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(DJD XX.151) While there are two similar texts, 4Q304 and 4Q305, also with creation themes the manuscripts are too fragmentary to accurately judge whether or not they are the copies of the same text.

Acknowledging the limited ability to discern the context of this fragment, T. Lim, based on his translation of lines 1 and 2 – ]having understood, they listened and[ / ]mym and they caused treachery to cease n[ – suggests a context in which ‘...lessons are being drawn from the created order to illustrate the wondrous work of God, an admonition that has at its heart moral and ethical implications.’ (DJD XX.151) Nitzan, “Idea of Creation,” backs off slightly from Lim's assessment, suggesting that the fragmentary nature of the text does not allow one to see the ‘wondrous work of God’ when the references to creation themes are so limited. Suffice it to say, 4Q303 does address the created order. To what degree and scope, we cannot know. On the sapiential nature of the text, Jacobson, “Notes on 4Q303,” suggests that it is a wisdom text based on parallels between line 1 and other wisdom texts. (78-80) Because of the fragmentary nature of the text, especially line 1, I take this as a strong observation but wish to push it no further based on a lack of context.

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20) in which the Lord is said to be ‘everlasting light’ of Zion.239 With this unique intersection with Isaiah 60 it seems unlikely that in line 4 has a direct connection with MT Gen 1.3-5. The most concrete point of contact rw)

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While there is little in 4Q303 1 with which to compare, there are three points of contact with MT Jer 4.23 and one with MT Gen 1.2.243 The end of the fragment bears a resemblance to MT Genesis 2. While not a direct quotation, it is quite possible that is related to the ‘good and evil’ language of MT Gen 2.9, 17, 3.5, and 22.

(rw bw+ lk#w244

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differences based on the state of the fragment, a preponderance of the evidence in lines 8-11 shows that there is a relationship, if not a reworking of MT Genesis 2 at work in the latter portion of this fragment.

Here I concur with Jacobson, “Notes on 4Q303,” 79, contra T.H. Lim, DJD XX, who suggests that the is likely referring to l) tw)lpn based on a similarity with MT Job 37.14. (153) Given that {lw( rw)l {lw( rw)l only occurs in MT Isa 60.19-20 this is a better first place to look for a parallel.

MT Jer 4.23 is the only other point in the Hebrew Bible where the phrase whbw wht appears.

The pair also appear in a parallel construction in MT Isa 34.11 though not directly together.

1QM xvii.4, which reads whblw whtl, differs slightly from MT Gen 1.2 but is the only instance where the wordpair is preserved intact in the texts from Qumran.

On MT Jer 4.23-28, see above, pp.


With MT Jer 4.23, 4Q303 1 contains the verbatim occurrence of whbw wht, a mention of light eternal ({lw( rw)l), and a pure/bright heaven (r]hw+ ym#w), both of which could be the antithesis of MT Jer 4.23b ({rw) }y)w {ym#h-l)w). Whereas MT Gen 1.2 contains the verbatim occurrence of whbw wht, with light becoming a factor nearby in MT Gen 1.3-5. Based on the evidence available, it is impossible to draw any more concrete conclusions about the relationship of these three texts. Though it can be asserted that this is one point where an intertextual method of inquiry is helpful in seeing connections where no definitive lines can be drawn.

4Q303 1 8 245 (4Q303 9) ])yk{d) hnmm xqwl[ (MT Gen 3.19b) txql hnmm yk Jacobson, “Notes on 4Q303,” also notes that line 9 is quite close to MT Gen 2.7, where Adam is created out of the ground. (79) There is less of a resemblance with v.7 than with v.22, though it is possible that (rw bw+ lk#w could be introducing a new section of the text or function as a subheading within the text.

Lim, DJD XX, notes that Qimron in his notes ponders the possibility that hntnw might have preceded the line.


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This brief portion from 4Words of the Luminariesa is found completely on 4Q504 2, one of the largest of the forty-nine fragments.252 The hand is dated to the mid-second century BCE,253 suggesting that it is likely to have predated the settlement of the sectarians at Qumran, though later copies also suggest that the text was used by the sectarians.254 It is a series of prayers, one for each day of the week,255 culminating on the Sabbath.256 Each prayer M. Baillet, DJD VII.141-143. É. Puech, “Review of DJD VII - Qumrân Grotte 4, III (4Q482-4Q520),” RB 95 (1988) suggests a reconstruction for 4QWords of the Luminariesa, in which this text comes in col. 14. (407-409) While there is further text in line 10 and following, I have chosen to end this portion here, somewhat unnaturally, because of a shift from creation language to language about the wrath of God.

