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E.S. Gerstenberger, Psalms Part 2 and Lamentations, (FOTL 15; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2001) identifies the main body of the psalm as vv.2-30. The personal introduction (v.1) and conclusion (v.35c) along with the wishes (vv.31-32), vows (vv.33-34), and imprecations (v.35a-b) he attributes to the liturgical, call-response between liturgist and congregation. (221-227) Levenson, Creation and the Persistence of Evil, ch.5, ‘Creation without Opposition,’ pp.53-65. Levenson also sees a connection between MT Ps 104 and the 14th century BCE Egyptian ‘The Hymn of Aten’ (Short Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, 57-65) to which he attributes the developmental influence that moves toward a ‘creation without opposition’ that he sees fully materialized in MT Gen 1. He sees influence here in a linear fashion from ‘The Hymn to Aten’ to Ps 104 to Gen 1. (59-65) Also, Clifford, Creation Accounts, while noting Levenson's argument for a similarity with ‘The Hymn of Aten,’ stresses the theological differences between Aten and Ps 104. (114-116) Also noting an Egyptian background to Ps 104 is Atwell, “Egyptian Source,” who suggests that Ps 104 and Genesis 1 are based on a common cosmology rooted in Hermopolis in Egypt, with Genesis 1 being the ‘purer witness’ based on the absence of conflict in Genesis 1, and that Ps 104 can help ‘to understand the inspiration and motivation behind the Genesis narrative.’ (461) Levenson, Creation and the Persistence of Evil, sees {nynth in MT Gen 1.21 as a demythologized reference to the same Leviathan of MT Ps 104.26. (54) Levenson, Creation and the Persistence of Evil, 53-57. Levenson also notes the difference between the MT Gen 1 and MT Ps 104 creation accounts: ‘Ps 104 is not a depiction of the process of creation at all. It is a panorama of the natural world, conducted with a view of praising the creator for his superlative wisdom in conceiving and producing such an astonishing place.’ (57) Levenson's argument is heavily weighed on reading {nynth in MT Gen 1.21 as further demythologisation of the Leviathan that is created as YHWH's plaything in MT Ps 104.26 with his ‘suspicion’ heightened by the ‘fact that more than one sea monster is created, and that only the generic name is mentioned….’ (54) While Isa 27.1 provides a precedent for reading {nynth as a synonym of Leviathan, what Levenson calls the ‘most persuasive factor’ in his argument for a connection between MT Ps 104 and MT Gen 1 ought to be taken with at least a little caution. J. Day, God's Conflict with the Dragon and the Sea, (University of Cambridge Oriental Publications 35; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985) also notes the strong similarity of vocabulary between Gen 1 and Ps 104. (51) Also on the similarity of ordering both texts, see von Rad, Genesis, 52. Contra this perspective, Hoffman, “First Creation Story,” sees no organic connection between MT Gen 1 and MT Ps 104 outside of some common vocabulary. (43)

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separate from YHWH, a tool or vehicle, so to speak, possibly reflecting MT Gen 1.2. In v. 29 and 30, however, the use is different, describing the relationship between the breath of the Creator and that of the created, more in line with MT Gen 2.7.

Finally, there are two elements of MT Ps 104 that, though they fall outside the direct intertextual scope of MT Gen 1.1-5, need to be mentioned because they appear in the larger intertextual tapestry in chapter three. The first is the line (v.4a). The use of qualifies as an intertextual marker as noted above, but tOxUr wyfkf):lam he&o( axUr also important is the statement that God makes the winds his messengers – a hint of angelology. A second element of MT Ps 104 of note is the statement in v.24 that the entirety of what God has made has been made with wisdom (hfm:kfx:B). This combination of wisdom and creation is a hallmark that will show its head again throughout this study.

See Cassuto, Genesis, 50-51; Levenson, Creation and the Persistence of Evil, 55.

M. Dahood, Psalms, 3 vols. (AB 16-17a; Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1965-1970), asserts that this is not a nominal but a verbal occurrence of |e$x, a scribal mistake perpetuated in the MT. With the motivation of maintaining a third person voice until v. 24, he argues that the first two words of 104.20 should be read as one e$:xat:$iT - a perfect, third person singular of the ishtaphel conjugation. (3:43) A.A. Anderson, Psalms, 2 vols. (NCB; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1972) makes explicit the connection to MT Gen 1.2. (723). It should also be noted that ty$ has more of a connotation of ordering or arranging than creating.

See J. Limburg, Psalms, (Westminster Bible Companion; Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 2000) 354.

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Each section substantiates God's argument that God has constructed and/or controls these elements of the cosmos, and Job does not.

The first hint of an intertextual connection with MT Gen 1.1-5 comes with God’s initial question in v.4.

