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«=CNUGM / 2KGRG, JGSKS =UDNKTTGF HPR TJG /GIRGG PH ;J/ CT TJG ?OKVGRSKTY PH =T,OFRGWS &$$) 1UMM NGTCFCTC HPR TJKS KTGN KS CVCKMCDMG KO ...»

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Actually, twdlwt, "generations." The use of "history" better reflects the use of twdlwt in this instance, especially given the use of twrwd in iii.14, and follows the translation of Knibb, Qumran Community, 94, 96. Also, note the translation of twdlwt as ‘storia’ or history by C. Martone, La "Regola della Communità": Edizione critica, (Quaderni Di Henoch 8; Torino: Silvio Zamorani Editore, 1995) 120, 142 n.59.; and the discussion of the translation of twdlwt by J. Licht, “An Analysis of the Treatise of the Two Spirits in DSD,” in Aspects of the Dead Sea Scrolls (ed. C. Rabin and Y. Yadin; Scripta Hierosolymitana 4; Jerusalem: Magness Press, 1965) 89-90 n.5.

Martone, Regola della Communità, suggests that the statement, “From the God…shall be,” is the ideological center of the Two Spirits. (142 n.62) The niphal form of hyh here is similar to the use of hyhn zr that is found throughout 4QInstruction. While not an exact parallel, the relationship between 4QInstruction and the Two Spirits of the Rule of the Community has been outlined by A. Lange, Weisheit und Prädestination: Weisheitliche Urordnung und Prädestination in den Textfunden von Qumran, (STDJ 18; Leiden: Brill, 1995) 128-129. Further parallels include the common use of tw(dh l) in both texts. A very similar phrase about the temporal extent of God's creative activity is found in 4Q402 4,12.

This translation of twn#hl }y)w follows E. Qimron and J.H. Charlesworth, “Rule of the Community,” in The Dead Sea Scrolls: Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek Texts with English Translations. Volume 1: Rule of the Community and Related Documents (ed. J.H. Charlesworth; Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1994) 15. The radical

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This is the sole text from the Rule of the Community (1QS)105 with enough intertextual resemblance to MT Gen 1.1-5 to warrant inclusion.106 1QS iii.13-iv.1 is the first portion107 of what is commonly called the Instruction of the Two Spirits, the whole of which is 1QS iii.13-iv.26.108 Unlike many portions of 1QS, this is not paralleled by any of the extant fragments found in Caves 4 or 5,109 leaving 1QS as the sole textual witness.110 monotheism that is displayed in the section of the Rule of the Community seems to be furthered by such an ontological statement.

Whether #wn) is here referring to the individual or collective for humankind is debateable. The above translation reflects a collective understanding; though later in the Two Spirits (iv.23-24) #wn) appears to concern the individual.

See Licht, “Analysis,” 91 n.13.

With the evidence available from the Cave 4 fragments it appears that the Rule of the Community had at least two recensions – Rule of the Communityb, d (4Q256, 258) and Rule of the Communitye (4Q259). The other manuscripts from Cave 4 are too fragmentary to be of help in the textual history of the Rule of the Community. For a discussion of the textual history of the Rule of the Community, see S. Metso, The Textual Development of the Qumran Community Rule, (STDJ 21; Leiden: Brill, 1997) who sees 1QS as a later redaction of the text; and P.S.

Alexander, “The Redaction-History of Serekh ha-Yahad: A Proposal,” RevQ 17 (1996) 437-457, who argues on the basis of paleographic dating of the mss that 1QS is the primary manuscript. More specifically, J. Duhaime, “L'Instruction sur les Deux Esprits et les Interpolations Dualistes a Qumân (1QS III,13-IV,26),” RB 84 (1977) suggests that a redactor’s hand is visible in the 1QS iii.13-iv.26 specifically. (566-594) An argument could be made for including the hymn of praise that concludes in 1QS x.19-xi.22, however the diffusion of the intertextual markers throughout a relatively long pericope and the general use of the intertextual markers places it outside the bounds of this study.

Licht, “Analysis,” 93. Also, and Duhaime, “L'Instruction sur les Deux Esprits,” 572. J. Pouilly, La Règle de la Communauté de Qumrân: Son Evolution Littéraire, (CahRB 17; Paris: Gabalda, 1976) outlines the Two Spirits as follows : (1) iii.13-15a – Introduction ; (2) iii.15b-18a – an affirmation of monotheism ; (3) iii.18b-iv.1 – the origin and influence of the Two Spirits ; and (4) iv.2-14 – the works of the spirits within the lives and destiny of men. (76) Of importance here is that Pouilly notes a break in the text after iv.1.

