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«Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC ...»

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 Identify the type of document  Identify the author and any relevant information about the author  Identify the date and historical context  Identify the audience  Identify the purpose for writing  Look for clues in the text that help to identify the author’s perspectives (word choice, tone, facts and opinions, inferences, connect the text back to the title)  Connect the text back to the title Distribute notebook, folder, or a piece of construction paper folded in half for students to keep all History Lab papers together (Students will need to refer back to work from previous lessons in order to complete the final assessment. Students should label it with their name and the overarching question, “Should the colonists have revolted against Great Britain?”) Have students glue or clip RS#04, Strategies Historians Use to Analyze Historical Documents, into their folders.

Summary - Assessment (optional) Have students respond to this prompt: Do you agree with Paine? Explain why or why not using specific text support from Common Sense.

Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC Center for History Education.

Teachers may choose to use RS#05/#05M, Assessment - Evaluating Thomas Paine, or post the question on the board.

Wrap-Up Discussion: Review Paine’s perspective. Confirm the historical facts and clarify the reasons behind his interpretation.

Post Common Sense on bulletin board, with “thumb” from RS #06 Historical Thumb Response Document (to be cut apart and positioned up, down, or sideways) — thumbs up for Paine, because he is in favor of the colonists revolting against Great Britain. Explain that the bulletin board will help us keep track of all the perspectives we are learning about so that at the end of the lab, we will be able to make an informed decision about whether we think the colonists should have revolted against Great Britain.

Briefly engage the students in a concluding conversation about the progress they’ve made so far in answering the focus question, “What is the white male perspective?” Review the overarching question.

Have we answered the question, “What is the white male perspective?” We’ve only learned about one male perspective.

 Do you think Paine’s perspective represented every white male perspective? No  What could we as historians do to gain a better understanding of the white male perspective?

Look at more documents by white males.

Day Two: White Male Perspectives – Plain Truth Students will analyze a primary source document, Plain Truth, in order to classify and evaluate the Loyalist viewpoint of the American Revolution.

Materials:

 RS#31 Revolution History Lab PowerPoint 2  History Lab Bulletin Board  RS#04 Strategies Historians Use to Analyze Historical Documents (displayed in room)  RS#06 Historical Thumb Response Document (to be cut apart and positioned up, down, or sideways)  RS#30 Common Sense Document Log Answer Key  RS#07 Plain Truth (can show whole class unless you use PowerPoint / need one for whole class and one for bulletin board)  RS#08 Selected Paragraphs from Plain Truth  RS#32 Plain Truth Document Log Answer Key

For Students:

 History Lab notebook  RS#30 Common Sense Document Log Answer Key (one for each student)  RS#08 Selected Paragraphs for Plain Truth  RS#09/#09M History Lab Document Log (one for each student) Motivation - Initiate the History Lab: Ask students to think back to yesterday. What is our goal as historians in this History Lab? To learn the different perspectives of people living in the Revolutionary War era in order to answer our overarching question, “Should the colonists have revolted against Great Britain?” Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC Center for History Education.

Hand out Historian Notebooks and RS#30 Common Sense Document Log Answer Key. Review Log and ask students – What did we learn about the white male perspective yesterday? Do you think it represented all white males? Do you think every white male agree with Paine? No.

Before Reading - Frame the History Lab:

Mention: Today we are going to continue investigating the focus question, “What is the white male perspective?” Provide students with a copy of RS#08 Selected Paragraphs from Plain Truth, RS#09/#09M History Lab Document, and the Historian Notebooks students constructed in Lesson One.

During Reading - Model the historical process by doing a close reading:

Indicate: It’s your turn to analyze documents to uncover the author’s perspective. As you analyze this historical document, remember to use the strategies from our first lesson. What is the first thing you should be thinking? What questions should you ask when you analyze a document?

Elicit responses:

 Type of document  Title  Author and author information  Date and historical context  Intended audience  Purpose for writing Teachers can refer students to RS#04 Strategies Historians Use to Analyze Historical Documents if they need help.





Have students read through Plain Truth and try to complete the first section of the Historical Document Log. Go over the answers as a class and allow students to correct their answers. Lead students in a close reading of the document. Students who have difficulty finding text support in primary source documents can underline the sections discussed.

Say: Let’s take a closer look at the text in the document.

Read the introduction aloud.

Say: Turn and discuss with your partner what Chalmers is saying. Talk about the strategy you used to understand the introduction.

Chalmers was angered by Common Sense. He loved his country as it was, and believed that if the colonies became independent, the country would “plunge” into “ruin.” Have we learned anything about Chalmers’ perspective? Turn and talk to your partner.

Chalmers supported “his country,” Great Britain, and did not want the colonies to break away.

Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC Center for History Education.

Read Row 2. Briefly explain that Chalmers had Common Sense in front of him and used it to state his argument.

Read Rows 3 and 4.

Continue: Talk with your partner about the strategy you used to interpret what Chalmers is saying.

Chalmers believed that without the king, average people could not rule themselves.

Democracies caused countries to engage in war.

Say: Remember, Chalmers has Common Sense right in front of him—what specific argument do you notice Chalmers was attacking? Paine believed that kings caused wars. He used the Bible and Holland as historical examples. Chalmers believed that democracies caused wars. He used Greece and Rome as historical examples.

Read Rows 5, 6, and 7 with your partner and complete the “Text Support” and “Purpose for Writing” sections of the History Lab Document Log.

Lead a whole-group discussion of Rows 5, 6, and 7. Have students share what else they learned about Chalmers’ perspective.