[w]b#xn is above line 3 in the same hand as the rest of the text and can be considered a scribal correction. Baillet, DJD VII.142.

There is another scribal correction here. The wnr has been stricken by the scribe with a r placed above the line.

The verb that this author is reading is hbr. Baillet, DJD VII, uses engraissé(s) (142), which seems a better translation than ‘created’ per García Martínez and Tigchelaar, DSS Study Edition, 2.1014.

The editio princeps was published by Baillet, DJD VII, in 1982 with little work on restructuring the fragments.

Since, there has been considerable work on ordering the fragments of 4Q504. See Puech, “Review of DJD VII,” 407-409, also E.G. Chazon, “4QDibHam: Liturgy or Literature?,” RevQ 15 (1991) 448-450, D. Falk, Daily, Sabbath, and Festival Prayers in the Dead Sea Scrolls, (STJD 27; Leiden: Brill, 1998) 63-68, with the order recognized for this paper from J.R. Davila, Liturgical Works, (ECDSS 6; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000) 239-266.

Baillet, DJD VII.137.

Davila, Liturgical Works, points out that it is impossible to know just how the text was used at Qumran. (242) A study of E.G. Chazon, “Is Divrei Ha-Me'orot A Sectarian Prayer?,” in The Dead Sea Scrolls: Forty Years of Research (ed. D. Dimant and U. Rappaport; STDJ 10; Leiden: Brill, 1992) also suggests, though tenuously, that 4Q504 ‘might best be understood in the context of a pre-Qumranic phenomenon – whether of the immediate precursors of the sect which eventually settled at Qumran or of a different group or religious movement which assessed its spiritual and physical situation similarly.’ (17) A pattern of daily prayer is also reflected in 4Q503.

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draws upon biblical references that follow a 'historical' timeline, beginning with the stories of Adam and Eve and possibly the Flood in the prayers for the first day of the week.257 The Words of the Luminaries is a collage of biblical and Jewish extracanonical traditions, which as Davila points out are ‘frequently connected by “catchwords,”’ that are found in two passages.258 In the framework of this study, this is an excellent example of intertextuality. What Davila calls 'catchwords' are similar to this study's intertextual markers insofar as words provide intertextual intersections between two, otherwise unrelated texts.

The portion that is of interest in this study is the frags. 1-2 iii 2-10, a portion of a prayer likely used on the The prayer begins with recollections of the post-Exodus wilderness wanderings,259 fifth day of the week.

specifically God's forgiveness after the people's rebellion in the wilderness.260 The historical recollection continues with a collage of references recalling the history of God's covenant with Israel.261 While the above portion does not contain many intertextual markers (jr) it is included because of the close proximity of and,)rb,wht), wht )rb.

The larger context is most certainly the covenant relationship between God and Israel, however, the creation of Israel as the chosen people among the nations brings MT Gen 1.1-5 intertextual markers into play. The use of wht in line 3 is (absent whb as in MT Gen 1.2) is paired with sp) as in MT Isa 40.17.262 The use of )rb has its closest parallel in MT Isaiah 43 where God's creation ()rb) of Israel among the nations takes center stage.263 The use of creation language together with covenant language is also found in 1QM x.8-18. There are many other intertextual connections within this pericope,264 none of which are of particular interest to this study.

4QInstructionb (4Q416) frag.1265 3.2.15

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E.G. Chazon, “Words of the Luminaries,” in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls (ed. L.H. Schiffman and J.C.

VanderKam; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000) 2:989.

See 4Q504 8 recto. While one might expect it, there is no intertextual relationship between MT Gen 1.1-5 and 4Q504 8 recto. Though line 4 likely reflects MT Gen 1.26, the rest of what remains of lines 4-10 appears to be based on Genesis 2-3.

Davila, Liturgical Works, 242.

The conclusion of a prayer at 4Q504 1-2i recto 7 and portions of the opening formula in line 8 mark the beginning of Thursday's prayer. Cf. Davila, Liturgical Works, 254.

4Q504 1-2 ii recto 7-11 recalls the people's rebellion and God's forgiveness, and lines 11ff petition God for similar forgiveness for God's people in the day of the petitioner.

4Q504 1-2 iii recto 1(?)-10 recalls God's creation and election of Israel; lines 10ff recall 'covenant curses' (cf.

Davila, Liturgical Works, 257); 4Q504 1-2 iv recto 1(?)-15(?) makes reference to God's covenant with David. A benediction and double 'amen' likely completed the prayer at or near the bottom on this column.

