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«=CNUGM / 2KGRG, JGSKS =UDNKTTGF HPR TJG /GIRGG PH ;J/ CT TJG ?OKVGRSKTY PH =T,OFRGWS &$$) 1UMM NGTCFCTC HPR TJKS KTGN KS CVCKMCDMG KO ...»

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This is based on the observations of Schuller, DJD XI, that they do not have ‘distinctive sectarian vocabulary,’ and they do use the tetragrammaton. (90) In a different article, E.M. Schuller, “4Q380 and 4Q381: Non-Canonical Psalms from Qumran,” in The Dead Sea Scrolls: Forty Years of Research (ed. D. Dimant and U. Rappaport; STDJ 10; Leiden: Brill, 1992) notes that E. Tov, “The Orthography and Language of the Hebrew Scrolls found at Qumran and the Origin of These Scrolls,” Text 13 (1986) asserts that 4Q380 and 4Q381 lack what he calls a ‘distinctive “Qumran” orthography and language.’ (56) There are 87 fragments identified as part of 4Q381, most of which contain only a few letters. Of the fragments that remain there are none that include an entire line of text.

Schuller, DJD XI.88.

Schuller, Non-Canonical Psalms, Appendix A, 267-283.

Schuller, DJD XI.92-96.

As was noted above, ymwyb in line 3 is problematic, and can hardly be considered as an intertextual marker.

jr)/{ym# with h#(.

Line 5 is a shift from the water-elements created in line 4. See Schuller, for the difficulties, especially with ryhyw. (95) See Chazon's explanation in Schuller, DJD XI.95.

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CHAPTER THREE

most likely that it is humans that are created given the many references to humans being created to have dominion over the creation.178 Also of note is the creation by the word of God's (?) mouth at the end of what remains of line 3 The general idea that God creates by speaking permeates Genesis 1, though this specific phrase is not ] wyp rbdbw.

found there. Closer is MT Ps 33.6 - – With the word of YHWH the {)bc lk wyp xwrbw w#(n {ym# hwhy rbdb heavens were created and all their hosts with the breath of his mouth. Another intertextual theme that bears mention is the creative act of banking in or hedging up forms of water. Again, Schuller thoroughly noted common thematic occurrences,180 many of which form parts of the intertextual tapestry of chapter one, though none of which have specific intertextual markers connecting them. Mention should also be made of the presence of angels in line

10. While there is little context at this point of the fragment to discern the place of the angels and hosts within the framework of creation, they are a common thread that runs through the creation texts found at Qumran.

Hymn to the Creator 11QPsa (11Q5 xxvi.9-15)181 3.2.10

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See Gen 1.26, 28; Ps 8.

6-8, based on vocabulary the closest to 4Q381; Sir 17.2-4; 1QS III 17; 4Q222 1 i 9;

4Q423 2, 2; 4Q504 8, 6; 4 Ezra 6.4; 2 Bar 14.18; Jub 2.14. Ibid. One might also see here an intertextual thread from MT Ezekiel 37 where God's breath178 is promised to the dry bones and, when given breath, they stand.

Schuller also notes the idea of creation by word in Jdt 16.14; Sir 42.15; Wis 9.1; 4 Ezra 6.38; 2 Bar 21.4, 43; Jub 12.4; and 4Q422 1 i 6. (DJD XI.95) Jer 5.22; Ps 104.5; Prov 8.29; Job 26.10, 38.8. DJD XI.95 J.A. Sanders, DJDJ IV.89-91. NB – The line numbers from 11QPsa xxvi are in the far right margin; the text is ordered via Sander’s versification.

The tetragrammaton is written in Paleo-Hebrew script in the Hymn and throughout 11QPsa, see Sanders, DJDJ IV, plates II-XVII. Of note is the evaluation of the insertion of the tetragrammaton in Paleo-Hebrew by a second and sometimes third hand in 11QPsa by A. Wolters, “The Tetragrammaton in the Psalms Scroll,” Text 18 (1995) 87

–  –  –

This psalm, unknown prior the unrolling of the Psalm Scroll of Qumran Cave 11, appears in the third to last column of 11QPsa.183 With creation as its major theme, the Hymn to the Creator (hereafter Hymn) includes a number of intertextual markers of MT Gen 1.1-5 ({ym#/jr) The position of the Hymn in the scroll is,rw),ldb).

after MT Psalm 150 and prior to MT 2 Sam 23.1-7. The bottom portion of the scroll is missing due to decay.

