WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 | 2 || 4 | 5 |   ...   | 10 |

«ABSTRACT THE SOCIAL INJUSTICE OF PRISON RAPE: A HISTORICAL ANALYSIS By Francy Lynn Jenko August 2010 The purpose of this review is to gain a better ...»

-- [ Page 3 ] --

Youth are also at great risk for abuse. According to the report In the Shadows, juveniles ages 13 to 18 are exceptionally vulnerable to abuse in adult facilities (NPREC, 2006). The rate of victimization for youth housed with adults is 5 times that of youth held in juvenile facilities (Forst, Fagan, & Vivona, 1989). Moreover, youth housed with adults are 8 times more likely to commit suicide than those who are housed with other juvenile offenders (Forst et al., 1989). Unfortunately, sexual violence is also prevalent in juvenile detention facilities. According to Beck and Hughes (2005), juvenile detention facilities reported the highest incidence of sexual perpetration by staff compared to adult facilities. Staff committed 41% of the substantiated incidents while the remaining 59%) were carried out by other youth (Beck & Hughes, 2005). Snyder and Sickmund (2006) indicated that youth reported close to 3,000 allegations in a single year.

Mental Health and Inmates Toch and Kupers (1999) analyzed the mentally ill inmate population and concluded that they are at risk for mistreatment in detention, which can lead to trauma and exacerbate emotional problems. He suggested that inmates who have mental health problems are overwhelmingly represented in the inmate populace (Toch & Kupers, 1999). Further, Toch and Kupers reported that the prevalence of mental disorders among inmates is at least 5 times higher than that of the general population. Moreover, Torrey (1997) reported that more mentally ill individuals are housed in jails and prisons in the United States than in psychiatric hospitals. Lamb (1989) indicated that the deinstitutionalization of the mental health system caused an influx of inmates with severe mental health disorders in correctional facilities.

Wolff et al. (2007) sampled 7,528 inmates from 11 male facilities and one female facility through an audio-computerized survey. They based the incidence of mental disorders on self-reports made by inmates based on information such as previous mental health treatment. Wolff et al. estimated rates of sexual victimization among inmates with and without mental disorders. Based on their findings, 1 in 12 male inmates with a mental disorder compared to 1 in 33 male inmates without mental disorders reported at least one occasion of sexual violence by another inmate over a 6-month period.

Among female inmates with a mental disorder, sexual assault was over 3 times higher than what was reported by male inmates with mental disorders. African American and Hispanic inmates with mental disorders, regardless of gender, reported higher rates of sexual violence than non-Hispanic White inmates (Wolff et al., 2007). The study found that the majority of inmates who reported sexual victimization did not report completed rapes. They also reported that both male and female inmates might be at greater or lesser risk for sexual violence in the community, based on their mental health disorders and community characteristics (Wolff et al., 2007). Nevertheless, these findings indicate that inmates who have mental health disorders are at a heightened risk for sexual victimization.

Not only are inmates with mental health problems more likely victims in prison, they also report previous violence in the community (Wolff et al., 2007). Kupers (1996) reported that inmates frequently lack a support system, have often experienced childhood sexual abuse, and tend to be plagued by mental illness at much higher rates than those in the general population. Collins and Bailey (1990) suggested that a significant number of inmates experience severe and repeated trauma prior to incarceration. Such trauma likely causes these inmates to be more susceptible to PTSD, suicide, and other mental health problems (Kupers, 1996).

–  –  –

Numerous studies have focused on ethnic disparities between perpetrators and their victims (Carroll, 1977; Chonco, 1989; Davis, 1968; Moss et al., 1979). Moss et al.

(1979) concluded that all the perpetrators in their study were Chicano or Black.

Furthermore, they determined that rape in prison is highly precipitated by race. Carroll (1977) found there to be a high relationship between nonconsensual sex and racial tension. According to Carroll, perpetrators were likely to be of different racial backgrounds than their victims.

In an earlier study, Davis (1968) reported that 56% of rape incidents involved Black aggressors and White victims, 29% involved Black aggressors and Black victims, 15% involved White aggressors and White victims, and no cases involved White aggressors and Black victims. However, it should be noted that at the time of Davis's study, in the 1960s, 4 out of every 5 prisoners in the Philadelphia prison system were Black. Thus, this alone may have been the cause for studies to indicate Black inmates as the highest rape perpetrators in prison. Further, Bowker (1980) suggested that the findings would be quite different if the circumstances were reversed and there were a small percentage of Black prisoners compared to other ethnicities.

However, Carroll (1977) studied rape rates in a prison where only 22% of the prisoners were Black and found that this did not affect the degree to which Black men were perpetrators. He determined that Black inmates hold significant power in detention facilities because they are organized and have a high degree of group cohesion compared to other ethnic groups. He also found that White gang leaders facilitate interracial rape in order to get victims to agree to consensual relationships or pairings following their rapes by Black inmates. Therefore, it appears that White prisoners gain protection from other White inmates not due to solidarity, but for sexual favors.





Additionally, Carroll (1977) suggested that there is an element of "Black Rage" in prison rape. According to Carroll, Blacks have been generally oppressed as a group and use rape in prison to retaliate against Whites. Therefore, rape is used to gain power, dominance, and a sense of greater masculinity (Bowker, 1980; Cotton & Groth; English & Heil, 2005; Lockwood, 1980; Ross & Richards, 2002) and can be used by different ethnic groups to gain power, dominance, and control over other races.

