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J. Kristeva, “Le mot, le dialogue et le roman,” in Semiotiké: Recherches pour une sémanalyse (ed. J. Kristeva;

Paris: Seuil, 1969) 146.

– 208 –


and interpretation texts are subject to deaths of irrelevancy and/or petrifaction. The intertextual history of Day One exemplifies the dynamism of text, the life breath of interpretation. Lest meaning become static and die, this thesis looks to the wondrous diversity of the past with hope for the life of text, today and tomorrow.

–  –  –

In the case of )rb, when it occurs in the qal the subject is always God and the action is God's creative action. As such, the qal occurrences are grouped by the object of God's creative action. In the case of the niphal, the occurrences are grouped by subject given the passive nature of the verb tense. While God is generally assumed as the actor, there is an ambiguity as to the actor in Ezek 21.35, 28.13, 25; Ps 102.19[18]. The creative action in these occurrences could simply be procreation.

–  –  –

These pairings of {ym$ and jr) are all separated by fewer than five words. All but those in 1.3.6 function together as a pair to varying degrees. Occurrences in 1.3.1 encompass a totality of creation occurrences considering the nuances of re-creation, destruction, and creator titles for the divine. The occurrences in are in statements of belief regarding the relation to heaven/earth of God/humanity and of heaven and earth to each other. 1.3.2 includes occurrences where heaven and earth are given human qualities;

1.3.3 are occurrences that generally place heaven and earth as basic elements of a cosmic framework. The occurrences of 1.3.4 are locative pairings that place something between heaven and earth or utilize parallel references such as "the birds of the air and the animals of the earth." Finally, 1.3.6 lists all occurrences that are verbatim with Gen 1.1. These are also listed above by category.

–  –  –

The uses of axUr in relation to YHWH are varied, the question of the psalmist may help to encircle these many occurrences: !exUr"m |"l") hfnf) – Where can I go from your spirit/breath/wind? (Ps

139.7a) The full meaning axUr of YHWH is both extensive and ambiguous, not easily defined.

2.4.4. In Relation to Human/Earthly Life Gen 26.35, 41.8, 45.27; Exod 6.9, 35.21; Num 5.14[2x], 30, 14.24; Josh 2.11; 1 Sam1.15, 30.12; 1 Kgs 10.5, 21.5, 22.22; Isa 26.9, 29.24, 54.6, 57.12[2x], 61.3, 65.14, 66.2; Ezek 21.12; Ps 32.2, 34.19(18), 51.12(10), 14(12), 19(17), 77.4(3), 7(6), 78.8, 142.4(3), 143.4, 7; Job 6.4, 7.11, 15.13, 17.1, 21.4, 32.18; Prov 11.13, 15.4, 13, 16.18, 19, 17.22, 27, 18.14[2x], 25.28, 29.23; Qoh 7.8[2x]; Dan 2.1, 2; 1 Chr 28.12; 2 Chr 9.4, 18.21. Also used metaphorically in Hos 4.12, 5.4, as the spirit of whoredom ({yinUn:z) within the people, and for bad breath in Job 19.17.

YHWH's Relationship to human/earthly axUr: Human life/breath from God: Gen 7.15, 22; Num 16.22, 27.16; Isa 38.16; Ezek 1.20, 10.17, 37.8, 10; Zech, 12.1; Mal 2.15; Ps 31.6(5), 146.4; Job 7.11, 12.10; Qoh 3.19, 21[2x], 11.5, 12.7. Drawing a distinction between human breath and the lifelessness of idols: Jer 10.14, 51.17; Hab 2.19; Ps 135.17.

Of the many occurrences of axUr in relation to human/earthly life, it can generally be said that axUr is both the simple breath of life and a general term used to describe the human 'being' – that which can be humble or haughty or hungry. And, it can be said that axUr often originates with YHWH, whether the breath of human or beast.

