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1:2,’ preferring to read it as ‘the existing terrestrial ocean.’ (132) MT Prov 8.24, 27, 28 M.V. Fox, Proverbs 1-9, (AB 18A; New York: Doubleday, 2000), 282. L.G. Perdue, Wisdom & Creation: The Theology of Wisdom Literature, (Nashville: Abingdon, 1994), noting similarities with ancient Near Eastern creation texts, suggests that what is being described here does not resemble creatio ex nihilo, but ‘that the present order of life was shaped out of an unformed, lifeless chaos.’ (90) Whybray, Proverbs, suggests that {Oh:T does not here reflect MT Gen 1.2, but is a reference to the ‘existing terrestrial ocean.’ (132) These come after vv.23-26, which describe what did not exist prior to Wisdom's genesis.

While creation by inscribing a gUx upon the face of the deep is unique to MT Prov 8.27b, the idea of creation by encircling, more generally boundrification, also occurs in MT Job 26.20 ({iyam). Related to this is the idea that God dwells on the other side of the gUx, cf. MT Isa 40.22 (jere)) and Job 22.14 ({iyamf$).

The marking out of the foundations of the earth may also be considered creation by limitation, especially given the verb is qqx, the nominal form of which is used in v.29 for the ‘limits’ of the sea. The alternative reading in the apparatus of BHS, as attested by the LXX (ivscura. evpoi,ei ta. qeme,lia th/j gh/j) steers away from creation by limitation, however. It reads, Oq:Zax:B, ‘when he made strong....’

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away the treasures of darkness as a means to prove his supremacy to Cyrus means that these treasures are good.

From this use of |e$ox we move to MT Isa 45.7, where, contrary to MT Gen 1.2, YHWH asserts that along with light he created darkness. The creative scope of YHWH in this verse is the widest in the Hebrew Bible, with two merisms used to give both scope and force to YHWH's creative power: light/dark and peace/evil. MT Isa 45.7 has been seen as both a polemic against the possibility that there was pre-existent matter, a step toward a doctrine of creatio ex nihilo,128 and a rhetorical proclamation of YHWH's place as supreme creator within a prophetic oracle.129 Finally, in MT Isa 45.8, what Brueggemann calls a ‘doxological interlude’130 in the commissioning of Cyrus, Deutero-Isaiah uses the same merism as MT Gen 1.1. MT Isa 45.8 is a celebrative refrain intimately linking God's creative action with the abundance that will come forth from Cyrus' anointing. While the primary image employed is that of fertility,131 given the declaration of God's all-encompassing creative action and the common vocabulary with MT Gen 1.1, MT Isa 45.8 fits well with the creation themes that occur throughout MT Isa 44.24-45.7, and concludes with the exclamation point, wyit)fr:B - I, YHWH, have created it.

hfwh:y yinA)

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Psalm 136 is not exclusively concerned with creation. Rather, while vv.4-9 serve as a remembrance of God's B.W. Anderson, Creation versus Chaos, (Reprint ed.; Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987) has a helpful list of creation verbs (rcy,h#(,)rb) used by Deutero-Isaiah. (124-126) Westermann, Isaiah 40-66, sees 44.24-45.7 as a complete oracle with an exclamation point (my term) of the hymn in 45.8 as the ‘ending.’ (152-163) Treasuries (tOr:cO)) are found elsewhere in the intertextual tapestry of MT Gen 1.1-5 – MT Jer 10.13, 51.16; Ps 33.7, 135.7; Job 38.22 – though Isa 45.3 alone associates them with darkness.

Cf. Levenson, Creation and the Persistence of Evil, 124; M. Weinfeld, “God the Creator in Genesis 1 and in the Prophecy of Second Isaiah,” Tarbiz 37 (1968) 122f. Cassuto, Genesis, in an aside on MT Gen 1.4 claims that MT Isa 45.7 is a polemic directed against ‘the dualistic doctrine of the Persians.’ (26) DeRoche, “Isaiah 45.7 and the Creation of Chaos?,” argues that MT Isa 45.7 reflects a similar worldview to MT Gen 1.1-5 in its use of merisms to convey the idea of totality. However, he disagrees with Weinfeld and Levenson that there is a polemic here against the possibility that MT Gen 1 portrays pre-existing chaos. (11-21) Brueggemann, Isaiah 40-66, 77.

