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There the heavens come to an end. 11And I saw a great chasm among6 pillars of fire stretching down. They were not measurable either into the depths or into the heights. 12Beyond this chasm I saw a place where there was neither firmament upon heaven, nor earth that had been founded beneath it, nor was there water upon it or birds, but (the) place was wilderness/desert and fearful. 13There I saw seven stars like great burning mountains. When I inquired about this 14the angel said, "This is the last place of heaven and earth. This is a prison for the stars and the host of heaven. 15And the stars are rolling in the fire. These are the ones who transgressed the ordinances of the Lord from the beginning of their rising – because (the) place outside of heaven is empty – because they did not come out in their proper times. 16And he was vexed with them and bound them until (the) moment of the consummation of their sins – a period of ten thousand years." 19.1And Uriel said to me, "Standing there are the angels who mingled with women, and their spirits, becoming many (different) forms, mistreat humans and mislead them to offer to demons as to the great creator, by which they will be judged in the completion. 2And their wives, that is of the transgressing angels, will become Sirens." 3And I alone, Enoch, saw the visions, the boundaries of everything, and in no way has (another) one of the humans seen as I saw.

Lit....where every flesh does not walk.

Lit....in the cloud.

taqe,n edges on indecipherable. A possibility would be to read it as a form of tei,nw, with the idea being that the stone was the color of death, possibly 'ashen.' While this does not fit the idea of precious stones (18.6), it may go along with the stone that is skin-colored/crw/ma, but at its best this is a guess.

G.W.E. Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch, (ed. K. Baltzer; Hermeneia; Minneapolis:

Fortress, 2001) reads evn for eivj in light of the Ethiopian ba- (277).

– 225 – APPENDIX D 1 Enoch 21.1-3 kai. evfw,deusa e[wj7 th/j avkataskeusa,stou) 2kavkei/ evqeasa,mhn e;rgon fobero,n\ e`w,raka ou;te ouvrano.n evpa,nw( ou;te gh/n teqe,amai8 teqemeliwme,nhn( avlla. to,pon avkataskeu,aston kai.

fobero,n) 3kai. evkei/ teqe,amai e`pta. tw/n avste,rwn9 tou/ ouvranou/ dedeme,nouj kai. evrrimme,nouj10 evn auvtw/(11 o`moi,ouj o;resin mega,loij12 kai. evn puri. kaiome,nouj) | And I traveled East to the unformed (place). 2And there I saw a terrible business; I have seen neither heaven above, nor have I beheld a firmly founded earth, but a place unformed and terrible. 3And there I beheld seven of the stars of heaven having been bound and hurled into it, together with great mountains and alight in fire.

Philo, Quod Deus immutabilis Sit 58 ovfqalmw/n ge mh.n ouvk evdei/to( oi-j a;neu fwto.j aivsqhtou/ kata,lhyij ouv gi,netai\ to. de.

aivsqhto.n fw/j genhto,n( e`w,ra de. o` qeo.j kai. pro. gene,sewj fwti. crw,menon e`autw/|)

–  –  –

Philo, Quis rerum divinarum heres 122 gnwrimw,teron me,ntoi ta.j avrca.j kai. ta. te,lh kata. qeo.n w`molo,ghsen evpi. th/j tou/ ko,smou gene,sewj eivpw,n\ evn avrch/| evpoi,hse kai. pa,lin sunete,lesen o` qeo.j to.n ouvrano.n kai. th.n gh/n)

–  –  –

Philo, De aeternitate mundi 17-19 pate,ra de. tou/ Platwnei,ou do,gmatoj e;nioi nomi,zousi to.n poihth.n ~Hsi,odon( genhto.n kai.

