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‘not crossing each other’ = di,ca pa,shj parekba,sewj –184 –


dissension or change for any of the things, which have been decreed by him. 5The unsearchable regions the abysses and the ineffable regions of (the) netherworld are constrained by the same commands. 6The hollow of the boundless sea, formed by his workmanship into the gathered (waters180), does not transgress the barriers, which had been placed around her, but just as he arranged her, thus she181 does. 7For he said, ‘You will come this far, and your waves crashing within you.’ 8(The) ocean, infinite to humans, and the worlds beyond it are governed by the same decrees of the master. 9The seasons – spring and summer and fall and winter – in peace transfer to one another. 10The stations of the winds in their own appointed time complete their service without stumbling. The eternal fountains, created for enjoyment and health, furnish the breasts, which are for the life of humans, without ceasing. The smallest of the living creatures have intercourse182 with one another in harmony and peace. 11The great Creator and Master of all things commands these things to be in peace and harmony, bringing good kindness for all things, but especially for us, who flee to his compassion through our Lord Jesus Christ, 12to him be the glory and the majesty for ever and ever. Amen.

This text includes the whole of 1 Clem 20, a subsection of 1 Clem 19.2-21.8.183 A terminus post quem of 150 CE can be established for 1 Clement as it is quoted by Dionysius of Corinth,184 though a more precise date in the early to mid-90s CE during the reign of Domitian (81-96 CE) has been suggested.185 This text is as much an expression of the orderliness of creation as it is about any creative activity. It largely describes the cosmic order that emanates from the divine command, which regulates the workings of the cosmos like the fine workings of a clock.186 From the heavens (20.1) to the smallest bits (20.10) God has established a natural order. From this order, harmony and peace result. In addition to naming God as dhmiourgo,j and despo,thj,187 the passage combines hands-on creation,188 creation by word/speech,189 and creation by divine will.190 It is clear elsewhere that the author of 1 Clement did know Genesis 1.191 At the same time, there is no direct conversation in 1 Clement 20 with either LXX Gen 1.1-5 or Genesis 1 as a whole, though there is a significant intertextual relationship (ouvrano,j( gh/( h`me,ra( nu,x( a;bussoj( poie,w). About them little needs to be said other than that they, among others, are objects of God's boundrification of the cosmos.

Clarified, ‘...die Sammlungen (des Wassers)...’, Lindemann and Paulson, Apostolischen Väter, 105.

It goes against the nature of this thesis to translate poie,w as ‘to do’, but it is difficult to read the subject of the verb in this instance as anything other than the sea. So, in this case poie,w is the action that is in line with the creator's design rather than the creative action itself.

Another possible translation: ‘The smallest of living creatures have their meetings in harmony and peace.’ W.C. van Unnik, “Is 1 Clement 20 purely Stoic?,” VC 4 (1950) 181.

Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., 4.23.

Ehrman, ed., Apostolic Fathers, 1.24-25.

I concur with the findings of van Unnik, “Is 1 Clement purely Stoic?,” that 1 Clem 20 is not purely Stoic but reflects a good deal of influence from the LXX and affinity with contemporary Jewish creation texts. (184-189) Cf. 1 Clem 33.2. The article by D.S. Cormode, “The Influence of Hellenistic Judaism on the Concepts of God and the Church in 1 Clement,” Studia Biblica et Theologica 17 (1989), suggests that the use of dhmiourgo,j and despo,thj reflects the influence of Hellenistic Judaism. While there is an affinity to use these terms to describe God in 1 Clement, Philo, Josephus, etc., Cormode's assertion that they are used to


God from the creation (cf. 189, 190, etc.) is an overstretch of 1 Clement's references to God.

dhmiourgi,a (20.6), dhmiourge,w (20.10) u`pota,ssw (20.1), ta,ssw (20.2), evpita,ssw (20.3), dogmati,zw (20.4), diata,ssw (20.6), prosta,ssw (20.11) kata. to. qe,lhma auvtou/ (20.4) Also, LXX Ps 134.6 and Josephus, C.Ap. 2.192.

See quotations of LXX Gen 1.26-27 in 1 Clem 33.5, and LXX Gen 1.28 in 1 Clem 33.6.

–  –  –

While there are definite similarities, significant differences in word order, conjunctions, and pronouns point to paraphrase rather than quotation.193 The passage is introduced in 1 Clement with ei=pen ga,r, indicating a speaker other than the author of 1 Clement and pointing to divine speech, which fits with the larger context of Job 38.

