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There are four other uses of ty#)rb as a noun in the Mishnah. The first two, m.Eduyyot 3.3 and m.Hullin 11.2, both employ ty#)rb as a word meaning ‘first,’ in reference to a statement attributed to R. Dosa that speaks of an offering of zgh ty#)rb / ‘first fleece’ from five select sheep. The second two, both in m.Niddah 6.7, use the same phrase, zgh ty#)rb, though without specific reference to the statement of R. Dosa.

4QJuba v.5-9 4QJuba v.10 – 149 –

CHAPTER THREE Stretching the Heavens While not present in MT Gen 1.1-5, the idea of creation by stretching out (h+n) the heavens is a visible thread in the tapestry of chapter one, appearing in roughly one quarter of the texts.332 Given this prominence, it is somewhat surprising that a similar idea does not appear more often in the Hebrew afterlives of Day One. Of the texts in this chapter, two texts, both hymns, describe creation by the stretching out of the heavens. 1QHa ix.9-10 reads, you stretched out (the) heavens for your glory. Hymn 8 (11Q5 xxvi.14-15) reads, By his understanding he stretched out (the) heavens and brought forth [wind] from [his] store[houses]. Creation by Boundrification Another prominent thread in the tapestry of chapter one is the idea of creation by separation, an idea that is present in MT Gen 1.4 in the separation of light and darkness. As outlined in chapter one, the rough categories for the objects of the divine activity of separation are waters,333 light and darkness,334 seasons,335 and between God’s dwelling and the earth.336 As in the intertextual tapestry in chapter one in which the objects of separation are largely elements of the cosmos, e.g. waters, light, darkness, time, the War Scroll speaks of God being the creator of the boundaries of earth337 and of the sea,338 and 4QWorks of God339 and the Hymn340 attribute the separation of light and dark to God. One can also consider with these texts the more general ordering of night and day as attributed to God in the liturgical context of 1QHa xx.4-10, and possibly an ordering of seasons in 4QSapiential Work Ab,341 though the disrepair of this fragment makes any firm conclusion impossible.

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affirmation of creation or at least providential care coming from the speech of God. A more unambiguous text on this is 4Q381, which states that God made heaven and earth by an oath,343 going on to say, ‘and by the words of his mouth […],’ with ‘and channels’ beginning the following line.344 Another similar phrase, ‘with the word of his MT Isa 40.22, 42.

5, 45.12; Jer 10.12, 51.15; Zech 12.1; Ps 104.2

- MT Isa 40.12; Ps 104.9, 148.6; Job 26.10; {ay - MT Job 38.10, Prov 8.29; {Oh:T - MT Prov 8.27.

{iyam MT Gen 1.4; Job 26.

10, 38.19-20 MT Ps 74.17 MT Isa 40.22 1QM x.12 1QM x.13 4Q392 1 5-6 asserts that it is God alone who separates light and darkness.

Hymn 4 says that “(after) separating light from deep darkness, [God] established the dawn by the understanding of his heart.” 4Q416 1 2-3 MT Amos 9.6; Ps 33.6, 148.5; Job 38.12 4Q381 1 3. The difficulties of ymwyb are noted above, p. 119, n.166.

4Q381 1 3-4 – 150 –


mouth […],’345 may introduce the creation of Adam or man as the beginning of the following line reads, ‘with [his] w[ife],’ a difficult reconstruction to say the least. Less so is the next statement, that ‘by the breath of his mouth he made them stand to rule over all these on the earth,’346 an unambiguous example of creation by speech. While 4Q381 1 is fragmentary, it is clear that the primary method of creation at least in this extant portion of the text is speech or breath. Creation by Wisdom/Knowledge The place of wisdom in creation, personified in MT Prov 8.22-31 and present elsewhere as a means for creating, appears in the texts of this chapter. Noticeably absent is any text that personifies wisdom in relation to creation, a thread that is quite prominent in the Greek afterlives of Gen 1.1-5. There are two texts in particular that display the theme of creation by wisdom. The first is 1QHa ix, which has three statements to this effect: line 7, though quite damaged, may well say that God created humans in wisdom; the object of the creative action in line 14 is also unclear, though it may be the seas and deeps and/or the contents thereof; and in lines 19-20 the courses of humankind are established ‘in the wisdom of your knowledge.’ The second is the Hymn to the Creator 7, which has God creating the world (lbt) with his wisdom (wtmkwxb) as in MT Jer 10.12 and 51.15. Also, Hymn 4 has God establishing the dawn by the understanding of his heart. In the case of Hymn 7 in particular there is an intertextual intersection with the larger tapestry of MT Gen 1.1-5.