a;fqarton oivo,menoi to.n ko,smon u`pV e`kei,nou le,gesqai( genhto.n me,n( o[ti fhsi.n h;toi me.n prw,tista ca,oj ge,netV( auvta.r e;peita gai/V euvru,sternoj( pa,ntwn e[doj avsfale.j aivei,( a;fqarton de,( o[ti dia,lusin kai. fqora.n ouv memh,nuken auvtou/) 18ca,oj de. o` me.n VAristote,lhj to,pon oi;etai ei=nai( o[ti to. dexo,menon avna,gkh prou?pokei/sqai sw,mati( tw/n de. Stwikw/n e;nioi to. u[dwr para. th.n cu,sin tou;noma pepoih/sqai nomi,zontej) o`pote,rwj dV a''n e;coi( to. genhto.n ei=nai to.n ko,smon evnarge,stata parV ~Hsio,dw| memh,nutai) makroi/j de. cro,noij pro,teron o` tw/n VIoudai,wn nomoqe,thj Mwush/j genhto.n kai. a;fqarton e;fh to.n ko,smon evn i`erai/j bi,bloij\ eivsi. de. pe,nte( w-n th.n prw,thn evpe,graye Ge,nesin( evn h-| a;rcetai to.n pro,pon tou/ton\ Ven avrch|/ evpoi,hsen o` qeo.j to.n ouvrano.n kai. th.n gh/n\ h` de. gh/ h=n avo,ratoj kai. avkataskeu,astoj( ei=ta proelqw.n evn toi/j e;peita mhnu,ei pa,lin( o[ti h`me,rai kai.

nu,ktej kai. w-rai kai. evniautoi. selh,nh te kai. h[lioj( oi] cro,nou metrh,sewj fu,sin evde,xanto( meta. tou/ panto.j ouvranou/ moi,raj avqana,tou laco,ntej diatelou/sin a;fqartoi) e[wj G1, me,cri G2.

G2 missing teqe,amai.

e`pta. tw/n avste,rwn G1, zV avste,raj G2.

evrrimme,nouj G1, evrimme,nouj G2.

G2 adds o`mou/.

o;resin mega,loij G1, o`ra,sei mega,lh| G2.

–  –  –

Some think that the poet Hesiod was the father of Platonic dogma, imagining that the world is

said by him [to be] created and incorruptible, because he said:

Chaos was truly the first to be, and thereafter broad-chested Gaia, a firm seat for everything forever.13...incorruptible, because he did not reveal that it would be dissolved and destroyed. 18Chaos according to Aristotle is imagined to be a place, because a body necessarily must have someone/thing to receive it; some of the Stoics think water to have been made from its flood.14 But whichever of these is correct, that the world came to be is revealed most distinctly by Hesiod. 19But a long time before (Hesiod), Moses, the lawgiver of the Jews, in the sacred books said the cosmos is created and imperishable. These (books) are five, of these the first he named Genesis, in which he begins (in) this manner, "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth, and the earth was invisible and unformed." Then moving on in that which follows he reveals again that days and nights and seasons and years, moon and sun – these by nature show15 measures of time, with the whole heaven they are incorruptible obtaining immortality.





–  –  –

Christian Ignatius, To the Ephesians 19.1-3 kai. e;laqen to.n a;rconta tou/ aivw/noj tou,tou h` parqeni,a Mari,aj kai. o` toketo.j auvth/j( o`moi,wj kai. o` qa,natoj tou/ ku,riou\ tri,a musth,ria kraugh/j( a[tina evn h`suci,a| qeou/ evpra,cqh) 2pw/j ou=n evfanerw,qh toi/j aivw/sin* avsth.r evn ouvranw/| e;lamyen u`pe.r pa,ntaj tou.j avste,raj( kai. to. fw/j auvtou/ avnekla,lhton h=n kai. xenismo.n parei/cen h` kaino,thj auvtou/( ta. de. loipa. a;stra a[ma h`li,w| kai. selh,nh| coro.j evge,neto tw/| avste,ri( auvto.j de. h=n u`perba,llwn to. fw/j auvtou/ u`pe.r pa,nta\ tarach. te h=n( po,qen h` kaino,thj h` avno,moioj auvtoi/j) 3o[qen evlu,eto pa/sa magei,a kai. pa/j desmo.j hvfani,zeto kaki,aj\ a;gnoia kaqh|rei/to( palaia. basilei,a diefqei,reto qeou/ avnqrwpi,nwj faneroume,nou eivj kaino,thta avi?di,ou zwh/j\ avrch.n de. evla,mbanen to. para. qew/| avphrtisme,non) e;nqen ta. pa,nta sunekinei/to dia. to. meleta/sqai qana,tou kata,lusin) The virginity of Mary and her giving birth escaped the notice of the ruler of this age; likewise also the death of the Lord – three mysteries of a cry which were accomplished in the silence of God. 2How, therefore, was he made manifest for the ages? A star in heaven shone more than all the stars, and its light was unspeakable and its newness caused astonishment. At the same time all the other stars (together) with sun and moon became a chorus to the star, yet its light exceeded all others, and there was confusion concerning whence the new one had come – the one different from the others. 3Hence all magic was thrown away and every fetter of evil was hidden. Ignorance was canceled out, an ancient kingdom was demolished when God became humanly manifest for (the) renewal of eternal life. And that which had been completed/prepared by God received (its) beginning. Thereafter, all things were stirred up because the end of death was being practiced.

Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho 129.1-416 kai. nu/n de. e;ti kai. ou]j ei=pon lo,gouj eivj avpo,deixin tou,tou evrw/) o[tan le,gh|\ e;brexe ku,rioj pu/r para. kuri,ou evk tou/ ouvranou/( du,o o;ntaj avriqmw/| mhnu,ei o` lo,goj o` profhtiko.j( to.n me.n evpi. gh/j o;nta( o[j fhsi katabebhke,nai ivdei/n th.n kraugh.n Sodo,mwn( to.n de. evn toi/j ouvranoi/j u`pa,rconta( o[j kai. tou/ evpi. gh/j kuri,ou ku,rio,j evstin( w`j path.r kai. qeo.j( ai;to,j te auvtw/| tou/ ei=nai kai. dunatw/| kai. kuri,w| kai. qew/|) 2kai. pa,lin o[tan le,gh| o` lo,goj eivrhke,nai to.n qeo.n evn avrch/|\ ivdou. VAda.m ge,gonen w`j ei-j evx h`mw/n( to,de w`j ei-j evx h`mw/n( kai. auvto. avriqmou/ dhlwtiko,n evstin( avllV ouv propologi,an cwrou/sin oi` lo,goi( w`j evxhgei/sqai evpiceirou/sin oi` sofistai. kai. mhde. le,gein th.n avlh,qeian mhde. noei/n duna,menoi) 3kai. evn th/| Sofi,a| ei;rhtai\ evan avnaggei,lw u`mi/n ta. kaqV h`me,ran gino,mena( mnhmoneu,sw ta. evx aivwnoj avriqmh/sai) ku,rioj. / e;ktise, me avrch.n o`dw/n auvtou/ eivj e;rga auvtou/) pro. tou/ aivw/noj evqemeli,wse, me( evn avrch/|( pro.

Greek text from E.J. Goodspeed, Die ältesten Apologeten, (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1914) 250-251.

– 228 – APPENDIX D tou/ th.n gh/n poih/sai kai. pro. tou/ ta.j avbu,ssouj poih/sai kai. pro. tou/ proelqei/n ta.j phga.j tw/n u`da,twn( pro. tou/ o;rh evdrasqh/nai\ pro. de. pa,ntwn bounw/n genna/| me) 4kai. eivpw.n tau/ta evphgagon\ noei/te( w= avkroatai,( ei; ge kai. to.n nou/n prose,cete\ kai. o[ti gegennh/sqai u`po. tou/ patro.j tou/to to. ge,nnhma pro. pa,ntwn a`plw/j tw/n ktisma,twn o` lo,goj evdh,lou( kai. to.

gennw,menon tou/ gennw/ntoj avriqmw/| e[tero,n evsti( pa/j o`stisou/n o`mologh,seie) "And now I shall again recite the words which I have spoken in proof of this point. When Scripture says,' The Lord rained fire from the Lord out of heaven,' the prophetic word indicates that there were two in number: One upon the earth, who, it says, descended to behold the cry of Sodom; Another in heaven, who also is Lord of the Lord on earth, as He is Father and God; the cause of His power and of His being Lord and God. Again, when the Scripture records that God said in the beginning, 'Behold, Adam has become like one of Us,' this phrase, 'like one of Us,' is also indicative of number; and the words do not admit of a figurative meaning, as the sophists endeavor to affix on them, who are able neither to tell nor to understand the truth. And it is written in the book of Wisdom: 'If I should tell you daily events, I would be mindful to enumerate them from the beginning. The Lord created me the beginning of His ways for His works. From everlasting He established me in the beginning, before He formed the earth, and before He made the depths, and before the springs of waters came forth, before the mountains were settled; He begets me before all the hills.'" When I repeated these words, I added: "You perceive, my hearers, if you bestow attention, that the Scripture has declared that this Offspring was begotten by the Father before all things created; and that which is begotten is numerically distinct from that which begets, any one will admit."