James A. Sanders was originally charged with unrolling and editing the Psalms Scroll of Cave 11, the details of which can be found in his works (see DJDJ IV; also an additional volume directed at a wider audience followed – J.A. Sanders, The Dea Sea Psalms Scroll, (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1967). For the editor's most recent recollection about editing and publishing of the scroll and the resulting germination of a version of canonical criticism, see J.A. Sanders, “The Modern History of the Qumran Psalms Scroll and Canonical Criticism,” in Emanuel: Studies in Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, and Dead Sea Scrolls in Honour of Emanuel Tov (ed. S.M. Paul, et al.; VTSup 94; Leiden: Brill, 2003) 393-411. The first decades of debate on the canonicity of 11QPsa are covered by G.H. Wilson, “The Qumran Psalms Scroll Reconsidered: Analysis of the Debate,” CBQ 47 (1985) 624-642, which the author continued with publication of his PhD dissertation, G.H. Wilson, The Editing of the Hebrew Psalter, (SBLDS 76; Chico, CA: Scholars, 1985). Also of note is the thorough study by P.W. Flint, The Dead Sea Psalms Scrolls and the Book of Psalms, (STDJ 17; Leiden: Brill, 1997) that sees 11QPsa as part of the development of the Masoretic psalter, particularly representing pre-Qumran groups who used a solar calendar. (201) An example of the argument against any canonical status for 11QPsa within the Qumran community comes from M.H. GoshenGottstein, “The Psalms Scroll (11QPsa): A Problem of Canon and Text,” Text 5 (1966) 22-33, opting to explain the scroll as a liturgical collection, "some ancient prototype of a 'Hymn Book'." (24) The order of the psalms of 11QPsa (texts from outside the MT Psalter are italicised): 101-103, 109, 118, 104, 147, 105, 146, 148, 121-132, 119, 135-136, 145, 154, A Plea for Deliverance, 139, 137-138, Sir 51.13-30, Apostrophe to Zion, 93, 141, 133, 144, 155, 142-143, 149-150, Hymn to the Creator, 2 Sam 23.7 (likely 2 Sam 23.1-7), Prose account of David's compositions, 140, 134, 151A & B. The Hymn is one of nine texts in 11QPsa that do not appear within the Masoretic Psalter. Of these nine texts, three were preserved in other canons. 11Q5 XXVIII 3-14 comprises Pss 151 A and B, previously known from the LXX Psalter and a collection of five non-canonical Syriac psalms (see Sanders, 53ff. Also, P.W. Flint, “Non-Canonical Writings in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Apocrypha, Other Previously Known Writings, Pseudepigrapha,” in The Bible at Qumran: Text, Shape, and Interpretation (ed. P.W.





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CHAPTER THREE

The bottom of col. xxvi was likely filled with the final verse or two of the Hymn followed by the majority (vv.1b-7a) of the poem in MT 2 Samuel 23.185 Based on Sanders' palaeographic observations, 11QPsa dates to the first half of the first century CE.186 It is likely, however, that the Hymn is considerably older. The arguments of P. Skehan187 and G. Brooke188 that suggest a dependence of Jubilees on the Hymn, while possible, are tenuous and impossible to verify.189 It is difficult to say with any certainty whence the Hymn came. P. Flint's analysis of the whole of 11QPsa is helpful in this regard. He concludes that while the scroll was copied and used at Qumran,190 it was likely compiled elsewhere and ‘is representative of more widespread groups for whom the solar calendar was authoritative.’191 I am inclined to follow Flint’s analysis that the Hymn, as a part of the larger corpus of 11QPsa, Flint; SDSSRL; Grand Rapids, MI and Cambridge, UK: Eerdmans, 2001) notes that Ps 151 may have been in the 'Ethiopian Narrower Canon' since it was a translation of the LXX, p. 85, n. 26), 11Q5 XVIII 1-16 (Ps 154) comprises the middle verses of Syriac Ps II (Sanders, 64ff), and 11Q5 XXIV 3-17 (Ps 155) comprises the first 19 vss. of Syriac Ps III (Sanders, 70ff). Another comes from a previously known Second Temple text (11Q5 XXI 11and XXII 1 contain Sir 51.13-19, 30b). Another comes from a MT text outside the Psalter (11Q5 XXVII 1 includes most of 2 Sam 23.7 with small variations). It is likely that the final lines of col. XXVI included the rest of the poem/psalm, "David's Last Words", 2 Sam 23.1-7. Such reuse of biblical material in a psalter is also present in 2 Sam 22.2-51 and Ps 18.3-51. And there are four texts which are previously unknown – 11Q5 XIX 1-18 comprises the Plea for Deliverance, also found in 11QPsb; 11Q5 XXII 1-15 comprises the Apostrophe to Zion, also found in 4QPsf and 11QPsb (Schuller, Non-Canonical Psalms, notes that the 4QPsf version of the Apostrophe is an 'earlier, Aramaicized version', whereas the 11QPsb is 'a more elegant literary form'. [8]); 11Q5 XXVI 9-15 is the Hymn to the Creator (see below); and 11Q5 XXVII 2-11 is a prose composition (the only one in 11QPsa), David's Composition, that outlines the mass of songs and psalms attributed to David's hand.

P.W. Skehan, “A Liturgical Complex in 11QPsa,” CBQ 35 (1973) suggests that there would be ten additional lines to complete the column. Of these, eight would be required to complete 2 Sam 23.1-7. This would leave lines 16-17 for the completion of the Hymn, though it is also possible that line 17 was left blank. (202-203) Sanders, DJDJ IV.9.

Skehan, “Jubilees and the Qumran Psalter,” 343-347.