–  –  –

I am treating the word-pair, heaven and earth, differently in Appendix B than in Appendix A. Appendix A looks at the totality of occurrences of {iyamf$ and jerf) occurring within five words of one another in the MT.

While beneficial for seeing the 'larger picture', it is not necessary to the project as a whole given that the aim of these word studies is to identify intertexts of Gen 1.1-5 that share a common creation theme and significant common vocabulary. As such, I have limited my use of ouvrano,j/gh/ as a word-pair to the occurrences of the complete phrase of Gen 1.1 – to.n ouvrano.n kai. th.n gh/n. Two notable points in the above list are Gen 2.4, where the order of the second pair of heaven and earth is inverted from the MT, and 2 Macc 7.28, where there is an expression of creatio ex nihilo, likely the first.

–  –  –

The greatest intertextual disparity between the Hebrew and Greek vocabulary of Gen 1.1-5 comes in the difference between Uhot and avoratoj. While Uhot occurs only twenty times, its equivalent in the Greek text,, avoratoj, occurs only three times. The only point of contact between the occurrences of each is Gen 1.2.

, This difference between the Hebrew and Greek offers two very different intertextual pictures of the same root idea. Another issue that this difference raises, though tangential to intertextuality, is the question of what, if anything, can be learned from comparing the LXX understanding of Uhot and the LXX understanding of avoratoj.


2.2 avkataskeu,astoj 2.2.1 Creation Gen 1.2

As there is only one occurrence of avkataskeu,astoj in the LXX, its intertextual value is nil in that there is no option of comparison, difference, similarity. One thing that the hapax legomenon status of avkataskeu,astoj does bring into question, is the translation of its Hebrew equivalent, Uhob, throughout the LXX. While Uhob only occurs three times throughout the MT, all of which are in conjunction with Uhot, one must ask why there is such a disparity between LXX and MT.

–  –  –

I have added to the intertextual markers one not examined within the MT, o` qe,oj kalei. A simple, pragmatic reason for this inclusion is the relatively sparse nature of the Greek evidence to this point. As both qe,oj and kale,w exceed any usefulness by the volume of their occurrences and as God calling/naming elements of creation is an integral creative action (NB Gen 1.5, 8, and 10 in the Greek), I have decided to include this minor phrase in the initial intertextual investigation of Gen 1.1-5 in Greek.

–  –  –

The intertextual usefulness of h`me,ra mi,a, similar to that of dfxe) {Oy, is quite sparse. By and large the use of the word-pair throughout the Greek corpus is temporal. Even the creation texts and those described as "divine control" are temporal in character only being set apart because of larger contextual issues. One note of explanation is that the asterisk indicates a reversal of the word order from that of Gen 1.5.

–  –  –

There is little doubt that the Hebrew antecedents of these two texts are the same text.

What becomes obvious when looking at their LXX versions is that the translator(s) did not see or see fit to maintain this parallel. The LXX texts, however, display different translation choices and techniques. The placement of the texts in parallel columns (as on the following page) attempts to highlight these differences. While detailed analysis of these differences is outside the scope of the present study, the purpose of analysing intertextual connections is important. Words in bold are vocabulary in common with LXX Gen 1.1-5, underlined text in Ps 17 highlights differences with 2 Kgdms 22.

–  –  –

1 Enoch 17.1-19.3 17)1 kai. paralabo,ntej me ei;j tina to,pon avph,gagon( evn w-| oiv o;ntej evkei/ gi,nontai w`j pu/r fle,gon kai.( o[tan qe,lwsin,( fai,nontai w`sei. a;nqrwpoi) 2kai. avph,gago,n me eivj zofw,dh to,pon kai. eivj o;roj ou- h` kefalh. avfiknei/to eivj to.n ouvrano,n) 3kai. ei=don to,pon tw/n fwsth,rwn kai.

tou.j qhsaurou.j tw/n avste,rwn kai. tw/n brontw/n( kai. eivj ta. averobaqh/( o[pou puro.j kai. ta.

