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The integrity of the MT and thus the meaning of this text are the subject of much debate, especially around the connection of MT Job 26 to ancient cosmogonies; see, N.H. Tur-Sinai, The Book of Job: A New Commentary, (Jerusalem: Kiryath Sepher, 1957): 383-384; Dhorme, Job, 374-375; Pope, Job, 185-186; and Habel, Job, 373-374.

Germane to this study is the observation that the above commentators, while occupied with the pursuit of parallels with ancient extra-biblical texts, pay no attention to striking similarities with MT Genesis 1.

Dhorme, Job, asserts that while previous uses of Uhot in MT Job (6.18, 12.24) simply have the meaning 'desert',

26.7 is ‘the void’ of MT Gen 1.2. (372) Habel, Job, on the other hand, suggests that MT Job 26.7 does not refer to the same thing as MT Gen 1.2, but sees the use of Uhot here in a more generic sense as the nothingness over which God pitches God’s tent (371). Similarly, S.R. Driver and G.B. Gray, The Book of Job, (ICC; Edinburgh: T. & T.

Clark, 1921): 220-221.

Habel, Job, notes the cosmic nature of MT Job 26.10-14, entitling his comment dedicated to it, ‘The Establishment of the Cosmic Order.’ Seeing similarities with MT 2 Sam 22.8, Ps 18.8, and Ps 104, interestingly he never draws his comment back to MT Gen 1 (372-373).

MT Gen 1.6-8 Another point of comparison is a second occurrence of the same phrase in MT Job 24.

18, the only other occurrence of the phrase in MT Job. While not a creation context, v.18 does follow upon the heels of a light/dark discourse about those who rebel against the light and take refuge in the dark (vv.13-17). This said, it should be noted that there is considerable opinion that the text of ch. 24 (among others) has been shuffled out of order. Along these lines, Pope, Job, places v.18 nowhere near vv.13-17. (187-196) – 26 –

CHAPTER ONE

especially when one considers that the circle that God is drawing upon the face of the waters is at the extreme boundary between light and darkness. This occurrence of the intertextual marker, rO)/|e$ox, more closely reflects Day One rather than the later creation of sun/moon/stars,99 especially given the close proximity of other language ({iyfm-y"n:P-la() from MT Gen 1.2. As there is trembling at the beginning of the pericope, so the pillars of heaven ({iyamf$ y"dUMa() tremble at God's creative actions in v.11. God's creative power to subdue is exercised against the

–  –  –

MT Gen 1.16 A similar divine defeat of Rahab is found in MT Ps 89.

11. MT Isa 51.9 also has the defeat of Rahab though parallel with the subduing of the sea.

MT Isa 27.1 equates Leviathan with the serpent.

The identification of vv.7-17 as a pericope is based upon the structural analyses of A.A. Anderson, 2 Samuel, (WBC 11; Dallas: Word, 1989) who sees vv.7b-17 as inclusive of God's theophany (262); Weiser, Psalms, who sees vv.7-15 as inclusive of the theophany and vv.16-19 as the 'deliverance' (189-191); Limburg, Psalms, who sees vv.7as a ‘detailed telling of the entire story’ which is driving the psalm (56); and F.M. Cross and D.N. Freedman, “A Royal Song of Thanksgiving: II Samuel 22 = Psalm 18,” JBL 72 (1953) who place the theophany in vv.8-16. (21) While the inclusion of v.7, either in whole or in part, in the theophany is not shared by all (P.C. Craigie, Psalms 1WBC 19; Waco, TX: Word Books, 1983) 172ff), it is an interesting commingling of creation and temple language given the content of v.7b. On the psalm as a whole, there is a split over whether it was redacted from two earlier poems (see Anderson, 2 Samuel) or comes from a single source. See H.W. Hertzberg, I & II Samuel, (trans.

J.S. Bowden; OTL; London: SCM, 1964), P.K. McCarter, II Samuel, (AB 9; Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1984).

For the purposes of this study, the question will be left alone and remain open along the lines of Cross and Freedman, “Royal Song of Thanksgiving,” 21.

The occurrence of jere)/{iyamf$ is likely a later addition, as the second half of the MT of 2 Sam 22.8 is not found in MT Ps 18.8 or in the LXX, Peshitta, or Targumim.

