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«Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC ...»

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 What type of document is this? This is a document within a document—there is a quote from the Edenton Tea Party Proclamation within a letter about the tea party that was published in a newspaper. Discuss both.

Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC Center for History Education.

 Who wrote the letter? Unknown author  Who wrote the document (proclamation)? A female association - see signatures  What do we know about the women? They seemed to be upset about the Tea Act if they were having a “Tea Party.”  What is the historical context? This happened after the Tea Act of 1773, when Britain gave a monopoly on the tea trade to the British East India Trading Company. It also happened after the Boston Tea Party of 1773.

 What year was the letter written? October 27, 1774  When was it published? January 31, 1775.

 When was the proclamation signed? October 25, 1774  Who is the intended audience for the letter? It was printed in the Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser, so it was written for the public and the British government.

 Who is the intended audience for the Proclamation? Fellow colonists who may have been inspired to stand with them. Loyalists who may have been intimidated.

 What was the author’s purpose in writing the letter? The author wanted to show the female colonists and British government what the women were doing. The ladies of Edenton served as examples for other women and the government to take notice.

 What was the purpose of the Proclamation? The ladies proclaimed they were rebelling.

 What evidence from the Proclamation tells us the white female perspective? See RS#34 Edenton Tea Party Document Log Answer Key.

 Would these women support a revolt again Great Britain? Yes  Do you think this perspective represented the perspective of all white females? No Hand out RS#34 Edenton Tea Party Document Log Answer Key for students to include in their Historian Notebooks.

Say: Let’s take a look at another perspective.

Present RS#12 A Society of Patriotic Ladies, at Edenton in North Carolina.

Say: You will work together to analyze this document. Remember to employ the strategies historians use to help them understand historical documents. What questions do you have about this document?

Talk to your partner and answer some of the most important questions.

Elicit student responses to the questions:

 What type of document is this? Political cartoon  Who created this document? Unknown  What do we know about the cartoonist? The cartoon was published in a London newspaper, so maybe the cartoonist was from London too. Maybe he was a Loyalist.

 What year was this created? March 1775  What is the historical context of the political cartoon? The cartoon was published 4 or 5 months after the Ladies of Edenton signed their Proclamation. It was published after the Tea Act and Boston Tea Party of 1773.

 Who is the intended audience? The audience may have been members of British society, who may have agreed with this cartoon. The creator may have wanted the Ladies of Edenton to see it too.

Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC Center for History Education.

 What is the purpose of printing this political cartoon? To make fun of the Edenton women and possibly male Patriots


Since this is a political cartoon, we will need to “read” this document for support in a slightly different way. We need to look closely for small visual details.

Elicit responses, including:

 What are the women doing? Mention the action in the foreground and the background. The women are having a meeting. Several of the women appear coy and to be flirting with the men.

Some of the women are pouring flasks of tea (or alcohol) and there are other flasks under the table. Also underneath the table, a child is holding a tray of food that is being licked by a dog.

This was meant to imply that the women were not good mothers.

 Who are these women? A Society of Ladies at Edenton  How are they portrayed? The cartoonist meant for the women to look silly. In 1775, a woman being involved in politics was strange. Women having a political meeting would have been scoffed at. Several of the women look ridiculous wearing extreme high fashion (small caps over huge hair). The woman chairing the meeting and holding the gavel was depicted as rather ugly and almost manly. The cartoonist might have intended to suggest that only a man could run a political meeting.

 Do you think this is what actually happened? No  What does this evidence tell us about the British perspective on the Edenton tea party? The cartoonist did not take the women seriously. He thought what they were doing was silly and unimportant.

 Would the political cartoonist support a revolt against Great Britain? No This is also an appropriate point to discuss the elements of a political: satire, captions, caricature, symbolism, and exaggeration.

Distribute RS#34 Edenton Tea Party Document Log Answer Key and RS#35 Society of Patriotic Ladies Document Log Answer Key for reference for students when they complete their final assessment on Day Six.

Hand out RS#09/#09M History Lab Document Log, RS#14 Letters from Abigail Adams to John Adams (Adapted), and RS#15 Letter from Deborah Champion to Patience (Transcript). Every student needs a copy of both documents so they can refer to them during the discussion.

Announce: You are now going to have the opportunity to think and work as a historian on your own.

You have been given one of two different documents to closely read and analyze. You will be looking at a white female perspective and will need to use your historian strategies to analyze these documents. You will have time to analyze and complete your Historical Document Log on your own. Remember to include specific information from the text and a concluding statement. Then you will share with another classmate who has analyzed another primary source document. Finally, we will all discuss what we have learned about the white female perspective.

After Reading - Continue to model aloud:

Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC Center for History Education.

Have students pair off in groups so they can share the information from their document with other students who did not read it. It may be helpful to have groups of 4 so you can have 2 students explain the same document. Remind students to take turns, speak clearly, listen carefully, and to feel free to ask questions.

Whole Group Interpretation Discussion:

Review the Historical Document Logs using the Abigail Adams and Deborah Champion answer keys:

Discuss the text support students found to provide evidence for the authors’ perspective. Elicit the

student responses, including:

Abigail Adams - Abigail Adams was the highly intelligent wife of John Adams, a member of the Continental Congress. John Adams thought the colonists should revolt again Great Britain, but Abigail expressed her uncertainty about America’s future. She asked John a lot of questions about the type of government America would have and how it would be governed. She was worried about the fate of the country because there were no clear answers. She was also concerned with the rights of women and wanted to make sure that when the new government was formed, that women would be represented.

