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are placed before the eyes of the questioning mortal, contain the bulk of intertextual markers common to MT Gen 1.1-5, though there is no direct relation in their order or juxtaposition.135 There is a possible similarity between this list and one in 4QSongs of the Sageb (4Q511) frag. 30 2: [... jr) yk#]xmw twmwhtw {ym#[h ym#w {ym#h ]wqm(yw, though this is quite tentative given the state of the fragment.

There is no direct relation evident between Sir 16.16-23 and MT Gen 1.1-5. There is, however, an intertextual relationship between the two texts given the common cosmic elements and an understanding of God's creative actions underlying the text in Sirach. Other than the possible similarity with 4Q511, there are no apparent relationships with other texts in the intertextual tapestry of MT Gen 1.1-5.137 It is suggested that Sir 16.15-16 is not part of the original text. As reported in Skehan and Di Lella, Ben Sira, these verses are extant in MS A, the Syriac, and GII, but absent in GI and the Latin. Di Lella suggests that evidence for this may be in the confusing use of wxb#w in place of wk#xw that may have convened a dualistic view of creation.

(270) If one takes Di Lella's suggestion that this word was changed to avoid the impression of a dualistic creation, then it is quite possible that the text, as attested in the text of GII (pa,sh| th|/ kti,sei to. e;leoj auvtou/ fanero.n( kai. to.

fw/j auvtou/ kai. to. sko,toj evme,rise tw|/ avdama,nti) Cf. J. Ziegler, ed., Sapientia Iesu Filii Sirach, (Septuaginta - Vetus Testamentum Graecum: Auctoritate Acadamiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum., XII,2, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1965) 198) is original. On the limits of this pericope, Skehan and Di Lella, Ben Sira, suggest that 16.17-23 is the final stanza of the larger section beginning in 15.11. (275) While this makes good poetic sense, if

16.16 is to be considerd, then it fits well with the content of 16.17-23.

In a text filled with the elements of MT Gen 1.1-5, one might wish to include the nominal form of )rb, wytwyrb (hfy:ryiB) in 16.16, a form unattested in the Hebrew Bible. See BDB, ad loc. An additional element of MT Gen 1.1-5 may be present though veiled in a scribal error. As is reflected in the above translation and its note, wxb#w in 16.16 reads much better if it is understood as wk#xw.

See above, p.113, n.127.

E.g., MT Gen 41.8. See Appendix A.

There is at least a passing similarity with the list in MT Neh 9.6: You made the heavens, the heaven of heavens and all their host; the earth and all that is upon it; the seas and all that is in them.

Di Lella suggests that vv.18-19 are a parenthesis between the questioning in v.17 and vv.20-22. (See Skehan and Di Lella, Ben Sira, 275) See M. Baillet, DJD VII.236.

There is a similarity, though superficial, with the image of a God descending from above and shaking up the creation in MT 2 Sam 22/Ps18.

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lines are both a recounting of the first creation and the anticipation of a new creation whereby the old will be broken down and a new world created.

It is certain that this text speaks of the act of creating.141 Important to understanding this passage is the identification of the antecedent of in line 13. While the pronoun could refer to some attributes of God in the hl) poorly preserved portion of the column preceding line 13, it seems as likely that hl) correlates with the pronominal suffix in line 14 ({t)rb) and thus refers to the hosts of God's spirits and the assembly of God's holy ones.142 If this is the case, there is a resemblance to the existence of heavenly beings prior to creation in other texts.143 The order of the first creation, then, begins with the divine spirits and an assembly, though there is no mention of the creation of heaven. The firmament ((yqr) and its hosts are named as objects of God’s creative activity. Given that the text then moves to the earth (jr)) and all her produce, it seems that the reference to the firmament and its hosts is to the sky and the birds. This section on the first creation ends with a statement of Sukenik, DSS of the Hebrew University, plate 47.

1QHa v.1-vi.7. É. Puech, La Croyance des Esséniens en la Vie Future: Immortalité, Résurrection, Vie Éternelle?, 2 vols. (Études Bibliques 21; Paris: Librairie Lecoffre, 1993) 2.408.

Holm-Nielson, Hodayot, 217; Puech, La Croyance des Esséniens en La Vie Future, 2.411.

Note the two occurrences of the verb )rb and two, possibly three, of }wk.

This difficulty with hl) was also noted by Holm-Nielson, Hodayot, 212 n.9.

Along the lines of 1QHa ix.9-13 in addition to MT Job 38.7, Jub 2.2, Hymn to the Creator (11QPsa xxvi.12), etc...

Another similarity, though possibly superficial, with Jub 2 is the placement of the creation of the abyss after the creation of the heavenly beings/spirits in 1QHa v.14.