Elicit responses that use specific text support from RS#32 Plain Truth Document Log Answer Key,

including:

Row 5 - Great Britain made “monstrous efforts” to save the colonies from France and to protect that land. Great Britain would not peacefully allow the colonies to gain independence.

Row 6 - If the colonies remained with Great Britain, they would have avoided war and still been able to trade with other countries.

Row 7 - Independence and slavery are the same thing—life for the colonists would have been horrible without Great Britain. Colonists seeking “true liberty” should have settled the dispute with Great Britain.

If further discussion of the document is needed, you can ask:

 What specific words and phrases did Chalmers use to get his point across? Some powerful phrases came from Row 6 (“horrors and misfortune of war”) and Row 7 (“horror, misery, and devastation, awaiting the people who are trying to gain American independence”).

 What tactic was Chalmers using to make his point? Chalmers was definitely trying to scare the Americans into staying with Great Britain.

After Reading - Continue to model aloud:

Have students complete the “Author’s Perspective” section on RS#09/#09M History Lab Document Log independently. Remind students to include specific information from the text and a concluding statement. You may use this for an assessment. Elicit student responses to the question, “Should the colonists have revolted against Great Britain?” Students should be able to explain what they think and why they think it.

Possible answer: James Chalmers thought “our country” would be ruined if the colonists tried to break away from Great Britain. Democratic countries were “wracked” with war. We (the colonies) should have Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC Center for History Education.

remained loyal to England to try to avoid war. We should have tried to resolve our dispute, instead of trying to break away.

Summary - Assessment (optional) Review Chalmers’ and Paine’s perspectives and have students help you post Plain Truth on bulletin board with “thumbs”—thumbs down for Chalmers.

Discuss the ways in which the interpretations relate to each other. Look for commonalities and differences. Solidify historical facts and clarify the reasons behind these interpretations. Students should say that Paine and Chalmers had conflicting views on monarchies and democracies. Both men thought the other’s type of government caused wars. They also disagreed on our overarching question and used very strong language to make their points.

Briefly engage the students in a concluding conversation about the progress they have made so far in answering the focus question and overarching question.

What other information do we need in order to better answer our overarching question? We need to learn other perspectives, such as those of white women, Native Americans, and African Americans.

Conclude: Tomorrow we will take a look at the perspectives of white females.

Collect Historical Document Logs.

Day Three: White Female Perspectives Students will analyze primary source documents, including a political cartoon, letters, and a newspaper article, in order to classify and evaluate the white female viewpoint of the American Revolution.

Materials:

 RS#33 Revolution History Lab PowerPoint 3  History Lab Bulletin Board  RS#04 Strategies Historians Use to Analyze Historical Documents (displayed in room)  RS#06 4 thumbs from Historical Thumb Response Document (to be cut apart and positioned up, down, or sideways)  RS#09/#09M History Lab Document Log  RS#10 The Edenton “Tea Party” (Transcript) (one for teacher and bulletin board)  RS#11 The Edenton “Tea Party” (Adapted)  RS#34 Edenton Tea Party Document Log Answer Key  RS#12 A Society of Patriotic Ladies, at Edenton in North Carolina  RS#35 Society of Patriotic Ladies Document Log Answer Key  RS#13 Letters from Abigail Adams to John Adams (Transcript)  RS#14 Letters from Abigail Adams to John Adams (Adapted) (one for teacher and bulletin board)  RS#36 Letters from Abigail Adams Document Log Answer Key  RS#15 Letter from Deborah Champion to Patience (Transcript) (one for teacher and bulletin board)  RS#16 Excerpt from Letter from Deborah Champion to Patience  RS#37 Letter from Deborah Champion Document Log Answer Key Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC Center for History Education.

For Students:

 History Lab notebook  RS#09/#09M History Lab Document Log (one blank copy per student)  RS#11 The Edenton “Tea Party” (Adapted) (one per student unless you want to display it for whole class)  RS#34 Edenton Tea Party Document Log Answer Key (one per student)  RS#12 A Society of Patriotic Ladies, at Edenton in North Carolina (one per student unless you want to display it for whole class)  RS#35 Society of Patriotic Ladies Document Log Answer Key (one per student)  RS#14 Letters from Abigail Adams to John Adams (Adapted) (one per student)  RS#36 Letters from Abigail Adams Document Log Answer Key (one for half of the class)  RS#15 Letter from Deborah Champion to Patience (Transcript) (one per student)  RS#37 Letter from Deborah Champion Document Log Answer Key (one for half of the class) Motivation - Initiate the History Lab: Say: Well, historians, today we are back and continuing our investigation of the question, “Should the colonists have revolted against Great Britain?” What have we learned over the past two days? (One thumbs up, one thumbs down posted so far.)

Before Reading - Frame the History Lab:

Begin: Today we will look at the perspectives of several white females. How do you think women of the time felt about the colonies revolting?

Present RS#11 The Edenton “Tea Party” (Adapted) Say: We will work together to analyze this document. In it, you will find a document within a document.

Let’s take a look. Remember to employ the strategies of historians. What questions should you ask about this document? Turn and talk to your partner.

Elicit responses:

 Type of document  Title  Author and author information  Date and historical context  Intended audience  Purpose for writing Teachers can refer students to RS#04 Strategies Historians Use to Analyze Historical Documents if they need help.

During Reading - Model the historical process by doing a close reading:

Allow the students to do a close reading of the document. This can be done as a whole group or independently.

Elicit student responses, including:



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