Additionally the paraphrase comes in the midst of a passage about God setting boundaries for the sea (1 Clem 20.6and possibly 8), which matches the immediate context of LXX Job 38.11, and in 1 Clem 20.6, bars (klei/qra), the same word used to describe the boundaries established by God in LXX Job 38.10, is used to describe the sea.194 4.3.4 1 Clement 33.1-8 33.1 ti, ou=n poih,swmen( avdelfoi,* avrgh,swmen avpo. th/j avgaqopoii?,aj kai. evgkatali,pwmen th.n avga,phn* mhqamw/j tou/to eva,sai o` despo,thj evfV h`mi/n ge genhqh/nai( avlla. speu,swmen meta.

evktenei,aj kai. proqumi,aj pa/n e;rgon avgaqo.n evpitelei/n) 2auvtoj ga.r o` dhmiourgo.j kai. despo,thj tw/n a`pa,ntwn evpi. toi/j e;rgoij auvtou/ avgallia/tai) 3tw|/ ga.r pammegeqesta,tw| auvtou/ kra,tei ouvranou.j evsth,risen kai. th/| avkatalh,ptw| auvtou/ sune,sei dieko,smhsen auvtou,j\ gh/n te diecw,risen avpo. tou/ perie,contoj auvth.n u[datoj kai. h[drasen evpi. to.n avsfalh/ tou/ ivdi,ou boulh,matoj qeme,lion\ ta, te evn auvth|/ zw|/a foitw/nta th|/ e`autou/ diata,xei evke,leusen ei=nai\ qa,lassan kai. ta. evn auvth|/ zw|/a proetoima,saj195 evnekleisen th/| e`autou/ duna,mei) 4 evpi. pa/si to.

evxocw,taton kai. pamme,geqej kata. dia,noian(196 a;nqrwpon( tai/j i`erai/j kai. avmw,moij cersi.n e;plasen( th/j e`autou/ eivko,noj carakth/ra) 5ou[twj ga,r fhsin o` qeo,j\ poih,swmen a;nqrwpon katV eivko,na kai. kaqV o`moi,wsin h`mete,ran) kai. evpoi,hsen o` qeo.j to.n a;nqrwpon( a;rsen kai. qh/lu evpoi,hsen auvtou,j) 6tau/ta ou=n pa,nta teleiw,saj evph|,nesen auvta. kai. huvlo,ghsen kai. ei=pen\ auvxa,nesqe kai. plhqu,nesqe) 7i;dwmen( o[ti evn e;rgoij avgaqoi/j pa,ntej evkosmh,qhsan oi` di,kaioi( kai. auvto.j de. o` ku,rioj e;rgoij avgaqoi/j e`auto.n kosmh,saj evca,rh) 8e;contej ou=n tou/ton to.n u`pogrammo.n avo,knwj prose,lqwmen tw/| qelh,mati auvtou/\ evx o[lhj th/j ivscu,oj h`mw/n evrgasw,meqa e;rgon dikaiosu,nhj) 33.1 Therefore, brothers, what shall we do? Shall we be idle from doing good and leave behind love? May the Master not let this come to happen to us. Rather we should hasten to accomplish every good work with zeal and willingness. 2For the Creator and Master of all himself rejoices exceedingly in his works. 3 For by his exceedingly great might he fixed (the) heavens, and by his incomprehensible intelligence he regulated them. He separated (the) earth from (the) water that encompassed it, and he placed (them) upon the firm foundation of his own will. By his own arrangement/command he ordered the living things that roam about upon it to be. Preparing beforehand the sea and the living things in it he enclosed it by his own power. 4He molded by (his) holy and blameless hands a person who is most eminent and greatest in purpose to all, an impression of his own image. 5For thus says God, ‘”Let us make Also noted by Lindemann and Paulson, Apostolischen Väter, 104, and Ehrman, ed., Apostolic Fathers, 1.73.

Of course the possibility exists that this is a quotation from another Greek version of Job, but at this point there is no textual evidence available for such a conclusion.

klei/qra is also found in LXX Job 26.13, a text which is part of the Hebrew tapestry of Gen 1.1-5 (Chapter 1) but did not make it into the Greek (Chapter 2). In LXX Job 26.13 the klei/qra are used as boundaries for heaven, rather than the sea.

The Latin, Syriac, Coptic, and the newer Greek ms, Hierosolymitanus (1056 CE), support proetoima,saj, whereas the elder Greek ms, Alexandrinus (5th c. CE) reads prodhmi@ourgh,#saj. Cf. Lindemann and Paulson, Apostolischen Väter, 116.

kata. dia,noian is only found in the Greek mss.

–186 –


humankind according to our image and likeness.” And God made humankind, male and female he made them.’ 6When (he) had finished all these things he applauded and blessed them and said, ‘Increase and multiply.’ 7We should know that all the righteous were adorned with good works, and the Lord himself, when adorned with good works, rejoiced. 8Therefore having such a pattern we should go toward his will without hesitation – out of the whole of our strength we should do righteous work.