The Two Spirits is considered the place where the anthropology of the Qumran sectarians is most thoroughly articulated. It is Licht, “Analysis,” that uses ‘anthropology’ in reference to the doctrine in the Two Spirits. (88) Licht asserts that there are three aspects of Qumran theology basic to the Two Spirits: (1) the predestination of everything in the world by God, (2) human behavior is determined by the influence of the forces of light and

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all, the use of )rb in 1QS iii.17 is closer to MT Gen 1.27, where it is used to describe God's creation of humankind, or MT Gen 2.4, where God created ()rb) the generations114 of heaven and earth.115 The uses of xwr116 bear little if any reflection of {yhl) in MT Gen 1.2, but refer to human spirits in line with the anthropological focus of the xwr Two Spirits. The intertextual weight of which is normally not very heavy, comes into play because of \#wx/rw), the proximity to )rb. This said, it is possible that the archetypical light/dark dualism in the Two Spirits reflects the existence of darkness and the creation of light on Day One of creation.117 The internalisation of the forces of light/darkness within the human heart is something new to the Two Spirits. Cosmologically, the light/dark darkness, (3) the eschatology of the community as reflected in the Two Spirits had an ultimate end to the evil forces of darkness. According to Licht, these three theological elements are three sides of the same subject, the ‘preordained nature and moral history of mankind,’ roughly corresponding to the use of ‘anthropology’ by modern theologians. (89) Similarly, Knibb, Qumran Community, 93. Collins, Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls, rightly warns, however, that there is still debate over where the Two Spirits falls in the development of the ‘ideology’ of the sect. (43) While creation is a thematic component of the Two Spirits, anthropology is its primary concern. This anthropology is grounded in a radical monotheistic view of creation that portrays God as creating two opposing cosmic forces – those of light and darkness – that hold sway over each individual. The creation focus of the Two Spirits is not the cosmos but humanity and specifically the forces of light and darkness, or truth and injustice (iii.19). Locating this cosmic dualism in God offers an explanation for the existence of evil. The question of ‘why’ is answered, then, by locating the reason for this in the mysteries of God (iii.23). For the sons of light, God and the Prince of Light are the help of the generations of light; whereas the Angel of Darkness is responsible for the wayward ways of the sons of injustice. The dualism of the Two Spirits, as noted by Knibb, Qumran Community, is not absolute as God assigns an end to the influence of the forces of darkness (line 25). (95) There are fragments from Cave 5 that may represent an eleventh copy of the Rule of the Community.





4Q255 (4QpapSa) frag. 2, line 9 contains portions of the words immediately preceding 1QS iii.13, however any text from 1QS iii.13 on is lost. See P.S. Alexander and G. Vermes, DJD XXVI.33, plate 1.

1QS iv.23 1QS iv.25 Collins, Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 38ff.

Note the uses of twdlwt in line 13 and 19.

Collins, Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls, asserts without further exploration that the entire Two Spirits is "loosely based" on Gen 2-3, (40-41) an association that beyond a basic creation of humankind and the origin of evil is too loose to adequately substantiate. The lack of any light/dark imagery in Gen 2-3 is one illustration of how loose this connection is.

1QS iii.14, 18, 25 Duhaime, “L'Instruction sur les Deux Esprits,” 575.

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CHAPTER THREE

dichotomy may reflect a combination of MT Isa 45.7 and a dualism from Persian mythology,118 and, even though it shares supernatural actors similar to the Book of the Watchers, the Two Spirits differs in that it places the origin of evil with God rather than in a post-creation rebellion as in the Watchers.119 The radical monotheism in this pericope bears a striking resemblance to MT Isa 45.7, the one place in the Hebrew Bible where God is attributed with the creation of both light and darkness. The closest point of resemblance comes in 1QS iii.25, 'He created the spirits of light and of darkness,' and MT Isa \#wxw rw) twxwr )rb h)whw, 'I formed light, and I created darkness.'120 Also, the reference at the beginning of the

45.7a, \#x )rwbw rw) rcwy, Two Spirits to the history/generations (twdlwt) of the sons of light121 bears a resemblance to the conclusion of the first creation story in MT Gen 2.4a122 and even more so to the beginning of the genealogy of Adam in MT Gen 5.1 given that the subject of the creating in this passage is humanity. One final point of contact with the First Creation Story worthy of mention comes in the statement, ‘and he created humanity to have dominion over the world’ – (iii.17-18). There is a thematic resemblance of this statement with MT Gen 1.26 lbt tl#mml #wn) )rb h)whw where as part of the creation of humankind God gives them dominion over the other creatures.