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1QHa v.16-17 1QHa v.17 – w)]r )l r#) t) {ty)rh yk. This assertion is based on the reconstruction of w)]r and on the assumption that its subject is the hosts of line 14.

Additionally, there are other occurrences of (yqr that also, and possibly more closely, resemble 1QHa v.14: MT Ps 19.2 the firmament along with the heavens is praising the handiwork of God; MT Dan 12.3 juxtaposes the wise as those who shine like the brightness of the firmament and those who turn many to righteousness with the stars – stars being a rather common reference to angelic or heavenly beings; finally, the throne vision in MT Ezek 1 describes the living creatures just below the (yqr, which may be similar to the hosts of 1QHa v.13-14 (wytw)bc l[wk]w \#dwq (yqr).

Also similar is 1QM x.13.

Puech, La Croyance des Esséniens en La Vie Future, also notes a similarity with 11QTemplea xxix.9 (413), which coincidently uses both )rb and }wk in connection with the creation of a new temple, cf. Jub 1.27.

Holm-Nielson, Hodayot, 217.

J.C. VanderKam and J.T. Milik, DJD XIII, note that aleph is consistently added supralinearly in these fragments.


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This text is a questionable inclusion in this list because of its extremely fragmentary nature. Given that the Cave 4 Jubilees manuscripts are the only extant copies of Jubilees in Hebrew and that 4QJubileesa is the only copy of the retelling of Genesis 1 among the cave 4 manuscripts, it is an important text to include in spite of its obvious difficulties. The MT Gen 1.1-5 intertextual markers actually found on the leather of 4Q216 12 ii -13 are significant enough to warrant inclusion of the pericope ({wht The more intact Greek version of this,xwr,jr),{ym#,)rb).

portion of Jubilees is treated in chapter four. The above text is comprised of two fragments: frag 12 ii follows the right hand margin of the column from line 6 through line 14; frag 13 comprises a portion left of center running from the top margin to line 12. The hand of this pericope is the older of the two found in 4QJuba and dates from the last quarter of the second century BCE. As noted by the editors, if this date is correct, 4QJuba is both the oldest surviving copy of the book and is ‘not far removed from the time when Jubilees was written.’153 Based on the substance of frags. 12 ii and 13 and the tentative reconstruction of the remainder of the text, there are many points of contact with MT Gen 1.1-5. The comment of this study, however, is restricted to the intertextual markers that appear either in whole or in part on the actual fragments.

If the tentative reconstruction of Vanderkam and Milik, DJD XIII.13, which is based on the Ethiopic, were also considered, the following intertextual markers would also be counted: xwr, rw), }w#)r.

See below, p.150.

DJD XIII.2. There is a note in parentheses on DJD XIII.13 that Milik ‘prefers to date the script nearer to the midsecond century BCE.’ G.J. Brooke, “Exegetical Strategies in Jubilees 1-2: New Light from 4QJubileesa,” in Studies in the Book of Jubilees (ed. M. Albani, et al.; TSAJ 65; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1997) suggests that the outer sheet of the text likely was replaced due to wear or damage. (40)

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to the heavens that are above and the earth, if the reconstruction is correct, the elements of creation also include the waters and the spirits/angels who minister in the presence of God (lines 5-9), the abysses (twm]whth in line 9), the darkness (hlp)m in line 10), the dawn (rx# in line 10), the light, and the evening. Beyond the order of the heavens and earth there is little chronological resemblance to Day One in MT Gen 1.1-5. If one takes the elements listed in Jub 2.2-3 as they appear in MT Gen 1.1-5, the order would be: heaven, earth, darkness, spirit(s), water, light, evening, and morning. An additional caution that must be stated when comparing these two texts comes in frag 13, line 10. The use of hlp)m for darkness instead of \#x,155 and rx# for dawn rather than rqb, makes any word-forword dependence doubtful. This does not, however, detract from the dependence of Jubilees 2 on Genesis 1 for its structure and basic content, including maybe most importantly the use of in MT Gen 1.2 and Jub 2.2. The xwr significant expansion of the creation of the twxwr in Jubilees seems a likely explanation of the breath/spirit of God that hovers over the waters in MT Gen 1.2. This interpretation may take into account biblical as well as Enochic assumptions about angels156 and is reflected in sectarian texts from Qumran.157 Absent from 4QJuba is any mention that God sees that the creation on the first day was 'good' as in MT Gen 1.4.158 As VanderKam points out, the angels (= we) in Jub 2.3 (4QJuba v.10) saw the works of God and gave praise.159 One might presume, if the angels were giving praise based upon what they had seen, then what they saw must have been good. This angelic praise brings into focus an intersection with MT Job 38.7, in which, after the stars were created, the angels160 gave a shout, presumably of praise.161 While there are no intertextual markers upon The form is missing the aleph (h)yrb) though it is not corrected like yk)lm. This specific form and use of )rb does not occur in the Hebrew Bible.