This second text from 1 Clement is more explicitly tied to Genesis 1, though more to the second and sixth days than Day One;197 and like 1 Clement 20, this passage bears little interest in or knowledge of LXX Gen 1.1-5.

The argument in this pericope is that if people are made in the likeness of God (Gen 1.26-27) and God has done all these wonderful acts of creation, then humans ought to work to conform themselves to this pattern. God as dhmiourgo,j and despo,thj198 is joyful in his creative work, especially at the creation of humans (33.6), including the idea of a Chirst-figure that is the firstborn human (33.4). Interestingly, there appears to be no particular need on the part of the author to place the ‘molding’ of Christ specifically first, as is done in Jn 1.1-5 and Col 1.15-20.

The intertextual markers (ouvrano,j( gh/( diacwri,zw( u[dwr) are found only in 1 Clem 33.3. In large part this portion of the text is a reiteration of the establishment of boundaries as outlined more extensively in 1 Clement 20, with the fixing and regulating of the heavens (ouvranoi,), and the separation (diacwri,zw) of earth (gh/) from the waters (u]dwr). The most interesting point of resemblance is the use of diacwri,zw. It is quite apparent that the author of 1 Clement does not have the use of this verb in LXX Gen 1.4 in mind. Rather, if (stressing the 'if') the author of 1 Clement had Genesis 1 in mind, it was most assuredly LXX Gen 1.7 and the separation of the earth and the water of the second day.

4.3.5 John 1.1-5

VEn avrch/| h=n o` lo,goj( kai. o` lo,goj h=n pro.j to.n qeo,n( kai. qeo.j h=n o` lo,gojÅ 2 ou-toj h=n evn avrch/| pro.j to.n qeo,nÅ 3pa,nta diV auvtou/ evge,neto( kai. cwri.j auvtou/ evge,neto ouvde. e[nÅ199 o] ge,gonen200 4evn auvtw/| zwh. h=n( kai. h` zwh. h=n to. fw/j tw/n avnqrw,pwn\ 5kai. to. fw/j evn th/| skoti,a| fai,nei( kai. h` skoti,a auvto. ouv kate,labenÅ In the beginning was the logos, and the logos was with God, and God was the logos. 2This one was in the beginning with God. 3All things came to be through him, and apart from him not one thing came into being. That which came into being 4in him was life, and the life was the light of (all) people, 5and the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not overpower it.

While John 1.1-5 is an obvious inclusion in this list, it is nowhere near the most intertextually related text to LXX Gen 1.1-5. While a bit short on intertextual markers (evn avrch|,( fw/j( sko,toj201), its formulaic beginning LXX Gen 1.7, 1.26-28 Cf. 1 Clem 20.11.

Rather than ouvde. e[n, P66 ‫ א‬D along with the f family of minuscules read ouvde,n.

There is a question of punctuation surrounding o] ge,genon. B.M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, (2nd ed.; Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft / United Bible Societies, 1994) points out that while there is of course no punctuation in the oldest textual witnesses, there seems to be a ‘consensus’ among ante-Nicene writers that o] ge,genon ought to go with what follows and from a literary standpoint according to the style (‘climactic or “staircase” parallelism’) of the passage o] ge,genon ought to go with what follows. (166) It is actually the feminine skoti,a in Jn 1.5, rather than the masculine sko,toj.

–187 –


mimics202 LXX Gen 1.1, and together with its use of Day One light/dark imagery to describe the creative results of the divine logos provide a firm foundation for inclusion. The relationship between LXX Gen 1.1-5 and Jn 1.1-5 is clear enough that one can say that Jn 1.1 deliberately resembles LXX Gen 1.1.203 The Prologue of John (1.1-18) is regularly recognized as something separate and introductory to the gospel as a whole, according to Bultmann an ‘overture.’204 The Prologue has also been parsed in a variety of ways with the understanding that behind it lies a hymn, commonly called the ‘logos hymn,’205 identified by Raymond Brown as John 1.1-5, 10-12b, 14, 16.206 Following Brown's analysis, the above pericope comprises the first portion of the ‘logos hymn.’ As for the origins of and influences upon the Prologue and/or the ‘logos hymn,’ there are many perspectives. Most scholars recognize a combination of elements from affinities with creation language in Second Temple wisdom literature to the middle-Platonism of Philo207 to polemics against a growing tide of Gnosticism.208 It is not the purpose of this study to wade into these all-consuming waters.209 Rather, suffice it to say that the background of Jn 1.1-5 remains opaque and likely draws upon a variety of influences. As a text, however, it crosses paths with LXX Gen 1.1-5.

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