God asks Job if he was there when God laid the foundations of the earth (jerf)-yid:sfy:B). While there is no vocabulary common to MT Gen 1.1-5 in the following section (vv.8-11), it should be noted that the sea ({fy) is tamed here73 and that there is seed for angelology when the morning stars (reqob sing and the sons of God ({yiholE) y"n:B) shout y"b:kOk)

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MT Job 38.1-39.

30 N. Habel, The Book of Job: A Commentary, (OTL; London: SCM, 1985) refers to God's questioning of Job as a rhetoric that makes its point with a ‘biting sarcasm.’ (541) E. Dhorme, A Commentary on the Book of Job, (trans. H.

Knight; London: Nelson, 1967) suggests that ‘Yahweh reduces the problem to a question of origins. In order to understand the things that happened in the world and to apprehend the divine 'counsel' (v.2), it would be necessary to have been present at the origin of things.’ It is only at the origin of everything, the beginning, that Job would have been able to apprehend wisdom and understanding. (567) Habel, Job, 530-531. A similar order is suggested by R.E. Murphy, Wisdom Literature: Job, Proverbs, Ruth, Canticles, Ecclesiastes, and Esther, (FOTL 13; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981), though I choose to break with Murphy's order pericope (38.4-39.30) at v.38, (42-43) given the focus changes to the wild kingdom with little cosmogonic language.

Habel labels vv.16-18 as ‘The Netherworld.’ It seems appropriate to add ‘The Waters’ as they are an integral part of the description of the netherworld in v.16, and they play a primary role in MT Gen 1.2.

Habel states that these verses ‘focus on the confinement of the chaos waters of the sea to protect the newly constructed earth. The sea is personified as a primordial chaos monster that God had to bring under control as a phase of the creation program.’ (538) While I don't necessarily disagree with Habel's understanding of the sea in vv.8-11, this personification of {fy does not seem to mesh with a lack of personification {Oh:T in v.16, where it is coupled with {fy.

The combination of {fy and {Oh:T is also found in MT Ps 33.7, 135.7, and Isa 51.10, each text asserting God's control and/or dominance thereof.

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appears elsewhere in the intertextual tapestry. In this case, the storehouse is used to store snow and hail, with no mention of {Oh:T or axUr as in other texts.77 Vv.22-30 describe meteorological phenomena all centered on water. In the final verse of the section, the claim that it is God who freezes the waters ({iyam) and the face of the deep ({Oh:t is reminiscent of MT Gen 1.2c ({Oh:t y"n:P-la( |e$ox:w). Also as in MT Gen 1.2, the waters and the deep y"n:PU) come in parallel succession, though in the opposite order. Vv.31-33 address the stars of the sky, with the particular notion that God arranged the constellations in the heavens. This concludes with a general question that includes the word-pair jere)/{iyamf$. God simply asks Job if he knows the ordinances of heaven ({iyamf$ tOQux) and can make them work on earth (jere)). The final section, Habel's ‘Thunderstorm’, has bits of MT Gen 1.1-5 language ({iymf$,{iyam) but is more important for its inclusion of wisdom (hfm:kfh). The rhetoric of the entire pericope is centered on the question of Job's knowledge (see ta(aD in v.2). The conclusion of this portion of God's speech is that it is God who gives wisdom, a wisdom which Job, à la v.2, does not have.79 After the long list of cosmic things that God, not Job, has created, the exclamation point on this section is wisdom.

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M.H. Pope, Job, (AB 15; Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1965, 1973) suggests that light and dark have their own dwelling because they were separated on the first day of Creation, citing MT Gen 1. (296) Such a direct connection with Gen 1.4 is difficult to maintain given the wealth of common vocabulary but lack of any other direct connection between MT Job 38.4-38 and MT Gen 1.1-5.

Cf. MT Amos 5.8; Job 3.5 For {Oh:T see MT Ps 33.7; for xUr see MT Ps 135.7, Jer 10.13, 51.16. Dhorme, Job, suggests that the use of tOr:co) in both MT Job 28.22 and MT Ps 33.7 has more of a connotation of a reservoir where the elements are stored for God's disposal. (585) Dhorme, Job, notes the parallel of {iyam and {Oh:T with no mention of MT Gen 1.2.

Job's admission in MT Job 42.2-3 that he does not understand further validates the point of God's speech.

On the debated place of creation in the context of Deutero-Isaiah, see R.J. Clifford, “The Unity of the Book of Isaiah and Its Cosmogonic Language,” CBQ 55 (1993) 1-17, DeRoche, “Isaiah 45.7 and the Creation of Chaos?,” 11-21, D.M. Gunn, “Deutero-Isaiah and the Flood,” JBL 94 (1975) 493-508, P.B. Harner, “Creation Faith in Deutero-Isaiah,” VT 17 (1967) 298-306, T.M. Ludwig, “The Traditions of the Establishing of the Earth in DeuteroIsaiah,” JBL 92 (1973) 345-357, B.C. Ollenburger, “Isaiah's Creation Theology,” ExAud 3 (1987) 54-71, C.