While the intertextual relationship based on common vocabulary seems strong, there is a lack of any acknowledgement of this by modern commentators (Dahood, Anderson, Weiser, Craigie). Weiser, Psalms, pursues a different proposal, establishing a connection between MT Ps 18 and the Sinai theophany. (189-191) MT Ps 104.3 also has God riding axUr-y"p:naK-la(. J.J. Collins, Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls, (LDSS;

London: Routledge, 1997) notes that the Canaanite god, Baal, is often described as ‘the rider of the clouds.’ (13)

–  –  –

resemblance of these texts with MT Gen 1.1-5. In fact, there is more affinity with MT Ps 104.3 with God riding on the wings of the wind, and with MT Job 26.5-14 insofar as the creative presence of YHWH causes the earth to tremble. Finally, these texts share in the tradition of stretching of the heavens (v.10),107 though the stretching here is less about creation and more about God's entry onto the battlefield.108

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question, ‘Has it not been told to you from the beginning ($)or"m)?’ This cognate of is of interest even

tyi$)"r:B





Wyatt, “Darkness,” recognizes this use of |e$ox as divine dwelling and argues for a stronger link for these texts to MT Gen 1.2 than MT Deut 4.11 and 5.23: ‘This passage [2 Sam 22.12 and Ps 18.12(11)] paradoxically makes darkness the locus of the invisibility, and therefore perhaps the spiritual essence, of the deity. Furthermore, it links darkness explicitly with the waters, and, I suspect, with the primordial waters in mind, as the extra terrestrial location of God.’ (547) Limburg, Psalms, commenting on MT Ps 18.1-30, takes a slightly different tack, interpreting |e$ox in MT Ps 18.6b-15 as a tool or companion of YHWH: ‘The Lord was in his temple, heard the psalmist's cry, and came to rescue, accompanied by earthquake and darkness, wind and hail, thunder and lightning, and storms at sea.’ (56) On the difficulty of v.12, see also Anderson, 2 Samuel, 263.

MT Isa 40.22, 42.

5, 44.24, 51.3; Jer 10.12, 51.15; Zech 12.1; Ps 104.2.

MT Ps 144.5, and though it lacks h+n, MT Isa 63.

19. Cf. Cross and Freedman, “Royal Song of Thanksgiving,” 24 n.23.

On MT Isa 40.12-31, Westermann, Isaiah 40-66, argues that this portion of ch. 40 is a unity that outlines three specific threats to Israel – 1) the nations and isles [vv.12-17]; 2) princes and rulers [vv.18-24]; 3) heavenly hosts/counterparts [vv.25-26] – with the culmination of the hymn coming in vv.27-31 where God's place as creator of the universe is intimately linked with God's place as savior of Israel. (48-49) Also, Stuhlmueller, “'First and Last' and 'Yahweh-Creator' in Dt-Isa,” 191; and W. Brueggemann, Isaiah 40-66, (WBC; Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1998) 22. Of note, Baltzer, Deutero-Isaiah, divides the chapter differently, differentiating two units, 40.9-20 and 40.21-31, the first being ‘a message about the shepherd's triumphal procession,’ (61f), and the second an antiphonal hymn. (77f) R.N. Whybray, Isaiah 40-66, (NCB; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975) prefers to read hfwh:y axUr as ‘the mind’ of YHWH. (54) Similarly, Childs, Isaiah, reads ‘mind,’ but does recognize the similarity of traditions with MT Genesis 1 in v. 12. (309). Baltzer, Deutero-Isaiah, however, might be more open to reading the connection with MT Gen 1.2, as he sees the empowering/anointing spirit one and the same with the creative spirit. (68-69) Hoffman, “First Creation Story,” sees a more likely connection of MT Isa 40.13 with MT Proverbs 8 than with MT Genesis 1. He identifies a debate with wisdom literature in MT Isa 40.13, substantiated by vocabulary shared by both MT Isa 40.12-14 and MT Proverbs 8. (42) Intertextually, both relationships are plausible.

M. Barker, “Beyond the Veil of the Temple: The High Priestly Origins of the Apocalypses,” SJT 51 (1998), reads MT Isaiah 40 as a ‘reconstruction of the world beyond the veil,’ that is the holy of holies. In her estimation MT Isaiah 40 is a place where the elements of the ‘hidden tradition’ of the pre-exilic temple cult are visible. (19) Baltzer, Deutero-Isaiah, goes so far as to see an allusion in MT Isa 40.17 to MT Gen 1.2. (72) – 28 –

CHAPTER ONE

though it does not formally figure as an intertextual marker.113 Finally, there are two uses of )rb, the first of which comes in a rhetorical question in v.26. After telling the hearer to look around, the question is asked, ‘Who created ()frfb) these?’ The second in v.28 is titular and confessional, saying, ‘The everlasting God is YHWH, the creator ()"rOb) of the ends of the earth.’

