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a;bussoj – LXX Job 38.16, 30; Ps 32.7, 76.17, 103.6, 134.6, 148.7; Prov 8.24; Isa 44.27 (not in the MT), 51.10;

qa,lassa – LXX Exod 20.11; Job 38.8, 16; Ps 32.7, 73.13, 76.20, 134.6; Amos 5.8, 9.6; Isa 51.10, 15; dra,kwn – LXX Ps 73.13-14, 103.26, 148.7.

LXX Ps 103.24, Jer 10.

12, 28.15 LXX Job 38.36-37 LXX Ps 103.4, 148.

2; Job 38.7, and possibly Isa 44.26.

LXX 2 Kgdms 22.7 and Ps 17.7 definitely have references to a heavenly temple, and LXX Isa 40.22 and Amos

9.6 may have references to a heavenly temple.

4QJuba v.10

–  –  –

intertextual tapestry of Chapter One, God’s knowledge is a creative instrument only in MT Prov 3.20, the object which are broken open thereby. It does not appear that 4QJuba draws directly from another text being the twmwht, within the tapestry of MT Gen 1.1-5 in its use of God’s knowledge. What can be said, however, is that there is an intertextual connection between 4QJuba and MT Prov 3.20 in their use of God’s knowledge as a creative instrument.30 Several threads that appear in these later intertexts can be pulled together briefly. The first of these is the idea of stretching out (h+n) the heavens, a thread that appears in about one quarter of the intertexts in Chapter One.

The idea appears only twice in Chapter Three. In 1QHa ix.9-10 reads, ‘you stretched out (the) heavens for your glory,’ and Hymn 8 (11Q5 xxvi.14-15) reads, ‘By his understanding he stretched out (the) heavens and brought forth [wind] from [his] store[houses].’ Neither of these are direct quotations or paraphrases of an individual passage in the Hebrew Bible, though they both share a common intertextual thread.31 Secondly, when comparing creation by boundrification in the Hebrew Bible and in later intertextual afterlives, two texts have an intertextual resemblance to MT Gen 1.4,32 insofar as God is attributed with the separation of light and darkness.33 In addition, attention is paid to the ordering of time,34 the boundaries of the earth,35 and the sea.36 Thirdly, there are only two texts in Chapter Three that speak of creation by speech. 1QHa xx.9 makes clear that the order of what is and what will be comes from the mouth of God (l) and it appears that 4QNon-canonical Psalms B (4Q381 1) has in mind some kind ypm);

of creation by speech or breath. Finally, though wisdom personified is absent from these later intertexts,37 wisdom as an instrument of God’s creative actions is present in two texts. In 1QHa ix wisdom is present most likely as a creative instrument of God, though the damage to the text makes it difficult to know what the object(s) of this creative activity are.38 In Hymn 7, God creates the world (lbt) with his wisdom (wtmkwxb) as in MT Jer 10.12 and 51.15, making a particular connection with the intertextual tapestry in Chapter One.

A thread that deserves more attention is the exit of primordials and the entrance of angels within the afterlives of MT Gen 1.1-5. Along with obvious concern in 4QJubileesa, there is a wider concern for the creation of angels. 1QHa v.14 speaks of the creation of the ‘host of your spirits’; 1QHa ix.10-13 mentions the transformation of The title, God of knowledge (tw(dh l)), is found twice in the text of Chapter Three. In 1QHa xx.10, it is the God of knowledge who establishes orderly time; and in 1QS iii.15, it is the God of knowledge who is the source of all that is and will be.

Of interest is that both of these texts come in psalm-like texts, whereas the majority of the intertexts in the Hebrew Bible are from prophetic texts. Of the texts that speak of the stretching out of the heaves, three are either psalms or psalm-like – MT 2 Sam 22.10, Ps 18.10, 104.2; and eight are found in prophetic texts – MT Isa 40.22, 42.5, 44.24, 45.12, 51.13, Jer 10.12, 51.15, Zech 12.1.

One can also include here MT Job 26.10 and to a lesser degree of commonality Job 38.19-20.

4QWorks of God (4Q392 1 5-6) asserts that it is God alone who separates light and darkness; and Hymn 4 reads, ‘(after) separating light from deep darkness, [God] established the dawn by the understanding of his heart.’ 1QHa xx.4-10 speaks of a general ordering of night and day; and 4QSapiential Work Ab (4Q416 1 2-3) may speak of an ordering of seasons.

1QM x.12 1QM x.13 There is no extant Hebrew text for Sirach 24, which if it were extant and it did reflect the Greek of Ben Sira’s grandson, would be a personification of Wisdom.