Collins, Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls, notes the likely influence of Persian Zoroastrian dualism in Hellenistic Judaism, a real possibility given the centuries long connection between the Persians and the Jews. (41Collins, Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 41-42. Collins’ exposition of the underlying Persian myth in the Two Spirits serves to contradict the assertion of P. Wernberg-Møller, “A Reconsideration of the Two Spirits in the Rule of the Community (1 Q Serek III,13 - IV,26),” RevQ 3 (1961), that the Two Spirits is a Jewish document that needs no comparisons to Persian or Hellenistic ideas to be understood and is anachronistic. (416) In WernbergMøller's estimation, the two spirits can be sufficiently explained by comparisons with the later rabbinic notions of the good and evil inclinations (rcy) and comparisons to psychological use of xwr in the Hebrew Bible, New Testament, and the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs. Also, M. Treves, “The Two Spirits of the Rule of the Community,” RevQ 3 (1961) 449-452. Collins does not argue against a psychological component to the Two Spirits, but sees ‘a synergism between the psychological realm and the agency of the supernatural angels and demons.’ (41) This is also addressed by A.A. Anderson, “The Use of 'Ruah' in 1QS, 1QH, and 1QM,” JSS 7 (1962), who in dialogue with Wernberg-Mueller's article concludes, as Collins does later, that the Two Spirits have both cosmic and psychological aspects. (299-300) The comprehensive nature of God’s creative activity both in Isa 45.7 and 1QS iii.25 is also expressed in 1QS iii.15 - From the God of knowledge comes all that is and shall be.

1QS iii.13 Duhaime, “L'Instruction sur les Deux Esprits,” makes note of the connection with Gen 2.4a but makes no mention of Gen 5.1. Duhaime also suggests that Gen 1.1 and 1QS iii.15 both function as general announcements of the creation. (574) While this may be true in function and it might be possible to argue that both texts attempt to encompass everything under God's creative umbrella, there is no intertextual connection. He also notes that the focus of Gen 1 is the ordering of creation, whereas in the Two Spirits the initial reference to creation focuses on God's foreknowledge of all that is.

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The backslashes (/) throughout the transcription indicate the line breaks in MS A according to the transcription of Schechter and Taylor, Wisdom of Ben Sira, ad loc.

According to the transcriptions of MS A in both Schechter and Taylor, Wisdom of Ben Sira, 10, and Beentjes, Ben Sira in Hebrew, 46, wymxr is the final word in the previous sentence, according to the Medieval punctuation in MS A. Schechter and Taylor, however, in their transcription and translation suggest that v.16 ought to begin with wymxr. (ad loc) This transcription follows Beentjes, Ben Sira in Hebrew, 46. The transcription of Schechter and Taylor, Wisdom of Ben Sira, reads ht ( (ad loc), with a suggested reading by Schechter of htw( in line with MT Lam 3.29. (53) While possible, Beentjes' reading seems to offer a more likely parallel with the first colon of v.23.

Beentjes, Ben Sira in Hebrew, suggests what might appear as a supralinear waw is actually "a very long leg" of the qoph on qdc in the previous line. (46) There is a significant difficulty with the text at this point. Reading the text as is with wxb#w is nearly incomprehensible. In his notes on the text of MS A, S. Schechter notes that wxb#w ought to be read wk#xw, per the Syriac and Greek, cf. Schechter and Taylor, Wisdom of Ben Sira, 52. The use of light and darkness is more appealing and would fit a paradigm such as that in 1QS iii-iv and MT Isa 45.7. Di Lella in P.W. Skehan and A.A.

Di Lella, The Wisdom of Ben Sira, (AB 39; New York: Doubleday, 1987) goes so far as to suggest that the odd use of wxb#w is an attempt to avoid a dualistic view of creation like that found at Qumran. (270) With only one Hebrew manuscript coupled with the absence of vv. 15-16 from the Gk, the original of this verse remains elusive.

This verse is omitted in the Syriac.

Literally, "the one lacking heart." See MT Prov 6.32, 7.7, 10.13, 11.12, 12.11, 17.18, 24.30.

– 120 –

CHAPTER THREE

While there are no creation verbs that drive this section of Sirach,130 the general theme is a pondering of how the God who created the wondrous marvels of creation might take notice of such a lowly creature. The intertextual intersection with our primary text lies in the cosmic elements of MT Gen 1.1-5 (jr), {wht, {ym#, rather than in the creative actions.

xwr, rw))

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similarity to an anthropological dualism stitched into the initial pattern of creation as seen in some Qumran texts, most notably 1QS iii.13-iv.1. The use of xwr in v.17b bears little resemblance to MT Gen 1.2 in that it is

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