it seems unlikely that Falk is working from the point of intertextuality.

Falk, “Biblical Adaption,” 126-146.

‘If my conjecture is correct, then one passage (in this case Nehemiah 9) provides general topics and structure to the poem, but the meaning is determined by deliberate midrashic activity on the basis of other passages.’ Falk, “Biblical Adaption,” 135-136.

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M. Burrows, ed., The Dead Sea Scrolls of St Mark's Monastery: Volume II: Fascicle 2: Plates and Transcription of the Manual of Discipline, New Haven: The American Schools of Oriental Research, 1951) plate III.

The final two letters here are written perpendicular to the line as the scribe appears to have gone too far over his marginal line that is still visible. J.C. Trever, Scrolls from Qumrân Cave I: The Great Isaiah Scroll, The Order of the Community, The Pesher to Habakkuk, (Jerusalem: The Albright Institute of Archaeological Research and The Shrine of the Book, 1972) 131.

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