1QHa ix.7 may and lines 19-20 have humankind as the object, and line 14 may be the seas or deeps or their contents.

– 205 –

CONCLUSION

spirits into angels; and 4Q416 1 7 likely mentions the establishment of the hosts of heaven. These, together with 4QJuba, make for an interesting, if not a prominent thread in the over all tapestry. Among the Hebrew Bible intertexts of MT Gen 1.1-5, there are two texts that make mention of angels or heavenly hosts worshipping YHWH,39 and one text, MT Ps 104.4, in which God makes the winds/spirits his angels/ messengers.40 Add to this the hovering upon the face of the primal waters in MT Gen 1.2, and it is clear that there is plenty of fodder {yiholE) axUr

–  –  –

neither used in the form (with -b) in which it is found in MT Gen 1.1 nor is it used as a proper noun in any of the other intertexts of MT Gen 1.1-5 inside or outside the Hebrew Bible. This development, if that is what it is, shows the metamorphosis of the language of the primary text into a proper noun.





5.5 The Intertexts of LXX Gen 1.1-5 with its Intertextual Afterlives Among the Greek intertextual afterlives of LXX Gen 1.1-5, there are four texts which are deliberate readings of LXX Gen 1.1-5. Two of these, Jub 2.2 and Josephus, Ant. 1.27-29, are eisegetical retellings of Gen 1.1They read-into and expand upon the text of Gen 1.1-5 as a means of clarifying the text’s ambiguities. A third text, Jn 1.1-5, retells LXX Gen 1.1-5 together with a Christological version of the personified wisdom figure of Proverbs 8 and Sirach 24. This text too is eisegetical, with the Christological confluence of at least two major threads, i.e. creation and Wisdom. The fourth retelling is that Philo’s Opif 26-35. Philo does not simply retell LXX Gen 1.1-5, he quotes from and comments upon the LXX text of Genesis. Philo’s reading of LXX Gen 1.1-5 through the lenses of Middle-Platonic philosophical categories is the closest thing to an exegetical commentary in the whole of this study.

Philo also provides two examples of pure intertextuality at work, recalling one of which is sufficient here.

In one of these,42 Gig. 22-23, Philo works out the meaning of pneu/ma in LXX Gen 6.3 and draws upon the occurrence of pneu/ma in LXX Gen 1.2. There is no logical connection between the two texts, other than the occurrence of a common word. Philo, as interpreter, reads intertextually. The common word, pneu/ma, there is an intertextual thread that connects the two texts in the interpretation of Philo.

There are two basic subjects of divine creative boundrification – forms of water and forms of light and dark – the former43 being foreign to LXX Gen 1.1-5 and latter being central.44 A unique appearance of the boundary MT Ps 148.2, Neh 9.6 – MT Ps 104.4a.

tOxUr wyfkf):lam he&o( m.Ber 9.2 and m.Hul 5.5, also m.Ta’an 4.2-3 and m.Meg 3.6.

The other is Somn. 1.72-76.

The separation of the waters takes center stage in the First Creation Story on the third day, Gen 1.9-13.

Gen 1.4

–  –  –

thread is the cosmographic glimpse of the boundaries in 1 Enoch,45 especially the glance at the elusive avkataskeu,astoj, which is used to describe the place where disobedient stars are punished.46 It is safe to say that creation by speech, central to LXX Gen 1.3, also appears prominently in the afterlives of LXX Gen 1.1-5. Closest to a record of the speech of the divine like LXX Gen 1.3 are 1 Clem 20.7 and Sib.Or.

1.9, both of which include the creative speech of God. In addition, there are at least three texts that employ the divine word (lo,goj) in creative acts, along the lines of LXX Ps 32.6 [33.6], in which the heavens are created by the word of the Lord. Related to this are the uses of lo,goj by Philo, as the invisible paradigm for the visible creation,47 and the lo,goj in John 1.1 that is placed at the beginning, equated with God, and the one through whom all things were made. A possible parallel to creation by speech is creation by will, a thread that is found in LXX Ps 134.6 and again in Josephus, C.Ap. 2.192 and 1 Clem 20.4.