Abigail was neither for nor against a revolt in 1775. She seemed to want her questions answered before she formed an opinion about the current situation. She did, however, feel that the difficulties in creating a new government could be overcome by patience and perseverance. By 1776 her feelings had evolved.

She did want the colonists to revolt with the hope that they would include women in the new government.

Deborah Champion - Deborah was the daughter of a Patriot general in Washington’s Continental army.

She had to travel to deliver a very important document to General Washington. She believed that the “Mother Country” was not giving the colonists their rights and that the colonists would go to war to fight for independence if they had to. She commented that British tea was not served at any house where she stopped. Deborah believed she was a Patriot, and was even complimented by Washington himself for her “courage and patriotism.” Give students the completed answer keys for the documents they did not analyze for the final assessment.

Summary - Assessment (optional) Wrap-Up Discussion: Post all documents on bulletin board with “thumbs”—thumbs up for Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser newspaper article/letter; thumbs down for London political cartoon;

thumbs sideways for Abigail Adams; thumbs up for Deborah Champion.

Discuss the white female perspectives and the ways in which the interpretations relate to each other.

Look for commonalities and differences. Solidify historical facts and clarify the reasons behind these interpretations.

Briefly engage the students in a concluding conversation about the progress they have made so far in answering the overarching question, “Should the colonists have revolted against Great Britain?” Say: Now that we have analyzed the white male and female perspectives, which other perspectives would be helpful in answering our question? Native Americans and African Americans Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC Center for History Education.

Collect Historical Document Logs.

Day Four: Native-American Perspectives Students will analyze primary source documents including a painting, a speech, and a treaty in order to classify and evaluate the Native American viewpoint of the American Revolution.


 RS#38 Revolution History Lab PowerPoint Day 4  History Lab Bulletin Board  RS#04 Strategies Historians Use to Analyze Historical Documents (displayed in room)  RS#06 2 thumbs from Historical Thumb Response Document (to be cut apart and positioned up, down, or sideways)  RS#17 “The Death of Jane McCrea” by John Vanderlyn (color copy to display to whole class or use PowerPoint  RS#18 Disturbances in America, Joseph Brant  RS#19 Disturbances in America, Joseph Brant (Adapted) (one for teacher and bulletin board)  RS#39 Disturbances in America (Joseph Brant) Document Log Answer Key  RS#20 Treaty with the Delawares, 1778  RS#21 Treaty with the Delawares, 1778 (Transcript)  RS#22 Treaty with the Delawares, 1778 (Adapted) (one for teacher and bulletin board)  RS#40 Treaty with the Delawares Document Log Answer Key For Students  History Lab notebook  RS#09/#09M History Lab Document Log (one for each student)  RS#19 Disturbances in America, Joseph Brant (Adapted) (one for half the class)  RS#39 Disturbances in America (Joseph Brant) Document Log Answer Key (one for half the class)  RS#22 Treaty with the Delawares, 1778 (Adapted) (one for half the class)  RS#40 Treaty with the Delawares Document Log Answer Key one for half the class) Motivation - Initiate the History Lab: What have we learned so far in trying to cover our question, “Should the colonists have revolted against Great Britain?” Today we will examine Native American perspectives.

Before Reading - Frame the History Lab: Introduce the painting, “The Death of Jane McCrea,” by John Vanderlyn. Cover the caption to set the context for the today’s lesson. Reveal information as the students respond.

Remind students about the questions they should ask when analyzing a historical work of art or document. Make sure they ask questions similar to the ones below.

 Who painted this? John Vanderlyn (born in New York)  Who was the painter painting for? Student responses could vary, but say that Vanderlyn actually painted it for Joel Barlow, an American-born poet, diplomat, and politician, who used it as an illustration for one of his epic poems. Vanderlyn painted many portraits and panoramas.

Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC Center for History Education.

 Who is depicted in the painting? Jane McCrea and two Native Americans  What does this painting show? Jane had been captured by the Native Americans and was about to be scalped. There are several versions of the real story: (1) McCrea, a Loyalist, was ambushed by Native Americans who took her back to a British camp expecting a reward. On the way, the Native Americans got into a quarrel over the reward, and one of them then killed and scalped her. (2) McCrea was killed by a bullet fired by pursuing Americans and later an exhumation of her body revealed only bullet wounds, and no tomahawk wounds.

 How are the figures portrayed? The Native Americans appear strong, vicious, and angry and Jane looks terrified. The figures are romanticized because they are so attractive and perfect.

 What is John Vanderlyn’s perspective of the Native Americans? John Vanderlyn portrayed Jane as innocent and the Native Americans as savages. He was portraying the Native Americans in a bad light.

 Where does the scene in this painting take place? A forest  When was this painting created? 1804  When does the scene take place? July 27, 1777  Why did the painter choose to paint this scene? He was commissioned to capture this alleged event for poet Joel Barlow. It made the Native Americans and British look bad and helped the Patriots to recruit more soldiers. As the caption says, Jane McCrea was the fiancée of a soldier in Burgoyne’s Army. When she was slain, Burgoyne was unable to find her killers. This led to decreased confidence in the ability of the British to protect their citizens and a recruiting boom for the Patriot army.

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