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«=CNUGM / 2KGRG, JGSKS =UDNKTTGF HPR TJG /GIRGG PH ;J/ CT TJG ?OKVGRSKTY PH =T,OFRGWS &$$) 1UMM NGTCFCTC HPR TJKS KTGN KS CVCKMCDMG KO ...»

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The use of MT Jeremiah in the Hymn 7-8a is quite apparent, such that Sanders utilizes MT Jeremiah to help in the reconstruction of Hymn 8b-9b.201 An oddity of the Hymn 8b-9b is the reversal of the order of the phrases found in MT Jeremiah.202 There is also a similarity between Hymn 8b-9b and Ps 135.7, but given the quotation of the MT Jeremiah text in Hymn 7a-8a and the absence of any mention of wisdom in MT Ps 135 the ligatures here seem to be between MT Ps 135 and the MT Jeremiah texts, and the MT Jeremiah texts and the Hymn. Moving outside of an intertextual argument for a moment, it is highly likely that there is a reliance on MT Jer 10.12-13/51.15-16 in Hymn 7-9.203 Taking a wider view of the intertextual tapestry of MT Gen 1.1-5, the Hymn interweaves the threads of wisdom and creation that in addition to MT Jer 10/51 also extend to MT Ps 74.16, Prov 3.19, 8.27, and Isa 45.18.

These verses are reordered to match the sequence in Hymn 7-9.

MT Jer 51.16d reads )cyw.

MT of both Jer 10.13b and 51.16b have a qere reading of jr)h.

Sanders, DJDJ IV.91 At least one other example of such a rearrangement comes in 4Q381 frag. 24 where there is a reordered quotation of MT Ps 18.7-9a/2 Sam 22.7-9a, Schuller, Non-Canonical Psalms, 35. Schuller elaborates that these verses of Ps 18 are preserved in three texts (4QPsc = Ps 18.3-14; 8Q2.8-11 which is of little textual value; and 11QPsc.8-18 = Ps 18.1-12) from Qumran, all of which follow the MT. (122) The fact that the author of 4Q381 xxviii and xxix would have had a version of Ps 18 reflecting the MT and yet rearranged portions of vv. 7-8 suggests a similar action to the rearrangement of MT Jer 10.13/51.16 in the Hymn.

The occurrence of {ybr {ym in Hymn 2b bears closest resemblance to the description of heavenly sounds around or of God – the beating of the wings of the living creatures ({yxh) in MT Ezek 1.24 and/or the return of the Lord's glory to the Temple in 43.2, per M. Weinfeld, “The Angelic Song over the Luminaries in the Qumran Texts,” in Time to Prepare the Way in the Wilderness: Papers on the Qumran Scrolls by Fellows of the Institute for Advanced Studies of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1989-1990 (ed. D. Dimant and L.H. Schiffman; STDJ 16; Leiden: E.J.

Brill, 1995) 135. This is contra Sanders who suggests a similarity between MT Jer 10.13a and Hymn 2b (Sanders,.90). While {ybr {ym does occur in MT Jer 51.13a, and it is in very close proximity to the text utilized in the Hymn (i.e. MT Jer 51.15-16), one cannot argue that the use of {ybr {ym in Hymn 2a is reliant on MT Jer 51.13a, primarily because {ybr {ym as used in the two Ezekiel texts (and MT Ps 29.3) is closer in usage. MT Jer 51.13a is referring to

–  –  –

(MT Ps 96.6a).204 In addition, the larger context of this enthronement psalm205 includes the assertion that all the earth (v.1b) is enjoined to sing praises to the Lord's name and that the Lord is attributed with the creation of the heavens (v.5b).206 While MT Ps 96 is not in the tapestry of this study, it does contain a creation theme and an intertextual connection with the Hymn. In Hymn 5 there is an intertextual relationship with MT Job 38.7. M.

Weinfeld argues that this is one of the early germinations of the angelic song at the renewal of the luminaries.207 In Wienfeld's argument, which is ultimately focused on the roots of the angelic song as represented in the Jewish Yotser Qedushah liturgy, he identifies a connection between MT Job 38.7, MT Ps 148.3, and Hymn 5. The connection is that the morning stars (rqb that sing (}nr) to the creator in MT Job 38.7 resemble the bright ybkwk) stars (rw) that together with the Lord's angels (wyk)lm) praise God in MT Ps 148.3. The angels (wyk)lm) of ybkwk) Hymn 5a that sing (}nr) with joy to the Lord because of what he has shown them are strikingly similar to the singing / praising stars of MT Ps 148.3 and especially MT Job 38.7. Whether or not there is a deliberate reliance of Hymn 5a on MT Job 38.7 and/or Ps 148.3, there is certainly an intertextual relationship.