If there is an evident trend of placing angels at the beginning of creation in the Hebrew intertextual afterlives,48 there is a similar concern with placing the first-figures of wisdom and Christ at the beginning in the Greek afterlives. The personified wisdom-figure that appears first in Proverbs 8 reappears in Sir 24. In Sir 24, the place of wisdom is clarified by housing her in the Jerusalem Temple49 and ultimately associating her with the Torah of Moses.50 This personification of wisdom appears to be at least intertextually informative for, if not paradigmatic of the early Christological moves to place the Christ-figure at the beginning of creation. Justin Martyr’s deliberate Christological interpretation of LXX Prov 8.21b-25, stands beside the more nuanced understandings of Col 1.15-20, which claims that the Christ-figure is the image of the invisible God, the first born of all creation, and the one in whom all things were made, John 1.1-5, which also states that the Christ-figure was from the beginning and equates the lo,goj with God, and finally Diogn. 7.2, which identifies the Christ-figure as the technician and creator of the whole cosmos. With the absence in the Hebrew afterlives of a personified wisdom-figure and the focus on the creation of angels at the beginning, the prominence of a personified wisdom / Christ-figure in the Greek afterlives is significant. From the hypothetical standpoint of the interpreter, it seems that the desire to make sense of or read the significance of Jesus of Nazareth was intertextually informed by the general desire to understand the first things created (e.g. the concern for angels) and specifically the Proverbs 8 and Sirach 24 tradition of a wisdom-figure present and active at the beginning of creation.

One final and related thread of note is that of creatio ex nihilo. The creation of both light and darkness in MT Isa 45.7 seems fertile ground for creatio ex nihilo, insofar as it could be a clarification of MT Gen 1.1-3, which has no creation of darkness. Another clarification of MT Gen 1.1-3 might well be seen in the two creative acts in LXX Gen 1.1-3. The first is that God creates heaven and earth in LXX Gen 1.1, with v.2 serving to describe this asyet-unformed earth. The second is the creation of light in LXX Gen 1.3. Like MT Isa 45.7, LXX Gen 1.1-5 by way 1 En 18.5, 10, 19.3 1 En 21.2 The lo,goj that is the placed by the invisible God in the hearts of humans in Diogn. 7.2 appears to be more closely related to the paradigmatic lo,goj of Philo, than the Christ-figure of John 1.

Of course, the placement of the creation of angels on the Day One of creation is central in the Greek text of Jubilees 2.2-3, as covered in Chapter Four.

Sir 24.8-12 Sir 24.23-33 – 207 –

CONCLUSION

of its grammar is fertile ground for creatio ex nihilo. More deliberate expressions of creatio ex nihilo appear in the Greek afterlives. While 2 Macc 7.28 is obvious, the list of seven things created on Day One in Jub. 2.2 and slightly modified by Philo in Opif 29 provide a zero-sum expression of creatio ex nihilo.51 If it is expressly stated that all these things were created, there is nothing left to have existed before God began creating.

–  –  –

this point. This is not because their interpretations are not of interest. On the contrary, they are significant, especially when one considers the role of language in the history of interpretation as viewed through the lens of intertextuality. When wht and whb appear throughout the Hebrew intertextual tapestry (chapters one and three), they are always used negatively. From the use of the pair in MT Jer 4.23 to describe the state of the earth upon its return to a pre-created state, to 1QM xvii.4 in which the enemy longs for both wht and whb, wht and whb are never used as positive descriptions. In the Greek there is a marked difference, however. While a hapax legomenon in the LXX, avkataskeua,stoj, in 1 En 21.1-3 is used to describe a place of punishment, its partner, avoratoj, is decidedly positive, throughout the Greek tapestry. Whether describing the pure invisible paradigm of the visible cosmos as in Opif. 29 or invisible God as in Col 1.15, avo,ratoj is a uniformly positive term. Not surprisingly the rather positive Platonic baggage of avo,ratoj outweighs the relatively obscure and always negative Hebrew wht. This difference in language has a significant impact on the overall picture of the intertextual history of Day One.

5.7 Some Final Thoughts While it may be taboo to switch metaphors in the last paragraph, the teaching attributed to the school of R.

Ishmael is both related and insightful. This school taught/teaches that the biblical text when subject to interpretation is like a rock that shatters upon the strike of a hammer.52 The results of the strike of the hammer are pieces, fragments. This thesis has identified and examined the fragments of the rock / the threads of the tapestry / the intertexts of Day One and how they relate to one another. In so doing, this thesis provides solid textual evidence that Kristeva’s observation – …tout texte se construit comme mosaïque de citations, tout texte est absorbtion et transformation d’un autre texte – proves true to the nature of text.53 There is a theological edge to this ‘postmodern’ observation in that text is dynamic insofar as it has readers to sort out, organize, and reorganize the intertextuality of the text – to read and interpret. The meaning of a text, then, is not wholly in its author, Sitz im Leben, form, literary context, and (most dangerously) in any individual’s or community’s interpretation. Texts live and breathe by means of their interpretations. Without continued reading Also, Jos.Asen. 12.2, Pr.Man. 2, Col 2.16, John 1.3, and Herm. Vis. i.6.

b.Sanh. 34a. See epigram at the beginning of the thesis.



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