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«Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC ...»

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 How did the painter create this painting? He was not at the event, but likely heard about it because it was notorious. He could have read about the event in Barlow’s poem, “The Columbia,” before illustrating it.

 How did analyzing this painting help you to understand the relationship between the Native Americans, British, and colonists? There was friction between the Native Americans and both groups at this time. The Native Americans killed a Loyalist woman and the Patriots took advantage of the situation by turning it into propaganda, creating an enlistment boom for their army.

Say: Based on the historical context, let’s now examine Native American perspectives.

Hand out RS#09/#09M History Lab Document Log, RS#19 Disturbances in America, Joseph Brant (Adapted), and RS#22 Treaty with the Delawares, 1778 (Adapted) to the whole class. Students will need a copy of each document to refer to during the discussion.

Say: You will think and work as a historian on your own. You will be given one of two different documents to closely read and analyze. You will need to use your historian strategies to analyze these documents. You will have time to analyze and complete your Historical Document Log on your own.

Remember to include specific information from the text and a concluding statement. Then you will share with another classmate who has analyzed another primary source document. Then we will all discuss what we’ve learned about the Native American perspective.

Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC Center for History Education.

During Reading - Model the historical process by doing a close reading:

Have half the class read one document and half the class read the other. Provide students time to work independently—they should read their documents and complete the Historical Document Log.

After Reading - Continue to model aloud:

Small Group Interpretation Discussion: Have students pair off in groups so they can share the information from their document with other students who did not read it. It may be helpful to have groups of 4 so you can have 2 students explain the same document. Remind students to take turns, speak clearly, listen carefully, and to feel free to ask questions.

Whole Group Interpretation Discussion:

Review the Historical Document Logs using the Joseph Brant and the Treaty with the Delawares answer keys.

Discuss the text support students found to provide evidence for the authors’ perspective. Elicit the

student responses, including:

Treaty with the Delawares, 1778 - The Delaware Nations sided with the Americans in order to make peace with them and protect their lands. The Native Americas allowed the Americans to come through their lands to reach enemy forts. They also provided the Americans with supplies and sent strong warriors to help fight off the British. The Native Americans seemed to be in favor of the colonists breaking away since they were helping them.

 Do you think that the Native Americans and Patriots abided by this treaty? The Americans actually broke many treaties and so did the British, as you will see with the next document.

“The Disturbances in America give great trouble to our all Nations” - Joseph Brant swore his allegiance to the King of England but was not very happy with him. The British soldiers were not helping the Native Americans to defend their land against the colonists and the British people were trying to trick the Indians out of their land. He seemed to want the king’s help in punishing the colonists and some British subjects. Brant supported the king in his endeavor to prevent the colonists’ revolt but also cared about the needs of his people.

 Which do you think was Joseph Brant’s higher priority, holding on to his homeland and way of life or helping the British to maintain possession of the colonies? Use specific words and phrases to support your answer. Answers may vary, but Native Americans were trying to hold onto their culture and avoid being forced into Britain’s political system of government. Brant wanted to stay in the king’s favor so he could have what he wanted. He said, “The Six Nations who always loved the king” and that the Mohawks have “shown their passion and loyalty to the Great King.” He mentioned all the negative things the British have done, as well as the fact that they have very little land to live on.

Give students the following completed answer keys for the documents they did not analyze to keep as resources for the final assessment.

Summary - Assessment (optional) Wrap-Up Discussion: Post the documents on bulletin board with “thumbs”— thumbs up for the Treaty with the Delawares and thumbs down for Joseph Brant.

Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC Center for History Education.

Discuss the Native American perspectives and the ways in which the interpretations relate to each other. Look for commonalities and differences. Solidify historical facts and clarify the reasons behind these interpretations.

Briefly engage the students in a concluding conversation about the progress they have made so far in answering the overarching question, “Should the colonists have revolted again Great Britain?” Now that we have analyzed the white male and female and Native-American perspectives, which other perspective would be helpful in answering our question? African American Collect Historical Document Logs.





Day Five: African-American Perspectives Students will analyze primary source documents including a painting, a speech, and a treaty in order to classify and evaluate the African-American viewpoint of the American Revolution.

Materials:

 RS#41 Revolutionary History Lab PowerPoint 5  History Lab Bulletin Board  RS#04 Strategies Historians Use to Analyze Historical Documents (displayed in room)  RS#06 3 thumbs from Historical Thumb Response Document (to be cut apart and positioned up, down, or sideways)  RS#23 James Forten Quote (one copy for teacher and one copy for bulletin board)  RS#24 Petition of 1779 (Transcript)  RS#25 Petition of 1779 (Adapted)  RS#42 Petition of 1779 Document Log Answer Key  RS#26 Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation (Transcript)  RS#27 Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation (Selected Paragraphs)  RS#43 Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation Document Log Answer Key

For Students:

 History Lab notebook (from day one)  RS#09/#09M History Lab Document Log (one for each student)  RS#23 James Forten Quote (one for each student or post)  RS#25 Petition of 1779 (Adapted) (one for each student)  RS#42 Petition of 1779 Document Log Answer Key (one for half the class)  RS#27 Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation (Selected Paragraphs) (one for each student)  RS#43 Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation Document Log Answer Key (one for half the class) Motivation - Initiate the History Lab Say: Well, historians, today we are continuing our investigation: “Should the colonists have revolted against Great Britain?” What have we learned so far?