be,lh kai. ta.j qh,kaj auvtw/n kai. ta.j avstrapa.j pa,saj) 4kai. avph,gago.n me me,cri u`da,twn kai.

me,cri puro.j du,sewj( o] evstin kai. pare,con pa,saj ta.j du,seij tou/ h`li,ou) 5kai. h;lqomen me,cri potamou/ puro,j( evn w-| katatre,cei to. pu/r w`j u[dwr kai. r`e,ei eivj qa,lassan mega,lhn du,sewj) i;don tou.j mega,louj potomou.j( kai. me,cri tou/ mega,lou potamou/ kai. me,cri tou/ mega,lou sko,touj kath,nthsa( kai. avph/lqon o[pou pa/sa sa.rx ouv peripatei/) 7i;don tou. avne,mouj tw/n gno,fwn tou.j ceimerinou..j kai. th.n e;kcusin th/j avbu,ssou pa,ntwn u`da,twn) 8i;don to. sto,ma th/j gh/j pa,ntwn tw/n potamw/n kai. to. sto,ma th/j avbu,ssou) 18)1 i;don tou.j qhsaurou.j tw/n avne,mwn pa,ntwn( i;don o[ti evn auvtoi/j evko,smhsen pa,saj ta.j kti,seij kai. to.n qeme,lion th/j gh/j( kai. to.n li,qon i;don th/j gwni,aj th/j gh/j) 2i;don tou.j te,ssaraj avne,mouj th.n gh/n basta,zontaj( 3kai. to. stere,wma tou/ ouvranou/( kai. auvtoi. i`sta/sin metaxu. gh/j kai. ouvranou/) 4i;don avne,mouj tw/n ouvranw/n stre,fontaj kai. dianeu,ontaj to.n troco.n tou/ h`li,ou( kai. pa,ntaj tou.j avste,raj) 5i;don tou.j evpi th/j gh/j avne,mouj basta,zontaj evn nefe,lh|) i;don pe,rata th/j gh/j( to. sth,rigma tou/ ouvranou/ evpa,nw) parh/lqon kai. i;don to,pon kaio,menon nukto.j kai. h`me,raj( o[pou ta. e`pta. o;rh avpo. li,,qwn polutelw/n( @tri,a# eivj avnatola.j kai. tri,a eivj no,ton ba,llonta) 7kai. ta. me.n pro.j avnatola.j avpo. li,qou crw,matoj( to. de. h=n avpo. li,qou margari,tou( kai. to. avpo. li,qou taqe.n( to. de. kata.

no,ton avpo. li,qou purrou/\ 8to. de. me,son auvtw/n h=n eivj ouvrano,n( w[sper qro,noj qeou/ avpo. li,qou fouka,( kai. h` korufh. tou/ qro,nou avpo. li,qou saffei,rou\ 9kai. pu/r kaio,menon i;don) kav@pe,#keina1 tw/n ovre,wn tou,twn 10to,poj evsti.n pe,raj th/j mega,lhj gh/j\ evkei/ suntelesqh/sontai oi` ouvranoi,) 11kai. i;don ca,sma me,ga eivj tou.j stu,louj tou/ puro.j katabai,nontaj kai. ouvk h=n me,tron ou;te eivj ba,qoj ou;te eivj u[yoj) 12kai. evpe,keina tou/ ca,smatoj tou,tou i;don to,pon o[pou ouvde. stere,wma ouvranou/ evpa,nw( ou;te gh/ h=| teqemeliwme,nh u`poka,tw auvtou/( ou;te u[dwr h=n u`po.

auvto. ou;te peteino,n( avlla. to,poj h=n e;rhmoj kai. fobero,j) 13evkei/ i;don e`pta. avste,raj w`j o;rh mega,la kaio,mena( peri. w-n punqanome,nw| moi 14ei=pen o` a;ggeloj( Ou-toj evstin o` to,poj to.