Baltzer, Deutero-Isaiah, points out the sexual imagery employed in MT Isa 45.8. (228) – 31 –

CHAPTER ONE

creative activity/power, the flipside of MT Ps 136 (vv.10-22) is a recollection of the Exodus event.132 In MT Ps

136.1 there is a unique use of bO+-yiK. Used throughout MT Genesis 1 as a positive punctuation of God's acts of creation,133 it is not outside the realm of possibility that its use in MT Ps 136.1 is in deliberative conversation with its use in MT Genesis 1 – a reflection of God's initial declaration of goodness that in retrospect becomes an action of human praise of the creator.134 From the first three verses which name YHWH as supreme, vv.4-9 deal with God's creative actions. The first of these actions (v.5) is the making of the heavens by his understanding (hfnUb:tiB).135 While there is no explicit mention of wisdom, the idea that God made the heavens by understanding is akin.136 The mention of earth in v.6 resembles the formation of the firmament in the second day of creation (MT Gen 1.6-8) given that the verb used is (qr and that that which is being covered is the waters. The conclusion of the pericope, while bearing an intertextual resemblance to MT Gen 1.1-5, bears a more deliberate resemblance to the fourth day (MT Gen 1.14-19), the creation of the great lights. Intertextually, then, there is a connection to Day One, however the breadth of this pericope most closely resembles days two and four in the First Creation Story.





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solidifies the intertextual relationship with MT Gen 1.1-5. The relationship with MT Isa 45.19 is less clear but also This creation/Exodus pattern is also used in MT Ps 135.

MT Gen 1.4, 6, 7, 14, 18.

Westermann, Genesis 1-11, describes the relationship this way: ‘During the process of creation it remains dependent on the regard of God, but with the completion of creation it becomes the praise of the creator which is echoed by all creatures…’ (113) The Hymn to the Creator 8 (11QPsa xxvi.14) has God stretching out the heavens by his understanding (wtnwbtb), though there is a closer resemblance of this text with MT Jer 10.12c, 51.15c, both of which also have God stretching out the heavens by his understanding. See below, p. 121.

E.g., MT Ps 104.24.

Baltzer, Deutero-Isaiah, treats vv.18-19 as a unit, though he suggests a closeness to vv.14-17, with a specifically new action beginning in v.20. (245) Westermann, Isaiah 40-66, also treats the verse independently though says that they ‘cannot be called an independent unit’ as it is dependent on surrounding material (45.20-25, 46.1-13, and possibly 44.24-28). (172) Baltzer, Deutero-Isaiah, 245.

Westermann, Genesis 1-11, situates the occurrence of Uhot in MT Isa 45.18 within the ‘echoes [that Genesis 1.2] had for the people of Israel.’ (103) Also, Whybray, Isaiah 40-66, 111; and Baltzer, Deutero-Isaiah, 246. Tsumura, The Earth and the Waters, on the other hand, downplays the connection to MT Gen 1.2, preferring to give MT Isa

45.18 a more generic, less cosmic translation of ‘desert-like place’. (319) Interestingly, Tsumura misreads, I think, Westermann on this point, seemingly quoting Westermann in favor of his more generic reading, while Westermann clearly refers to MT Isa 45.18 within the echoes of MT Gen 1.2, even translating in ‘chaos’ (Westermann, Genesis 1-11, 103). The strongest connection between these two texts comes from Weinfeld, “God the Creator,” who argues that Deutero-Isaiah is having a polemical conversation with Gen 1 asserting that there was no Uhot before God's creative work began. (105-132) Sommer, A Prophet Reads Scripture, agrees with and utilizes Weinfeld's understanding. (142ff.)

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The first two cola are parallel rhetorical statements expecting a negative response with the third bringing resolution to the first two. Parallel elements of the first two cola are the action of speaking (I did not speak/say) in the first portion followed by that which the speaker did not say. In both cases the second portion includes vocabulary from MT Gen 1.1-5. The second colon, as noted above, contains Uhot, while the first contains |e$ox,140 both of which are places where YHWH is not present. The occurrence of Uhot in MT Isa 45.19 can be read as an exaggerated, sarcastic, rhetorical remark to the dullard who has forgotten just who this YHWH is or more likely as an exaggerated reference to the proto-earth of MT Gen 1.2.141 The close juxtaposition of these two words in both MT Gen 1.2 and MT Isa

45.19 coupled by the occurrence of Uhot and other supporting vocabulary in MT Isa 45.18-19 provide strong footing for an intertextual relationship, if not an example of innerbiblical interpretation as Sommer suggests.142

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Regarding |e$ox in MT Isa 45.19, Whybray, Isaiah 40-66, on a different tack suggests that ret"Sab and |e#ox jere) are ‘allusions to the mysterious and ambiguous divinatory and oracular practices of the ancient world, and of the Babylonians in particular,’ and that |e#ox jere) ‘probably alludes to the practice of conjuring up messages from the underworld.’ (111) Whybray, Isaiah 40-66, argues for the connection on the reoccurrence of the Uhot alone (111). D.T. Tsumura, “Tohû in Isaiah XLV 19,” VT 19 (1988), would probably disagree with any intertextual connection given his locative translation of Uhot and that he places it outside of direct speech, translating MT Isa 45.19b, ‘I did not say to Jacob’s descendants (in a land of) desolation, ‘Seek me!’’ (363) Sommer, A Prophet Reads Scripture, 124ff. Childs, Isaiah, similarly makes room for a connection to MT Genesis 1, stating: ‘The prophetic introduction [presumably MT Isa 44.24-28 - SG] expands on the creative power of God in a hymnic style, but now ties the power of God to his purpose in creation. He formed the heavens and the earth, not as chaos, but rather to be inhabited. The message is actually not different from that of Genesis 1, but it now has been given a polemical, disputational form.’ (355) On the literary integrity of the pericope, see J. Bright, Jeremiah, (AB 21; Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1965), R.P. Carroll, Jeremiah: A Commentary, (OTL; London: SCM, 1986), W.L. Holladay, Jeremiah 1: A Commentary on the Book of Jeremiah 1-25, (Hermeneia; Philadelphia: Fortress, 1986).