While too fragmentary for extensive comment or inclusion in the above list of intertexts, there is a similar paralleling of hlp) and rw) in 4Q380 7 ii 3 (]rw)w hlp)m whldbyw – and he separated it (?) from darkness and light). Without the antecedent of the pronominal suffix it is impossible to ascertain the exact context. E.M.

Schuller, DJD XI, suggests that the antecedent refers to a noun for 'light' with ]rw)w beginning a new phrase, as ‘it is difficult to imagine what is being divided from both hlp) and rw).’ (85) The use of ldb certainly sediments this text as an intertext of MT Gen 1.1-5 and may place it in relationship with 4QJuba v.10. Another related text is the Hymn to the Creator (11QPsa xxvi) line 11 - hlp)m rw) lydbm.

In addition, J.C. VanderKam, “Genesis 1 in Jubilees 2,” DSD 1 (1994) points out that the idea that the angels were created on the first day was later thought ‘dangerous’ by the rabbis – see Gen.Rab.1.9, 11.9. (309-310, 317) Cf. 1QM x.11-12; 1QHa v.14, ix.11.

Jub 8.21, which concludes a description of Shem’s portion of the earth, declares that everything in it is very good. Similarly in Jub 10.29, Canaan, looking over the land from Lebanon to the river of Egypt, sees that it is very good. It may be that Jubilees reserves the declaration of very good to promised land.

VanderKam, “Genesis 1 in Jubilees 2,” 310.

{yhl) ynb-lk in the MT; pa,ntej a;ggeloi, mou in the LXX.

A relationship with Job 38.7 is recognized by O.S. Wintermute, “Jubilees,” in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (ed. J.H. Charlesworth; ABRL; New York: Doubleday, 1985), however his placement of the reference at the beginning of Jub 2.2 is less likely than in v.3. VanderKam, “Genesis 1 in Jubilees 2,” notes a – 125 –


which to hang the intertextuality, there is a common idea present. There are additional intersections with the tapestry of Day One, though substantiating these intertexts without use of the reconstruction is nearly impossible.

Finally, while Skehan162 recognized a similarity with the Hymn to the Creator (11QPsa xxvi.9-15),163 and it appears that there is at least a tacit relationship between the Hymn and Jubilees, I find it difficult to concur with Skehan that Jubilees has borrowed from the Hymn.

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common emphasis between Jubilees and Job: ‘The emphasis in Jubilees, as in Job, lies on God as sole creator and recipient of praise. The angels did not assist in creation; they only applauded God's work.’(310) P.W. Skehan, “Jubilees and the Qumran Psalter,” CBQ 37 (1975) 343-347.

163 Hymn 4 (11QPsa xxvi 11-12) wbl / t(db }ykh rx# hlp)m rw) lydbm 4QJuba (4Q216 V 9-10) wt([db }ykh r#) br(w rw)]w rx#w hlpm / [twm]whth t) lwkbw The absence of wbl in 4Q216 v 10, is one discrepancy that begs explanation especially since the equivalent is

present in the Ethiopic. Milik has suggested a different reconstruction of 4QJuba 10, which would match Hymn 14:

wtmkxb lbt }ykm. (DJD XII.16) NB – The photographs of 4Q381 are considerably better in the text's original publication, E.M. Schuller, NonCanonical Psalms from Qumran: A Pseudepigraphic Collection, (HSS 28; Atlanta: Scholars, 1986), than in the official publication, E.M. Schuller, DJD XI.

Schuller translates bl as ‘understanding.’ (DJD XI.94) ymwyb in line 3 is problematic. Schuller opts for a variant of the Aramaic verb, ymy, to swear, as an adequate parallel to wyp rbdbw at the end of the line. As she points out, the standard Aramaic nominal form is )tmwm. (DJD XI.95) While this option is indeed adequate, it is not conclusive. Another option is to read the final yod as a waw, making it ‘in his/its day.’ Admittedly, this may not be the best option either as it is difficult to understand why it would be ‘in his/its day.’ However, if there is a connection with MT Genesis 1, the structure of the day is essential and may well be the reference here. As for the pronoun, it could possibly refer to ‘the creation’ as a whole.

Schuller notes that in a series of water nouns this ought to be read hytwrw)y (its rivers) rather than hytw rw) as it is written. (DJD XI.95)

–  –  –

Schuller, DJD XI.92.

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