Stuhlmueller, “'First and Last' and 'Yahweh-Creator' in Deutero-Isaiah,” CBQ 29 (1967) 495-511.

Isa 42.1-4 C. Westermann, Isaiah 40-66: A Commentary, (trans. D.M.G. Stalker; OTL; London: SCM, 1969) refers to a ‘general agreement’ on the unity of 42.5-9 (98) and is of the opinion that MT Isa 42.5-9 resembles Trito-Isaiah more so than Deutero-Isaiah and as such is a later expansion on MT Isa 42.1-4. (101) K. Baltzer, Deutero-Isaiah: A Commentary on Isaiah 40-55, (trans. M. Kohl; Hermeneia; Minneapolis: Fortress,

2001) recognizes the ‘cardinal catchwords’ of Genesis 1 in Isa 42.5. (131) Also, Westermann, Isaiah 40-66, 99; B.S.

Childs, Isaiah, (OTL; Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 2001) 326.

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nicely into our intertextual tapestry. The primary point of contact with MT Gen 1.1-5 comes in v.5, in which God creates ()"rOb) and stretches out ({ehy"+On) the heavens and spreads out ((aqor) the earth and all its produce

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containing echoes of ancient Near Eastern myth or not, are creatures called to worship their creator, not (or no longer) mythic combatants of the divine. In the call to praise YHWH, the emphasis is that YHWH dominates, that YHWH is creator and all else is created. The use of axUr in MT Ps 148.8 may be interpretive of MT Gen 1.2 offering In 1QM x.13, there is a similar use of hy)c)c in relation to the earth. See below, pp. 98-102.

The use of axUr in MT Isa 42.5 is closer to its use in MT Gen 2.7.

It could be that Deutero-Isaiah is drawing a connection between axUr in MT Gen 1.2 and hfmf$:n of MT Gen 2.7.

This assertion is made by Baltzer, Deutero-Isaiah, not only about the occurrence of axUr but also about the introductory name, hfwh:y l")fh, unique in the Hebrew Bible: ‘Behind the link between 'the God' and 'Yahweh' is the hermeneutical decision to put together the names used for God in Genesis 1 and 2. It is the same God who created both the world and human beings.’ (131) Cf. Childs, Isaiah, 326. Westermann, Isaiah 40-66, makes passing comment regarding Genesis 1 though not in relation to axUr. (98-99). Sommer, A Prophet Reads Scripture, on the other hand, sees MT Isa 42.5-9 as an allusion to MT Jer 31.31-36, never mentioning a connection to MT Genesis 1 or 2. (46-49) Note this use of |$ox/rO) is not technically an IM.

This use of )rb is a niphal.

As is arguably present between Gen 1 and Ps 104, see von Rad, Genesis, 52.

{yinyiNaT does not appear until MT Gen 1.21.

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specifically in mind,95 the strong similarity of vocabulary and the cosmic flavor of the text warrants its inclusion as an intertext with MT Gen 1.1-5.96 As portrayed in this speech, God is very active and at times violent. In creating, God subdues those primordial elements that run contrary to and threaten the created order, which in this text is largely established by God's limitation of certain elements.

The first intertextual marker of note is Uhot in v.7a. Here God stretches (h+n) Zaphon / 'the north' over the Uhot. With the use of h+n one might expect the object to be the heavens, especially given the parallel occurrence of earth in v.7b; rather, it is Zaphon that is stretched out. A clue to this may come from MT Job 37.22, where God's majesty is associated with ‘the north,’ which would undoubtedly have the power to cover the Uhot as it occurs in MT Gen 1.2. In vv.8 and 10a, the waters are harnessed. While this is similar to the second day in the First Creation Story,97 there is a significant resemblance of the waters in MT Gen 1.2 with those in v.10a, in the use of the phrase, the only difference being the lack of the definite article in Job. This is too striking to ignore,98 {iyfm-y"n:P-la(, Among recent commentators on this verse, Weiser, Psalms, alone acknowledges a hint of MT Genesis 1, though not directly connected to the occurrence of axUr. (838) Others (Dahood, Anderson, Limburg) are silent.

This is the kethib, whereas the qere is wf)fb:c.

Murphy, Wisdom Literature, identifies vv.5-14 as a ‘hymn in praise of God's power,’ and concurs with the general opinion that this speech is misplaced and ought to be attributed to Bildad rather than Job. (36) Also, Dhorme, Job, xlvii-xlviii, Habel, Job, 364ff, and Pope, Job, 180ff.



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