Today we will analyze several African-American perspectives to help us answer the question.

Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC Center for History Education.

Before Reading - Frame the History Lab:

Show RS# 23 James Forten Quote to the class and have students read the document. Question students to reveal the author’s perspective.

 Why did James Forten say this? He was about to be taken to Great Britain and did not want to go. He was afraid to be considered a traitor to America.

 Evaluate Forten’s decision not to go to Britain to get an education with the captain’s son. Some students might say that Forten should have thought about himself and taken advantage of the opportunity to get a good education, especially because educational opportunities for Blacks were very limited in America. Some students might think Forten was noble to stay in America and keep fighting for the colonies’ cause.

 What does this quote tell you about the African-American perspective in answering our overarching question? Some African Americans were dedicated to the Patriot cause and helped fight against Great Britain to set the colonies free.

 Do you think that all African Americans felt this way? Some did but some African Americans might have taken the British side and others might have stayed neutral. Many slaves were not concerned with fighting for the white colonists’ freedom, but, rather, for their own freedom from slavery.

Mention: Today, we will examine two more sources in order to better understand how African Americans felt about the white colonists’ decision to revolt.

Present RS#25 Petition of 1779 (Adapted) and RS#26 Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation (Transcript) to the class. All students will need a copy of each document for the discussion. Hand out RS#09/#09M History Lab Document Log.

Say: You will think and work as a historian on your own. You will be given one of two different documents to closely read and analyze. You will need to use your historian strategies to analyze these documents. You will have time to analyze and complete your Historical Document Log on your own.

Remember to include specific information from the text and a concluding statement. Then you will share with another classmate who has analyzed another primary source document. Then we will all discuss what we’ve learned about the African-American perspective.

During Reading - Model the historical process by doing a close reading;

Have half the class perform a close reading and complete RS#09/#09M History Lab Document Log for one document, and have the other half of the class work on the other document.

After Reading - Continue to model aloud:

Small Group Interpretation Discussion: Have students pair off in groups so they can share the information from their document with other students who were unable to read it. It may be helpful to have groups of four, so you can have two students explain the same document. Remind students to take turns, speak clearly, listen carefully, and to feel free to ask questions.

Whole Group Interpretation Discussion:

Review the Historical Document Logs using the Petition of 1779 and Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation answer keys.

Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC Center for History Education.

Petition of 1779 by slaves of Fairfield County for the abolition of Slavery in Connecticut (Adapted) Prime and Prince believed that the colonies should revolt against Great Britain because the cause of liberty was a noble cause. They admired the Patriots for fighting for their liberty. They were fighting for a similar cause in their petition. They wished to gain their freedom from the detestable practice and sin of slavery.

Do you think Prime and Prince’s petition was effective in abolishing slavery? Students’ answers may vary, but in reality both houses rejected the petition. This petition was written in Connecticut, which abolished slavery in 1848 before the start of the Civil War. Even one petition by a slave, however, may have gotten people to think about taking action.

Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation (Selected Paragraphs) - Lord Dunmore, the Royal Governor of Virginia, wrote this proclamation to convince colonists to join the British army. He urged all men who were able to carry a weapon to join. He offered freedom to any slave or indentured servant who joined the Loyalist cause. Lord Dunmore proclaimed that anyone who did not support the British in this revolution was committing treason and was a traitor to their country, Great Britain. Lord Dunmore did not agree with the colonists’ revolt and was building an army against them.

 How do you think the Patriots responded to Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation? Many slaveholders were upset because their slaves were running away to join the Loyalist army. George Washington, a slave owner himself, and members of the Second Continental Congress were hesitant to make a similar offer, but eventually needed more soldiers. Washington and Congress conceded and allowed African Americans to join in exchange for their freedom too.

Give students the following completed answer keys for the documents they did not analyze for use in the final assessment.

Summary - Assessment (optional) Wrap-Up Discussion: Post the documents on bulletin board with “thumbs”— thumbs up for the James Forten Quote and Petition of 1779, and thumbs down for Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation.

Discuss the African-American perspectives and the ways in which the interpretations relate to each other. Look for commonalities and differences. Confirm historical facts and clarify the reasons behind these interpretations.

 Lord Dunmore does not want the colonies to revolt, whereas Prince and Prime do. They both have different motives for their decisions, but seek to further their own causes. Lord Dunmore offers slaves their freedom, which is ironic, since he was a slaveholder himself, so they can fight in his army and prevent the colonies from breaking away. Prince and Prime want the slaves freed to have a better life and to tie their quest for freedom to the colonies’ quest for liberty from Great Britain.

Briefly engage the students in a concluding conversation about the progress they’ve made so far in answering the overarching question: Should the colonists have revolted again Great Britain?

Say: Now that we have analyzed the white male, white female, Native-American, and African-American perspectives, you should have a solid understanding of the multiple perspectives involved in the decision to revolt against Great Britain.

Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC Center for History Education.

Collect Historical Document Logs.



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