Related to this is a title that is ascribed to God as the God of knowledge - This title is used in tw(dh l).

direct connection with a creative action of establishing orderly time in 1QHa xx.10. The same title is also found in 1QS iii.15, with a wider focus in that the God of knowledge is the source of all that is and will be.349 Finally, 4QJubileesa v.10 appears to contain the remnants of ‘his [know]ledge’, which if the reconstruction of the Hebrew is correct, states that darkness and dawn, light and evening are set up with the knowledge of God.350 3.3.3 Creation & Angels The prevalent presence of primordial figures in chapter one is matched by the absence of them in the texts of chapter three, with Wisdom herself being a no-show. There are, however, mentions of the creation and/or presence of angels at the creation. 4QJubileesa v.1-11 is the prime example of this, with the cadre of angels created on Day One. An echo of this understanding of angels and creation comes in 1QHa v.14, in which the ‘host of your spirits’ is created along with the other primordial stuff. Similarly, in 1QHa ix.10-13 there is a mention of the 4Q381 1 6 4Q381 1 7 The world (l"b"T) in MT Jer 10.12, 51.15; everything in Ps 104.24; and ordering the clouds in Job 38.37.

One can wonder about the Hebrew of Sir 24.

The title is found in 4QInstructiond (4Q418) 55 5, though it is unlikely that this is a creation context, and possibly in 1QHa xxv bottom 8-9 (Sukenik frags 8 + 7 i) and 4QMysteriesa (4Q299) 35, though both of these texts are severely damaged.

Cf. Jub 2.2 – 151 –


transformation of spirits into angels,351 and in 4Q416 1 7 there is mention of the establishment of the hosts of heaven, though the fragmentary nature of these texts precludes any full understanding the wider literary context. In line with this is Hymn 5, in which angels both see and seemingly rejoice at being shown the creative activity of God.

While the absence of personified wisdom is a bit glaring, tempered of course by the partial nature of the evidence, there is an emphasis in the placement of angelic beings both at the beginning of and in the general vicinity of God’s creative activity.352

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tattered edges of the tapestry. There are four texts,355 two of which are marginal inclusions,356 that include one or both these words. In 1QM xvii.4, wht and whb are used in tandem, though in a construction different from MT Gen 1.2.357 While the context is damaged, it is safe to say that the use here is negative. That is, the enemy longs for tohu and for bohu. The second use of both, reliant on a reconstruction, comes in 4Q303 1 5.358 While it is clear that 4Q303 1 is a creation text, because of the state of the fragment it is difficult to say very much about the occurrence It does seem possible, however, given the mentions of light359 that this of and the possible occurrence of wht whb.

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negative connotations. While this appears to be in line with the Hebrew intertexts of MT Gen 1.1-5, it is shown in chapter four that there is a difference with the Greek equivalents in the afterlives of LXX Gen 1.1-5.

The angels here are the lights of the heavens (cf. 1QHa ix.9) – luminaries (sun and moon), stars, shooting stars, lightning, and storehouses. There seems to be a kinship between this hymn and the idea that stars are angelic beings in 1 En 21.1-10 (3, 10), which describes the place of punishment for disobedient stars and angels.

1QS iii.20-26 has the Prince of Lights and the Angel of Darkness and that God created both the ‘spirits of light and darkness.’ Angels are also mentioned in 1QM x.11-12 and 4Q381 1 10.

MT Gen 1.2; Isa 34.

11; Jer 4.23 MT Deut 32.10; Sam 12.21 [2x]; Isa 24.10, 29.21, 34.11, 40.17, 23, 41.29, 45.18-19 [2x], Isa 49.4, 59.4; Job 6.18, 26.7.

1QM xvii.4; 4Q303 1 5; 4Q504 1-2 iii recto 4; and Sir 41.10.

I include both 1QM xvii.4 and Sir 41.10 in 3.2.17 Additional Texts.

– They long for tohu and for bohu.

{tqw#t whblw whtl hmh wh]bw wht {wqmb r[w) – ligh]t in the place of tohu and b[ohu Light (rw)) is mentioned in both 4Q303 1 4-5.

In spite of the disrepair in the manuscript evidence, both MS B and Masada have the same phrase.

– 152 –


3.3.5 The Nominalization of ty#)rb There is at least a partial shift toward a nominalization of ty#)rb, in which the entire first word of Genesis becomes a proper noun for the creation story. The first instance of this may come in Sir 15.14 MS A, in which is used with a preposition (-m). As noted above, it is far from conclusive that this is a nominalized form, ty#)rb

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who fortifies the works of creation.

Such a blessing is a fitting conclusion to this chapter exploring the intertextual afterlives of MT Gen 1.1-5.