Brooke, “Exegetical Strategies in Jub 1-2,” 54.

Skehan and later Brooke argue that there is a similarity between Jub 2.2-3 and Hymn 4 (lines 11-12), which is true. Explaining this similarity, however, is difficult. Showing directional dependence may be impossible. The two

lines read:

Hymn 4 wbl / t(db }ykh rx# hlp)m rw) lydbm 4QJuba (4Q216 V 9-10) wt([db }ykh r#) br)w rw)]w rx#w hlpm / [twm]whth t) lwkbw There are points of contact between the two texts. Jubilees has a list of cosmic elements, partially preserved in 4Q216 v 9b-10a, that God establishes (}ykh per reconstruction) with his understanding (wt([db). These are darkness, dawn (rx#), [light, evening], following the reconstruction of VanderKam and Milik. VanderKam and Milik, DJD XIII.16. Also of note is that there is no room in the remaining mss to insert and thereby explain the absence of wbl. In Hymn 4, there are similar elements (light, darkness, dawn) but they are arranged in two related but different stichoi – God separates light from deep darkness and establishes (}ykh) dawn (rx#) with the understanding of his heart (wbl t(db). Skehan notes that the Ethiopic of Jub 2.2-3 reads, ‘which he prepared in the knowledge of his heart,’ and that the quotation of Jubilees in Epiphanius breaks off after the list of things created leaving no Greek text of the means by which God created. (344, for the Ethiopic see also Wintermute, “Jubilees,”

55) The order of creation in Jubilees is heaven, earth, waters, spirits (angels), abysses, darkness, evening, night, light, dawn, daylight; whereas in the Hymn we find the separation of light and darkness, dawn, (angelic praise – there is no account of their creation), earth, world, heavens, etc. An argument that Jubilees is dependent upon the Hymn is stretching the common elements too far. While there is an intertextual relationship between the two texts, the argument for dependence is unsubstantiated.

This is contra Sander's suggestion that 11QPsa was compiled at Qumran, and thus the title ‘Qumran Psalter’.

Flint, Dead Sea Psalms Scroll, 201; also summarized in P.W. Flint, “The Book of Psalms in the Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls,” VT 48 (1998) 469-471.

–  –  –

and \#x in the next phrase with the statement that it is only God that can separate them. It appears that hlp) is rw) used synonymously with \#x.

Skehan, “Jubilees and the Qumran Psalter,” vaguely suggests that the Hymn (moreover the Qumran community's angelology) comes from ‘the Jerusalem priesthood’ of the early 2nd century BCE. As a reaction against the ‘unhealthy’ mythology of the Enoch tradition, Skehan suggests that the writer of Jubilees was looking for a more traditional framework for angelology and found it in a hymn that he heard, more precisely the Hymn. (346-347) If establishing this context for the relationship of Jubilees with the Hymn is Skehan's motivation, an intertextual argument (methodologically anachronistic though it may be) would have proved more convincing given the power of the liturgical word to the listener/author. Nevertheless, imagining such a context is just that.

Sanders, DJDJ IV.89.

The different forms of ldb indicate the different sense of time in each text. The imperfect in MT Gen 1.4b places the action in the past. The separating is a temporally independent act of the creation. In Hymn 4a, however, the use of the participle (The form of the hiphil participle is found in MT Gen 1.6 and Isa 59.2, both in periphrastic constructions and neither of particular exegetical value in this case.) indicates that the time of the act of creation is temporally subordinate to what followed. That is, the establishment of dawn in Hymn 4b is of primary consideration. The establishment of dawn is placed on a timeline after the separation of light and darkness.

The combination of rw) and hlp) does not occur in the Hebrew Bible. hlp), however, is used in tandem with \#x. The two are joined by a maqqeph in MT Exod 10.22 to describe the plague of darkness. (This redundancy in the text of the Hebrew Bible is apparently explained in 4QParaphrase of Genesis and Exodus (4Q422) iii 9, where \#x is placed upon the earth and, if the reconstruction is correct – T. Elgvin and E. Tov, DJD XIII.429, hlp) was in the houses of the Egyptians.) These two words also occur together in descriptions of the Day of the LORD (e.g., Isa 58.10, Joel 2.2, Zeph 1.15).

Schuller, DJD XI, notes the parallel (85), and categorizes this portion of 4Q380 as having ‘creation motifs’ and using ‘wisdom’ vocabulary. (77) He created darkness (\#x)[ and l]ight (rw)) for himself. And in his habitation is the light (rw[)) of perfect lights, and all darkness (hlp)) rests in his presence; and except for him no one can separate (lydbhl) the light (rw)h) from the darkness (\#x) because He separated ({lydbh) them for the sons of man like the light (for) daytime (with) the sun (and for) night the moon and stars. (4Q392 1,4b-6)

–  –  –

Additional intertextual convergence between MT Gen 1.1-5 and the Hymn comes with the parallel use of and {ym# and the use of xwr in Hymn 7-9. While MT Gen 1.1-5 is intertextually relevant in these lines, a more jr)

–  –  –



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