See above, pp. 26-27.

MT Isa 43.1, 7, and 15.

In v.15 there is a titular use of )rb specifically pointed to God as creator of Israel (l)r#y )rwb).

Cf. Davila, Liturgical Works, 256-258.

This text is also known as 4QSapiential Work A. The editors of the text, J. Strugnell and D.J. Harrington, DJD XXXIV, suggest a Hebrew title, }yib"m:l rfsUm, Instruction for a Maven, as the title of the instructor is not known. (3)

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There are overlaps of this fragment with 4Q418 1. The lacunae that are filled in are based on the reconstructions of Strugnell and Harrington, DJD XXXIV.81, and the specific references to 4Q418 1 are footnoted in the translation below.

See 4Q418 1,1.

See 4Q418 1,2.

See 4Q418 1,3.

See 4Q418 1,5.

See 4Q418 2,2.

The editors, noting the difficulty with this verb, choose the translation, "will be destroyed." They also note that in 4Q418 there is a different verb (]wrtyw), making any firm conclusion on the meaning of this phrase difficult. DJD XXXIV.86.

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This is the first fragment of 4QInstructionb (4Q416),273 one of seven fragmentary copies of a large wisdom text.274 The work as a whole is a text of instruction that incorporates traditional wisdom elements similar to Proverbs and Sirach with an apocalyptic eschatology.275 The fact that the manuscripts date from the late first century BCE and that there are seven of them found among the library of Qumran suggest that this was a text important to the sectarians. Strugnell and Harrington offer a variety of possibilities for the origin of the text, their most probable being that ‘the work came neither from the Qumran sect, nor from any secular associates of the Qumran movement, nor yet from pre-sectarian groups, but rather was a general offshoot of Jewish wisdom, of uncertain date and not sectarian at all (cf. the non-sectarian Sirach).’276 Creation plays a central role throughout 4QInstruction, as pointed out by Licht,277 D. Harrington,278 and Lange.279 This is expanded upon by M. Goff, who suggests that ‘the mystery that is to be’ (hyhn is likely the mysteries of creation and the created order that the zr), maven or student is to study and understand. Another element of the theological perspective of 4QInstruction is its dualism similar, though not as developed, to that found in the ‘Instruction of the Two Spirits’ in the Rule of the Community (1QS iii-iv).281 4Q416 1 likely comes from the beginning of the work,282 and shows some intertextual similarities with MT The occurrence of xwr in line 12284 is used for humans in the juxtaposition of Gen 1.1-5 ()rb,{wht,{ym#,xwr).

4Q416 1 has some overlap with 4Q418 1-2, 2a, b, and c. The relationship is outlined by the editors in DJD XXXIV.81-82.

1Q26, 4Q415-18, 4Q418a, 4Q423. Editions of these are found in DJD XXXIV.

M.J. Goff, “The Mystery of Creation in 4QInstruction,” DSD 10 (2003) 163-186, traces the theme of creation, particularly via the difficult phrase, hyhn zr, which occurs throughout 4QInstruction and argues that the text is both sapiential and apocalyptic, rather than one or the other. J.J. Collins, Jewish Wisdom in the Hellenistic Age, (OTL;

Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1997) notes a difference between 4QInstruction and traditional Jewish wisdom literature in the ‘strong eschatological perspective’ of 4QInstruction. (126) Strugnell and Harrington, DJD XXXIV.21-22. Goff, “Mystery of Creation,” based on the reoccurrence of themes of financial poverty within 4QInstruction suggests that it dates to the early years of the 2nd century BCE, and that it is in this milieu that the work is best understood. (165) Goff also highlights the similarity and probable dependence of 1QH 18.28-29 on 4Q418 55 10. (180, especially n.67) J. Licht, The Rule Scroll: A Scroll from the Wilderness of Judaea: 1QS. 1QSa. 1QSb. Text, Introduction and Commentary, ([Hebrew] Jerusalem: Bialik, 1965) 90, 228.

D.J. Harrington, “Wisdom at Qumran,” in The Community of the Renewed Covenant: The Notre Dame Symposium on the Dead Sea Scrolls (ed. E. Ulrich and J.C. VanderKam; Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994) calls the hyhn zr "God's plan for creation." (150) Lange, Weisheit und Prädestination, 60.

Goff, “Mystery of Creation,” offers a description of the worldview of 4QInstruction, drawing with some modification upon the observations of M. Hengel, Judaism and Hellenism, (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1973), about the

spiritual milieu of Hellenism and a general condition of economic hardship for Jews under the Seleucids in preMaccabbean Palestine:

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