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incongruity between the antecedents of the phrases – the waters of the sea in MT Amos 5.8, and darkness and the breath of God in MT Gen 1.2. While MT Amos 5.8 most certainly fills the criteria for an intertextual relationship, any deliberate relationship with MT Gen 1.1-5 remains unclear if present at all.114 1.3.10 Proverbs 8.22-31 This pericope is part of Wisdom's first-person speech115 in which she extols her pre-eminent, though subordinate, place in the creation of the cosmos.116 It contains significant vocabulary common to MT Gen 1.1-5 ({Oy,{iyamf$,{iyfm,{Oh:t,jere),tyi$)"r). While the creation/wisdom theme appears elsewhere (MT Ps 104.24, Job 28.14, and earlier in Proverbs 3.19-20),117 MT Prov 8.22-31 personifies or fleshes-out the relationships of YHWH, Wisdom, and creation. As such, the agenda of MT Proverbs 8 differs from that of MT Genesis 1. The motivation of It seems that $)or"m and tyi$)"r are used synonymously in MT Prov 8.22-23. Also of interest is Baltzer, DeuteroIsaiah, who proposed change of foundations (tOud:sOm) in BHS to since the earth was founded (tadusyim). (78) In parallel with $)or"m, then, both would be temporal references to the beginning of creation. It would also parallel similar statements about laying the foundations of the earth in MT Job 38.21 and Ps 104.5.

H.W. Wolff, Joel and Amos, (trans. W. Janzen, et al.; Hermeneia; Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977) observes that there are three ‘hymnic’ passages throughout Amos – 4.12, 5.6-8, 9.5-6 – and suggests that these may be additions from the final stages of redaction. (215-217) This is of interest because all of these to varying degrees bear

intertextual relationships with MT Gen 1.1-5. M. Sweeney, The Twelve Prophets, 2 vols. (Berit Olam; Collegeville:

Liturgical Press, 2000), does not follow this line of thought but sees MT Amos 5.8 as a punctuation of v.7. To those who desecrate justice and righteousness (v.7) he sees v.8 as a call to turn to YHWH as ‘the essential power of the universe and thus…the true source of justice and righteousness….’ (235) What is of interest in this study are the similarities between the individual texts (Amos 4.13, 5.8, and 9.5-6) and their intertextual relationships with MT Gen 1.1-5.

Murphy, Wisdom Literature, identifies Prov 8.22-31 as a unit (‘Her eternal origins, begotten of God’) within Wisdom's larger speech, 8.1-36. (61) N. Habel, “The Symbolism of Wisdom in Proverbs 1-9,” Int 26 (1972) 155.

R.N. Whybray, Proverbs, (NCB; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1994), suggests that MT Prov 8.22-31 is an expansion of MT Prov 3.19. (121) Also, J. Cook, The Septuagint of Proverbs - Jewish and/or Hellenistic Proverbs?: Concerning the Hellenistic Colouring of LXX Proverbs, (VTSup 69; Leiden: Brill, 1997) 212-218.

–  –  –

parallel traditions that utilize similar images evident by the common vocabulary. The second two come in the same section of the pericope (vv.27-29),122 which describes God's creative actions that Wisdom was present to witness.

Among these actions are those that portray creation by limitation of primordial waters. In v.27, the second occurrence of {Oh:T resembles verbatim MT Gen 1.2 in that God limits the deep by drawing a circle (gUx) upon the face of the deep ({Oh:t y"n:p-la(). Also limited is the sea ({fY) in v.29, with the explanation, ‘so that the waters ({iyam) never transgress his command.’ Other actions in vv.27-29 are the establishment of the heavens, the establishment of the fountains of the deep ({Oh:T), and the marking-out of the foundations of the earth.124 While it is not the business of this study to assert direct relationships between texts, if it were, there appears to be significant evidence to suggest a deliberate relationship between MT Gen 1.1-5 and Prov 8.22-31.

Intertextually, they are most certainly linked, with MT Prov 22-31 figuring in a discernible ‘wisdom’ thread running through the tapestry.

Lang, Wisdom and the Book of Proverbs, suggests convincingly that Wisdom, as personified in Prov 1, 8, and 9, is a remnant of Israelite polytheism, is the ‘school goddess’ who then becomes a demythologised ‘personification’ of wisdom in light of later monotheistic revisions of the cult. (126-131) Looking at the cosmological framework of MT Proverbs 8 or the Hebrew Bible in general, the idea that Wisdom is a ‘shadow’, to borrow a term used by Lang, of Israel's polytheistic past is of particular interest, especially when one looks ahead to intertexts in which lo,goj becomes something of an interpretation of the personified hfm:kfx in Proverbs 8.

Whybray, Proverbs, on originality in the MT Proverbs 8 creation account: ‘Prov. 8:23-9 is clearly following a particular type of creation tradition which has features in common with other Old Testament as well as Near Eastern traditions, but is not, as far as is known, actually dependent on any given text.’ (129) He takes this a step further when addressing the occurrence of {Oh:T in MT Prov 8.24 is ‘probably not an allusion to the primeval ocean of Gen.



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