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Finally, at tattered edges of the tapestry, in 1 Enoch 21.2 and 33.7-15, the reader is carried with Enoch to the limits of the cosmos and given a cosmographic glimpse of the boundaries of the earth264 and the whole lot,265 with the ever-elusive avkataskeu,astoj, distinguishing the place where disobedient stars are punished.266 Creation by Word/Speech A second method of creation that is a dominant thread throughout the texts in this chapter is creation by word or speech. In some cases this is manifest in the actual speech of the divine, along the lines of ‘and God said…,’ in Gen 1.3. Related to this is the idea that a divine lo,goj or logic is involved at the beginning, either as a creative force or a paradigm of creation.

In 1 Clememt 20, after God crafts the boundaries of the sea,267 God speaks and commands the sea to remain within its boundaries.268 Similarly, in Sib.Or. 1.9, all of God’s creative speech is apparently summarized with four words, ei;paj( geina,sqw kai. evgei,nato – He said, ‘Let it come into being,’ and it came into being. There are also examples of creation by speech where there is no quotation of the divine. In Pr.Man. 3, God fetters the sea by the word of God’s command. In both Sib.Or. 1.19 and 3.30, it says that by a word God created everything.

These three examples all employ lo,goj as a dative of means.269 A clear example of this from the Greek tapestry of Gen 1.1-5 is LXX Ps 32.6 [33.6] in which the heavens are created by the word of the Lord.270 Similar to creation by the word of God’s command in Pr.Man. 3 is creation by divine commands271 in 1 Clem 20.5. Similar to creation by The opposite of evil is good, and the opposite of death is life, just so the opposite of the pious is the sinner.

And so look into all the works of the Most High, they are two by two, one opposite the other.

Sir 33.7-9 Sir 33.10-13 1 En 18.5, 10 1 En 19.3 1 En 21.2 1 Clem 20.6 1 Clem 20.7. Introducing a paraphrase of LXX Job 38.11b, are the words, ei=pen ga,r. Similarly, in the context of the creation of humankind the author of 1 Clem 33.5 quotes divine speech from LXX Gen 1.26, introducing it with ou[twj ga,r fhsin o` qeo,j.

Another example of this dative of means, though with r`h/ma, comes in Herm. Vis. 3.4, where God fixes heaven and founds the earth by means of his powerful word.

Also, Wis. 9.1 prosta,gmasin – another dative of means.

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speech is creation by will. Josephus, C.Ap. 2.192, goes out of his way to tell the reader that the divine did not create by hand, nor by hard labor, nor by need of any fellow workers, but that he willed (qe,lw) the whole lot into being.272 Related to the above examples is Philo’s idea of the divine lo,goj273 – the invisible paradigm of the visible creation. The idea appears in two texts found in this chapter both of which deal with the creation of light. In Somn.

1.75, Philo, quoting from LXX Ps 26.1 [27.1], ‘the Lord is my illumination and my savior,’ suggests that God’s lo,goj is the intelligible light. That is, the light of Day One is the paradigm or archetype for all visible lights.

Slightly different from this is Philo’s contention in Opif. 31 that the intelligible light comes into being through the divine lo,goj.274 There are two Christian texts that come close to Philo’s understanding(s) of the divine lo,goj. The first of these is Diogn. 7.2, in which the invisible God places in the hearts of humans the truth and the holy and unknowable lo,goj. While it is not entirely clear, it seems that this lo,goj is not the same as the Christ-figure with whom the remainder of the text is interested. The second, Jn 1.1-5, equates the divine lo,goj with the Christ-figure.

The lo,goj is placed at the beginning, equated with God, the one through whom all things came to be.

A segue into the next section is one last text that notes creation by speech. This is Sir 24.3, in which wisdom states that she came out (was generated) from the mouth of the Most High.275 4.4.3 Creation involving a first-figure (Wisdom / Christ-figure) In the tradition of Prov 8.22-31, and (as above) not completely divorced from the idea of creation by divine speech, is the idea that created first of all at the beginning is wisdom. This thread is reinterpreted in Sirach. While in Sirach 1 the point is made that wisdom was created prior to everything else,276 in Sirach 24 wisdom’s place in the cosmos is clarified. That is, wisdom resides first in the clouds of heaven,277 and then at the behest of God takes up residence in the Jerusalem Temple,278 ultimately being associated with the Law of Moses.279 This wisdom thread seems related to the Christian idea of the Christ-figure present and creatively active from the beginning. While none of these texts identifies this first-figure as the Christ by name, it is clear that these Also, LXX Ps 134.6, 1 Clem 20.4.