–  –  –

significant bodies of water, given the Babylonian context possibly the Tigris and Euphrates. This is far from the heavenly, cosmic sounds of MT Ezek 1.24 and 43.2 (and MT Ps 29.3), which use {ybr {ym as a simile for something otherwise indescribable. So it is in Hymn 2b, where splendour goes before the Lord and the roar of {ybr {ym behind. There may be, however, a more nuanced explanation to this problem from the vantage of intertextuality. Given the reliance of the Hymn on MT Jer 10/51 as shown above, the author of the Hymn knew these passages from Jeremiah. While it is conjecture, it is also probable that the author would have been familiar both with Jer 51.13, containing the {ybr {ym, and with MT Ezek 1.24, 43.2, and/or Ps 29.3. Without overstretching the evidence, it is entirely possible that the author of the Hymn, especially given the many biblical texts that are pieced together in this text, pulled on both the Ezekiel/Psalms usage of {ybr {ym and the close juxtaposition of the MT Jer 51.13 {ybr {ym to arrive at the text of Hymn 2b. Such a tempered intertextual reading contradicts Weinfeld's note that Sander's suggestion of MT Jer 51.13 is "irrelevant for the context of vv.2-3 of the Hymn" (Weinfeld, “Angelic Song,” 135) and makes room for both possibilities.





Weinfeld, “Angelic Song,” 135.

A. Weiser, The Psalms: A Commentary, (trans. H. Hartwell; 4th ed.; OTL; London: SCM, 1962) 628.

h#( {ym# hwhyw – MT Ps 96.5b.

Weinfeld, “Angelic Song,” 150f.

Baillet, reconstructs the badly damaged end of this line based on the paraphrase of MT Isa 40.12-13, which he suggests recalls the text form of 1QIsaa. (236)

–  –  –

MT Gen 1.1-5 is apparent.

The primary action of the first two lines of the fragment is a sealing up ({tx). While much of line 1 is missing, presumably what is being sealed up are the earth, the deep, heaven of heavens, heaven, The translation of this line in García Martínez and Tigchelaar, DSS Study Edition, overextends the text by adding that the waters in line 4 are 'of the deep.' (2.1033) 4Q511 is comprised of 215 papyrus fragments, many of them very small. The hand of 4Q511 dates from the latter part of the first century BCE, cf. Baillet, DJD VII.219. 4Q510 is a second copy – 4QSongs of the Sagea.

B. Nitzan, “Hymns from Qumran - 4Q510-4Q511,” in The Dead Sea Scrolls: Forty Years of Research (ed. D.

Dimant and U. Rappaport; STDJ 10; Leiden: Brill, 1992) 53.

See 1QS ix.12-xi.22 for the duties of the Instructor. An example of a prayer uttered by the Instructor is found in 1QS x.5-21.

E.g., 4Q510 1,4-5 and 4Q511 35,6-7. Nitzan, “Hymns from Qumran,” clarifies the difference between ‘pure and simple incantations (and) hymns recited for the purpose of incantation.... On the one hand, there are ordinary incantations, magical formulae and amulets, from various places and times, which are direct or explicit, in that the magician addresses the evil spirits, commanding them to go away. On the other hand, in these songs from Qumran...the approach is less direct...’ In an analysis of these the form of the ‘ordinary’ incantation and those from Qumran, she notes two differences: (1) in the general incantation the power comes from the Name of God, in the hymn incantations from Qumran the power ‘employed by the Sage is “A Word of Glorification;”’ and (2) the general incantation aims to expel the evil spirits forever, whereas ‘the Sage from Qumran only scares the evil spirits away, in a somewhat temporary fashion.’ (54-55) Nitzan goes on to explain this dissimilarity by suggesting that there are two different conceptions of evil spirits. The ordinary incantation draws on a conception of evil spirits common to the tradition found in Num. Rabba 12.3, that asserts that the demons were exterminated from the world when the Sheckinah entered the newly set up tabernacle. (56) (Incidentally, Nitzan does not mention the earlier exposition of Ps 91.2 in Num.Rabba 12.3 that suggests that Moses used the Divine Name to scare away demons and evil angels as he ascended Sinai, which is the context given for the composition of Ps 91 according to Num.Rabba.) Another tradition about evil spirits bears apocalyptic connotations and is common to 1 Enoch 16.1 and Jub 10.1-11, where evil spirits are active until the final day of judgement. (56) It is the latter of these two conceptions of evil spirits that Nitzan sees active at Qumran, and in particular in 4QSongs of the Sage.

Frag 30 is comprised of portions of six continuous lines at the bottom of a column with right and bottom margins largely intact.

)yr at the end of line 6 appears to be a defective spelling of xwr, cf. Baillet, DJD VII.236.

–  –  –

The reliance of 4Q511 30 4-5 on MT Isa 40.12 is without question. The portions with a single underline are shared by both texts, although with some difference in syntax and morphology. The portions with double-underline are shared per the reconstruction of Baillet.219 The major differences between the texts come with reference to waters in 4Q511 30 4a.220 The similarity between 4Q511 30 6 and MT Isa 40.13 is more in MT Isa 40.12a, and hbr {ym ym

Baillet, DJD VII.236, proposes this reconstruction based on a similarity with Sir 16.18, MS A:

Cf. Beentjes, Ben Sira in Hebrew, 46.

jr)w {whtw {ym#h ym#w {ym#h }h.