te,loj tou/ ouvranou/ kai. gh/j\ desmwth,rion tou/to evge,neto toi/j a;stroij kai. tai/j duna,mesin tou/ ouvranou/) 15kai. oi` avste,rej oi` kulio,menoi evn tw/| puri,( ou=toi, eivsin oi` paraba,ntej pro,stagma kuri,ou evn avrch/| th/j avnatolh/j auvtw/n & o[ti to,poj e;xw tou/ ouvranou/ keno,j evstin & o[ti ouvk evxh/lqan evn toi/j kairoi/j auvtw/n) 16kai. ovrgi,sqh auvtoi/j kai. e;dhsen auvtou.j me,cri kairou/ teleiw,sewj auvtw/n a`marti,aj auvtw/n(2 evniautw/n muri,wn) 19)1kai. ei=pen moi Ouvrih,l VEnqa,de oi` mige,ntej a;ggeloi tai/j gunaixi.n sth,sontai( kai. ta. pneu,mata auvtw/n polu,morfa geno,mena lumai,netai tou.j avnqrw,pouj kai. planh,sei auvtou.j evpiqu,ein toi/j daimoni,oij me,cri th/j mega,lhj kri,sewj( evn h=| kriqh,sontai eivj avpotelei,wsin) 2kai. ai` gunai/kej auvtw/n tw/n paraba,ntwn avgge,lwn eivj seirh/naj genh,sontai) 3kavgw. ~Enw.c i;don ta. qewrh,mata mo,noj( ta.

pe,rata pa,ntwn( kai. ouv mh. i;dh| ouvde. ei-j avnqrw,pwn w`j evgw. i;don) 17.1 And they led me taking me into a certain place in which those who were there were as flaming fire and, whenever they wished, they appeared as humans. 2And they led me into a dark place and into a mountain the top of which reached to heaven. 3And I saw a place of starlight and the treasuries of the stars and of the thunder, and into the air-depth, where both the arrows and their quivers and all the lightning-bolts were of fire. 4And they led me as far as (the) waters and as far as the fire of the West, which is also (the) supplier of every setting Gk reads kakeina, corrected to kav@pe,#keina by R.H. Charles, The Ethiopic Version of the Book of Enoch: Edited from Twenty-Three MSS. together with the Fragmentary Greek and Latin Versions, (Anecdota Oxoniensia, Semitic Series 11; Oxford: Clarendon, 1906) 49.

Second "auvtw/n" omitted by dittography, cf. note in M. Black, Apocalypsis Henochi Graece, (PVTG 3; Leiden: E.J.

Brill, 1970) 31.

– 224 – APPENDIX D of the sun. 5And we came as far as a river of fire, in which fire runs as water and runs into the great sea to the West. 6I saw the great rivers, and I arrived at the great river and at the great darkness, and I left where living beings walk.3 7I saw the wintry wind of gloomy darkness and the outflow of all the waters of the abyss. 8I saw the mouth of all the rivers of the earth and the mouth of the abyss.

18.1 I saw the treasuries of all the winds; I saw that in them he ordered all that is created and the foundation of the earth, and I saw the cornerstone of the earth. 2I saw the four winds bearingup the earth, 3and the foundation of heaven, and they stand betwixt earth and heaven. 4I saw the winds of heaven twisting and the wheel of the sun nodding and all the stars. 5I saw winds upon the earth bearing-up the cloud.4 I saw (the) boundaries of the earth, the support of heaven above.

I went along and saw a place that was aflame night and day, where (there were) seven mountains of precious stones, [three] being cast into the East and three into the South. 7And those to the East (one) stone of skin color, and one was of pearl, and one of ashen color,5 but the one down South (was) a stone of fire. 8The middle one of them was in heaven, just as the throne of God – of naturally formed stone, and the top of the stone was sapphire. 9And I saw burning fire. And beyond these mountains 10is a place – (the) boundary of the great earth.

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