Sibylline Oracles 3.8-23

a;nqrwpoi qeo,plaston e;contej evn eivko,ni morfh.n ti,pte ma,thn pla,zesqe kai. ouv,k euvqei/an avtarpo,.n 10 bai,nete( avqana,tou kti,stou memnhme,noi aivei,* ei-j qeo.j evsti mo,narcoj avqe,sfatoj aivqe,ri nai,wn auvtofuh.j avo,ratoj o`rw,menoj auvto.j a[panta\ o[n cei.r ouvk evpoi,hse liqoxo,oj ouvdV avpo. crusou/ te,cnh|sV avnqrw,pou fai,nei tu,poj ouvdV evle,fantoj\ 15 avllV auvto.j avne,deixen aivw,nioj auvto.j e``auto.n o'nta te kai. pri.n evo,nta( avta.r pa,li kai. mete,peita ti.j ga.r qnhto.j evw.n katidei/n du,natai qeo.n o;ssoij* h' ti.j cwrh,sei ka'n tou;noma mou/non avkou/sai ouvrani,ou mega,loio qeou/ ko,smon krate,ontoj* 20 o]j lo,gw| e;ktise pa,nta kai. ouvrano.n hvde. qa,lassan hvelio,n tV avka,manta selh,nhn te plh,qousan a;stra te lampeto,wnta( krataia.n mhte,ra Thqu,n( phga.j kai. potamou,j( pu/r a;fqiton( h;mata( nu,ktaj( O men, having the God-made form in (his) image, why do you wander randomly, and on a straight path you do not 10 walk, always remembering the immortal creator?

There is one God, a lone ruler, ineffable, dwelling in the sky self-generated, invisible, seeing all things himself.

A stonemason did not make him by hand; neither from gold nor from ivory by human craft does a model (of him) appear;

15 but he himself, eternally himself has revealed himself being even before being, yet back (from this point) and after (it).

For who, being mortal, is able to behold God with vision/eyes?

Or who might be able even to make room to hear the only name of the great, heavenly God reigning (over) the cosmos?

–  –  –

20 He, with a word, created everything – heaven and sea, both untiring sun and full-moon, shining stars and strong mother Tethys,17 springs and rivers, imperishable fire, days (and) nights.

Tethys (Thqu,j) is an epic figure in Greek mythology. The wife of Oceanus, daughter of Uranus and Gaia, she is the personification of the sea itself, cf. LJS s.v. E.g. Homer, Iliad 14.303.

–  –  –

Abegg, Martin Jr., et al. The Dead Sea Scrolls Concordance: Volume 1: The Non-Biblical Texts from Qumran 2vols.

Leiden: Brill, 2003.

Aichele, George, and Gary A. Phillips. “Introduction: Exegesis, Eisegesis, Intergesis.” Semeia 69/70 (1995): 7-18.

Alexander, Philip S. “The Redaction-History of Serekh ha-Yahad: A Proposal.” RevQ 17 (1996): 437-457.

Alexander, Philip S., and Geza Vermes. “Qumran Cave 4: XIX. Serekh ha-Yahad and Two Related Texts.” DJD XXVI. Oxford: Clarendon, 1998.

Alexandre, Monique. Le Commencement du Livre Genèse I-V: La version grecque de la Septante et sa réception.

Christianisme Antique 3. Paris: Beauchesne, 1988.

Anderson, A.A. 2 Samuel. WBC 11. Dallas: Word, 1989.

———. Psalms. 2 vols. NCB. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1972.

———. “The Use of 'Ruah' in 1QS, 1QH, and 1QM.” JSS 7 (1962): 293-303.

Anderson, B. W. Creation versus Chaos. Reprint ed. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987.

Attridge, H. W. The Epistle to the Hebrews. Edited by Helmut Koester. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1989.

Atwell, James E. “An Egyptian Source for Genesis 1.” JTS 51 (2000): 441-477.

Baillet, Maurice. “504. Paroles des Luminaires (premier exemplaire: DibHama).” Pages 137-168 in Qumrân Grotte

4.III (4Q482-4Q520). DJD VII. Oxford: Clarendon, 1982.



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