V. Eppstein, “The Day of Yahweh in Jeremiah 4.23-28,” JBL 87 (1968), argues that Uhobfw Uhot was not a part of the Hebrew Vorlage of the LXX, but rather a later scribal addition (96). K.M. Hayes, “Jeremiah IV 23: tohû without bohû,” VT 47 (1997), on the other hand, argues that Uhot was a part of the Hebrew Vorlage, with Uhobfw being a later

amplification of the original in light of MT Gen 1.2. (248) Also, W. McKane, Jeremiah, 2 vols. (ICC; Edinburgh:

– 33 –

CHAPTER ONE

with jere) provides a firm intertextual bridge to MT Gen 1.2.145 The connection with MT Gen 1.1-5 is noted by R.P.

Carroll: ‘The poem [Jeremiah 4.23-26] could be a meditation on the creation story but supplemented by the experience of catastrophe and emanating from circles where the exegesis of texts or traditions was an important element in visionary descriptions.’146 Whether or not the connection between the two texts is strong enough to claim one is a ‘meditation’ on the other, vocabulary and a similar theme provide evidence enough for an intertextual relationship.

1.3.15 Psalm 33.6-9 Within a wider communal ‘petitionary hymn,’147 vv.6-9 address the origins of the world, in particular the genesis of the world by divine fiat.148 The intertextual connection with MT Gen 1.1-5 is apparent in the shared vocabulary ({iyamf$, {Oh:T,axUr,jere)) and strengthened by the theological statement of v. 9 yiheYaw ramf) )Uh yiK, which is similar to God's creative speaking throughout MT Genesis 1. While there is a confessional statement about the word of YHWH in v.4,149 the first assertion of creation via the word of YHWH comes in v.6. The heavens as well as all of their hosts150 were made by YHWH's word and by the breath (axUr) of his mouth. While v.6 has creation by word, v.7 has creation by limitation, where the sea ({fY) is gathered up in a heap, and the deep ({Oh:T) is put in a storage shed (tOrfco)).151 There is also an intertextual connection with MT Ex 15.8 in v.7a, evident in the similar descriptions of the waters piling up like a hill in MT Ps 33.7a ({fYah y"m d"NaK s"noK) and MT Exod 15.8b The most striking similarity with MT Gen 1.1-5, then, is the creation by word.153 At the ({yil:zon d"n-Om:k Ub:Cin).

T&T Clark, 1986) 1.106. The critical apparatus of BHS suggests the deletion of Uhobfw, citing its absence in LXX.

Whatever the Hebrew background of the Greek text of Jer 4.23, the Greek version of this text is not included in chapter two of this thesis in large part because ouvqe,n, as opposed to Uhobfw Uhot, bears no intertextual commonality with LXX Gen 1.1-5.

McKane, Jeremiah, sees a connection between MT Jeremiah 4 and MT Genesis 1. He argues that it should not be based on the presence of Uhot and Uhob on the basis of the aforementioned discrepancies. (1.108) Carroll, Jeremiah, 169. Bright, Jeremiah, writing in the midst of the Cold War comments that the reversal of creation of which Jeremiah here speaks is ‘a ruin of 'atomic' proportions.’(33) McKane, Jeremiah, is more direct in his claim of reversal in that MT Jer 4.23-26 is ‘an antitype which presupposes the existence of its type.’ (1.108) Gerstenberger, Psalms 2 and Lamentations, 146.

On the unity of vv.6-9, see Weiser, Psalms, 291-292; Gerstenberger, Psalms 2 and Lamentations, however, does not distinguish vv.6-9, considering vv.5-7 as ‘praise of Yahweh,’ and vv.8-11 as ‘exhortation and confession.’ (143The creation elements that run throughout vv.6-9 support Weiser in this case.

hfwh:y-rab:D rf$fy-yK - For the word of Yhwh is right. MT Ps 33.4a Here again, there is seed for angels present at the creation. Also, MT Judg 5.20, Ps 104.4, Job 38.7.

There is another similarity worth noting between MT Ps 33.7 and MT Jer 10.13, 51.16, and MT Ps 135.7, each of which uses a MT Gen 1.2 term as an object or commodity which God is able to place in tOrfcO)/storehouses.



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