–  –  –

4.1 Introduction Since this study deliberately reads texts through the some-might-argue arbitrary lens of intertextuality, it might follow that there is an abritrary nature to the ordering of the texts in these last two chapters. While I attempt to order the texts somewhat statistically in the first two chapters, this breaks down when the texts are incomplete (e.g. Chapter 3) and when the texts are a virtual potpourri drawn from a variety of contexts, as is the case in this chapter. My method of ordering the texts in chapter four organizes them into the categories Jewish and Christian.1 While there are not many texts in this chapter whose provenance is ambigous,2 I realize that these categories can be semipermeable and so proceed with caution. Within these two categories, I order the texts (mostly) by the number of intertextual markers that they share with LXX Gen 1.1-5. At the end of the comments on the individual texts, I have added a brief section mentioning texts that are of less intertextual significance that still have some play within this study.3 Various tools were used to identify the texts in this chapter – reading being the first and foremost. For apocryphal texts (e.g. Sirach, Pr.Man. etc.) I employed the help of the electronic search capabilities of BibleWorks

5.0 in addition to Hatch and Redpath.4 For Josephus, I benefited from the work of Rengstorf,5 and for Philo, to a lesser degree, from Borgen, Fuglseth, and Skarsten.6

4.2 Jewish Texts

4.2.1 Philo, De Opificio Mundi 26-35 fhsi. dV w`j evn avrch/| evpoi,hsen o` qeo.j to.n ouvrano.n kai. th.n gh/n( th.n avrch.n paralamba,nwn( ouvc w`j oi;ontai, tinej( th.n kata. cro,non\ cro,noj ga.r ouvk h=n pro. ko,smou( avllV h' su.n auvtw/| ge,gonen h' metV auvto,n\ evpei. ga.r dia,sthma th/j tou/ ko,smou kinh,sew,j evstin o` cro,noj( prote,ra de. tou/ kinoume,nou ki,nhsij ouvk a'n ge,noito( avllV avnagkai/on auvthn h' u[steron h' a[ma suni,stasqai( avnagkai/on a;ra kai. to.n cro,non h' ivsh,lika ko,smou gegone,nai h' new,teron evkei,nou\ presbu,teron dV avpofai,nesqai tolma/n avfilo,sofon) eiv dV avrch. mh. paralamba,netai tanu/n h` kata. cro,non( eivko.j a'n ei;h mhnu,esqai th.n katV avriqmo,n( w`j to. evn avrch/| evpoi,hsen i;son ei=nai tw/| prw/ton evpoi,hse to.n ouvrano.n\ kai. ga.r eu;logon tw/| o'nti prw/ton auvto.n eivj ge,nesin evlqei/n( a;riston te o;nta tw/n gegono,twn kavk tou/ kaqarwta,tou th/j ouvsi,aj page,nta( dio,ti qew/n evmpanw/n te kai. aivsqhtw/n e;mellen oi=koj e;sesqai i`erw,tatoj) kai. ga.r eiv pa,nqV a[ma o` poiw/n evpoi,ei( ta,xin ouvde.n h-tton ei=ce ta. kalw/j gino,mena\ kalo.n ga.r ouvde.n evn avtaxi,a|) ta,xij dV avkolouqi,a kai. ei`rmo,j evsti prohgoume,nwn tinw/n kai.

J.R. Davila, The Provenance of the Pseudepigrapha: Jewish, Christian, or Other?, (JSJSup 105; Leiden: Brill,

2005) proposes a rigorous method for considering the provenance of pseudepigraphic texts.

In this zone of ambiguity, I place Joseph and Asenath, the Prayer of Manasseh, and Sibylline Oracle 1.

The texts and translations for these two sections are located in Appendix D.

E. Hatch and H.A. Redpath, A Concordance to the Septuagint and other Greek versions of the Old Testament (including the Apocryphal Books), (Graz, Austria: Akademische Druck - U. Verlagstanstalt, 1975).

K.H. Rengstorf, ed., A Complete Concordance to Flavius Josephus, 4 vols., Leiden: Brill, 1973-1983).

P. Borgen, K. Fuglseth, and R. Skarsten, The Philo Index: A Complete Greek Word Index to the Writings of Philo of Alexandria (Leiden: Brill, 1999).

–154 –


e`pome,nwn( eiv kai. mh. toi/j avpotele,smasin( avlla, toi tai/j tw/n tektainome,nwn evpinoi,aij\ ou[twj ga.r e;mellon hvkribw/sqai, te kai. avplanei/j ei=nai kai. avsu,gcutoi) prw/ton ou=n o` poiw/n evpoi,hsen ouvrano.n avsw,maton( kai gh/n avo,raton( kai. ave,roj ivde,an kai.

kenou/\ w-n to. me.n evpefh,mise sko,toj( evpeidh. me,laj o` avh.r th/| fu,sei( th.n dV a;busson( polu,buqon ga.r to, ge keno.n kai. avcane,j\ ei=qV u[datoj avsw,maton ouvsi,an( kai. pneu,matoj( kai.

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