In particular MT Dan 12.4, 9, in which Daniel is exhorted to keep the words/book sealed until the end of time.

While the disrepair of the fragment only allows for speculation, there is at least a possible relationship with Pr.Man.

3b, in which God seals the abyss with the name of God. See below, pp. 165-166.

Nitzan, “Hymns from Qumran,” 60. Nitzan's argument in this paper is that 4QSongs of the Sage (4Q510-511) has a unique form of magical incantation, the basis of which is an understanding that evil spirits will be present until the end of time and that the power for scaring off these evil spirits in the interim is ‘in the power of God's thoughts.’ (62-63) Baillet, DJD VII.236. The photograph of frag. 30 (plate lxi) is of little help because of its poor quality.

As noted by Baillet (DJD VII.236), 4QIsaa 40.12 reads {y ym. This may explain the use of ym in 4Q511, however the use of hbr is difficult to explain. While not the only possible explanation (see Baillet's comparisons with the Hebrew text of Sirach and with uses of hbr {wht in Gen 7.11, Isa 51.10, Amos 7.4, Ps 36.7, and 1QH iii.32, none of which bear much resemblance), it may be that the author of 4Q511 30 is paraphrasing (and therefore interpreting)

–  –  –

and the first portion of the line that bears no resemblance to MT Isaiah 40. What is apparent is that there are intertextual markers in common between MT Gen 1.1-5 and 4Q511 30, but that the stronger textual relationship is with MT Isa 40.12-13, which is part of the intertextual tapestry as outlined in chapter one.

–  –  –

Isa 40.12, possibly with the variant text of 4QIsaa. This could also explain the syntactical difference between 4Q511 30,4b and MT Isa 40.12b. 4Q511 30,6a would then be an insertion, that is if 4Q511 30,6b is quoting MT Isa 40.13a.

Another possibility is ‘and she rejoices in wisdom.’ If the lamed is not the preposition, it is also possible that ytlxh ought to read, ‘I am profaned/violated...,’ though this reading appears incongruent with the rest of the text.

Could also be ‘man’, cf. A. Steudel, DJD XX 161. Given the use of {d)l in MT Gen 3.21 with reference to ‘Adam’ and not ‘mankind’, Steudel’s assertion that ‘Adam’ is not indicated stretches the evidence.

–  –  –

14.7, is only found in MT Gen 1.5. Also, the occurrence of bw+ immediately prior strengthens the possibility of an intertextual connection. Given the close proximity of God's declaration of the days of creation as good and the marking of the end of a day in Genesis 1,227 an intertextual connection with MT Gen 1.4-5 is promising though necessarily tentative given the partial nature of the text. The other obvious connection with MT Gen 1.1-5 is the use of )rb with YHWH as the subject in lines 12-13.228 The use of w(ypwh in line 14 and tw)rhl in line 15 may suggest that the object of God's creating is angels,229 light, and/or the luminaries.230 In spite of the scant evidence, this fragment contains both wisdom and creation and uses the tetragrammaton frequently, which suggests that it was not composed by the sectarians. What is being created by God in this fragment is difficult to ascertain but may be light given the verbs in lines 14-15.

–  –  –

common with MT Gen 1.1-5, it may in fact be closer to MT Genesis 2.

My translation of {ynybm follows the rendering of Nitzan, “Idea of Creation,” 253, and E. Qimron as noted by Lim, DJD XX.153.

For this line, see Nitzan, “Idea of Creation,” 253. H. Jacobson, “Notes on 4Q303,” DSD 6 (1999) offers a reconstruction of line 2 founded on similarities with MT Gen 1.7. Based on three assumptions, (1) that {ym at the beginning of the line is not part of a larger word and can thus be read ‘water’, and (2) that l(m is la("m ‘above’ rather than ‘treachery’, and (3) that wtyb#yw can be read wtwb#yw, ‘will cease’. Jacobson’s translation, then, reads, ‘]water (?) and will stop above (?)]’. (78-80) While intriguing, this solution to an extremely difficult line is tenuous and impossible to verify.

The juxtaposition of {ym# and rhw+ is a unique construction. The use of rhw+ within the Hebrew Bible is most often in the context of ritual purity (BDB, s.v.). While a form of the Aramaic, )rhy+ or rhy+, meaning bright sky (Jastrow, s.v.), might provide a more desirable translation, from the photograph of this fragment it is quite clear that the second letter is a waw rather than a yod.

Given how close this line of 4Q303 is to Gen 2.18c (wdgnk rz( wl h#()), it seems reasonable to restore the line to match Gen 2.18c, ‘I will make for him a suitable helper.’ The fragment contains portions of fourteen lines from the middle of a column including the top margin. The final three lines are too fragmentary to be of use. The script dates the manuscript to the last half of the first century BCE.



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