For Philo, the intelligible cosmos, the subject of God’s creative actions on Day One, is located in the divine lo,goj, cf. Opif. 20. Runia, On the Creation, suggests that Philo’s understanding of the divine lo,goj is a confluence of Hellenistic philosophical categories and biblical ideas, e.g. God creates by speaking in Geneis 1. (142-143) Runia, On the Creation, suggests that Philo may be referring here to God’s speaking light into existence in Gen 1.3. (168) While this may be the case, Philo’s understanding of the lo,goj as the intelligible paradigm of the perceptible cosmos must remain in our frame of reference.

Quite similar to this is Jdt 16.14 soi. douleusa,tw pa/sa h` kti,sij sou\ o[ti ei=paj( kai. evgenh,qhsan\ avpe,steilaj to. pneu/ma sou( kai. wv|kodo,mhsen\ kai. ouvk e;stin o]j avntisth,setai th/| fwnh/| sou)

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Christian texts all share a theological interest in interpreting the person of Jesus in relation to the creator of the cosmos. Wisdom provides a paradigm for these interpretations, an interpretation illustrated by Justin Martyr’s deliberate Christological interpretation of LXX Prov 8.21b-25.280 Colossians 1 states that this Christ-figure is the image of the invisible God, the first born of all creation281 and the one in whom all things were created.282 In a similar way, John 1.1-5, though referring to this figure as the lo,goj, strengthens the relationship between the lo,goj or Christ-figure and God by equating the two. Diogn 7.2 identifies this Christ-figure as the technician and creator of the whole.

Marginal reference should also be made to two additional texts. The first of these is Herm. Vis. 3.4, in which the church is created by wisdom and foreknowledge. Though this text does not explicitly place the creation of the church at the beginning, by juxtaposing the creation of the church with the fixing of the heaven and the founding of the earth the text infers that the church was created at least among the first things.283 Secondly, in the retelling of Gen 1.1-5 in Jub 2.2-3, the author interprets / pneu/ma qeou/ of Gen 1.2 as reference to the {yhl) xwr angelic hosts.284

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afterlives tapestry of LXX Gen 1.1-5. The latter of the Greek pair, avkataskeu,astoj, appears only in the cosmographic text of 1 En 21.1-3 and is used there to describe the place where disobedient stars are punished. The lack of use of this word makes any firm conclusions difficult, though this occurrence in 1 En 21.2 can be read in light of a chaos idea in LXX Gen 1.2. The former, avoratoj, occurs repeatedly throughout the tapestry, though never, in terms of chaos. When used in relation to the created world, avoratoj is used by Philo to describe the paradigmatic,, intelligible earth285 and light286 of Day One, and elsewhere the human soul – an invisible image of the invisible God.287 Jos.Asen. 12.2 echoes a similar idea in that God’s creative activity brings into the light things that are invisible.288 In addition to describing the created, avoratoj is also used to describe the creator. For Philo, God is, invisible and supreme.289 For Josephus, the invisible divine is visible in works and graces.290 In Christian texts, God291 and God’s power292 are invisible, though God is made visible in the Christ-figure.293 Dialogue with Trypho 129.1-4 Col. 1.15 Col. 1.16 Col 1.18 mentions the church, though in this text it is in reference to the Christ-figure.

M. Alexandre, Le Commencement du Livre Genèse I-V: La version grecque de la Septante et sa réception, (Christianisme Antique 3; Paris: Beauchesne, 1988) gives a summary of both Jewish and Christian creation accounts that include angels. (61-63) Opif. 29 Opif. 31 Somn. 1.73-74 Josephus, Ant. 1.27, speaks of the act of creation similarly though without avoratoj.

, Somn. 1.72 Josephus, Dialogue with Trypho 190, does not specifically use avo,ratoj.

Col 1.5; Diogn. 7.2; Sib.Or. 3.12 Herm. Vis. 3.4

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4.4.5 Creatio ex nihilo Outside of Isa 45.7 and the Greek version of Gen 1.1-5,294 there is little deliberate concern in the books of the Hebrew Bible and their Greek equivalents for expressly stating a doctrine of creatio ex nihilo. While I make no claims on the origins of this thinking, it is apparent in texts of this chapter that creatio ex nihilo has become of concern. While it is often suggested that 2 Macc 7.28 is the oldest expression of this idea, Jub 2.2 appears to precede it. The list in Jub 2.2 of the seven things that were created on the first day accounts for all of the nouns of LXX Gen 1.1-5, leaving none to have existed prior to Day One. This zero-sum subtlety effectively proposes a version of creatio ex nihilo, picked-up and with some minor modification repeated by Philo.295 On the flip-side of this, in the third of the retellings of Gen 1.1-5, Josephus appears unconcerned about creatio ex nihilo.296 To Jub 2.2 and Opif 29, there are texts less interested in maths though no less interested in starting from nothing. Jos.Asen. 12.2 states that God is the maker of everything. Pr.Man. 2, though less explicitly, states that God created heaven and earth and everything else in them. Also, Col 1.16 states that in the Christ-figure everything was made, and John 1.3 states that all things came into being through him.

It is true that none of the texts in this chapter deal as expressly with the problem of evil as does Isa 45.7, that is, none ascribe the creation of evil ((ar / kako,j) to God. It does appear to be the case, however, that the concern for a theological expression of creatio ex nihilo is more pronounced in these texts than in those of previous chapters.

This concludes the glimpses at individual portions of the tapestries of Day One. What follows in the conclusion is an attempt to step back further still to see the whole – to draw together the otherwise disparite threads of the intertextuality of Day One – and to reflect on this methodological excursion.

Col 1.15; 1 Clem 33.4 On LXX Gen 1.1-5, see above, pp. 49-50.

Opif. 29 Ant 1.27-29

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While researching and writing this thesis occasionally I have been accused, usually tongue-in-cheek, of not getting very far in my study of the Bible. After all, the first five verses of Genesis are just that – five verses. Quite contrary to these mostly friendly quips, this study wanders far afield of Day One, going from the beginning to prophetic wonderings about creation to eschatological longings within early Judaism to Christological imaginings in early Christianity. What holds these many texts together is their intertextuality with Genesis 1.1-5.

While tying up loose ends may well run contrary to the very idea of intertextuality, what follows is a summation of this ‘unfamiliar’ history.1 The plan for these final few pages is as follows. First of all, I return to the question of method. Of what value is intertextuality in the history of interpretation? From method, I turn to praxis.

What do we learn by employing this method that we would not otherwise know by way of a more conventional method of historical inquiry? To do this I follow the basic outline of the thesis as a whole, first of all summarizing the intertextuality of MT Gen 1.1-5 (chapter one) and LXX Gen 1.1-5 (chapter two), and then comparing the Hebrew intertextual afterlives (chapter three) with the intertextuality of MT Gen 1.1-5 and the Greek intertextual afterlives (chapter four) with the intertextuality of LXX Gen 1.1-5. Finally, I offer an observation on the impact of language on the intertextuality of a text.

5.1 The Question of Method At its core, this thesis is an experiment in methodology. This thesis proposes and implements a new method for viewing the interconnectedness of texts with a view toward the history of interpretation. This method works from a reader-focused2 understanding of text and seeks to provide a systematic means for identifying and examining the intertextuality of a given text,3 the débordement of text à la Derrida. This method provides a glimpse of how texts live and breathe and develop4 in the readings and interpretations of individuals and communities. The resulting tapestry of a text and its intertexts – these many threads woven together – provides a partial look into the

M.L. Grossman, Reading for History in the Damascus Document: A Methodological Study, (STDJ 45; Leiden:

Brill, 2002) ix.

It may be helpful here to recall a quote from R. Barthes, “From Work to Text,” in Image - Music - Text (ed. S.

Heath; Glasgow: Fontana/Collins, 1977), ‘…there is one place where this multiplicity [intertextual mosaic] is focused and that place is the reader, not, as was hitherto said, the author. The reader is the space on which all the quotations that make up a writing are inscribed….’ (148) On a ‘systematic means,’ see p.5 above.

When I was originally proposing the idea for this thesis, I was set on using the word ‘develop’. My thinking then was that with reading and interpreting, with the variety of readers reading from a variety of contexts for a variety of purposes, the meaning of a text would develop. My use of the word ‘develop’ was met with some skepticism in that ‘develop’ could be understood to include the idea of an eschatological goal-oriented perfection. As such I only use the word ‘develop’ here at the end and only with some caution. To clarify, the theological implication is not that interpretations become better (‘more developed’) over time. Rather, in my use of ‘develop’ I intend to highlight the dynamic quality of text and undermine a static understanding of text.

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