Davis (1968) hypothesized that Black prisoners may organize into prison gangs as a way to maintain status. Moreover, he suggested that refusal to participate in gang rape might lead to victimization. Davis also hypothesized that lower-class Blacks may perpetrate rape in jail because they have been unable to affirm their masculinity outside of prison. Further, incarceration exacerbates their lack of masculinity leading them to rape others in an effort to demonstrate dominance.

Although many studies suggest that White inmates are most often victimized, Jenness et al. (2007) found different results when studying the incidence of prison rape in California prisons. According to Jenness et al., Black inmates are considerably more vulnerable to sexual assault in California correctional facilities. Of the inmates sampled, 50% of the non-heterosexual inmates who reported sexual assault were Black and, even more pronounced, 83% of the heterosexual inmates who reported being sexually assaulted were Black (Jenness et al., 2007).

While many studies seem to suggest that ethnicity factors into rape in prison, it is important to note that not all victims, nor all perpetrators, are from one ethnic background, and that ethnicity is not a singular factor found in prison sexual violence (Kunselman, Tewksbury, Dumond, & Dumond, 2002). Further, Kunselman et al. (2002) explained that victims of prison rape generally display several characteristics associated with inmates at risk for abuse. Thus, ethnic background is not the only common characteristic found among victims.

Bowker (1980) suggested that, "Interracial rape is like all social problems in that its epidemiology changes over time in responses to changes in the social environment" (p. 10). Bowker also indicated that White men historically perpetrated rape on Black women. Thus, rape should be examined according to who has social power, rather than by whether individuals of different racial backgrounds have a propensity toward sexual violence. Although rape in prison does have a correlation with race, race itself is not the main factor, as is evidenced by rapes perpetrated by inmates on victims of their own racial background (Carroll, 1977; Davis, 1968).

–  –  –

Extortion is a common theme in prison and much violence perpetrated amongst inmates, results from efforts to seize or maintain control of the illegal economy found in detention facilities (Mariner, 2001). Often, prison gangs run underground markets, including the trading of inmates or sexual slavery (Mariner, 2001). Prison gangs are considered a security threat and generally are organized, powerful, and structured groups (Hensley, 2002). They are often responsible for the preponderance of violence found in prison facilities (Camp & Camp, 1988; Cooksey, 1999). Both Bowker (1980) and Scacco (1982) described how inexperienced inmates frequently accept a service or good and then are expected to pay for them. Payment can be monetary or physical. When inmates are not able or unwilling to pay, physical and sexual attacks may occur.

Prison rape incidents often involve multiple perpetrators (Banbury, 2004;

Mariner, 2001; Struckman-Johnson et al., 1996). According to Jenness et al. (2007), gangs play a role in prison sexual misconduct, with 45% of the incidents reportedly involving a gang member assaulting a non-gang member. Some inmates have been forced to be sex slaves throughout the prison or to certain groups in the prison subpopulation, such as to a prison gang (Castle et al., 2002; Knowles, 1999; Mariner, 2001;

Wooden & Parker, 1982).

–  –  –

Inmates who are most likely to perpetrate abuse in prison include those who are most likely to perpetrate abuse outside of prison (Berk et al., 2006). Research indicates that individuals incarcerated for violent crimes, those affiliated with gangs, those who are accustomed to prison, those who spent time in juvenile detention facilities, those who are older and stronger than their victims, those who are younger than thirty years old, and those who tend to break other prison rules are at an increased risk of perpetrating abuse while in confinement (Berk et al., 2006; English & Heil, 2005; Mariner, 2001; Nacci & Kane, 1982). Further, inmates who are young and those serving sentences of more than 10 years also seem to be most likely to perpetrate offenses (Berk et al., 2006). However, it was determined that inmates who are serving life in prison are not at an increased risk of engaging in serious misconduct, as might be assumed (Berk et al., 2006).

Staff as Perpetrators Tewksbury and West (2000) indicated that there is a significant power differential at play between correctional officials and inmates, which makes abuse of inmates by staff extremely easy. It was not until recently that laws criminalizing sexual behavior between staff and inmates were enacted. Previously, guards were able to get away with perpetrating sexual abuse on inmates (Tewksbury & West, 2000). Research commonly indicated that staff, not other inmates, violated women inmates (Amnesty International, 2001; Human Rights Watch, 1996; Smith, 2001). Similar to the common impression that guards singly assaulted female inmates, it was generally concluded that male inmates were only at risk of sexual violence at the hands of other inmates (MGuire, 2005).

However, other research has suggested that male and female inmates are at risk of assault by both staff and fellow inmates. Struckman-Johnson et al. (1996) reported that guards perpetrated 18% of incidents reported by male inmates. Further, Struckman-Johnson and Struckman-Johnson (2002) found that fellow inmates perpetrated nearly half of the 8% to 27% of incidents reported by female inmates, while guards were responsible for around 45% of the reported incidents.

–  –  –

Numerous factors contribute to prison culture and prison norms. Conditions associated with the occurrence of prison sexual violence include racial conflict, dormitory or barrack style housing, facilities with a high number of violent offenders, blind spots, and understaffing (Mariner 2001; Nacci & Kane, 1982; Struckman-Johnson & Struckman-Johnson, 2000).

Lack of Proper Inmate Classification Berk et al. (2006) conducted a study to determine which inmates are most likely to engage in serious misconduct while imprisoned. Serious misconduct included drug trafficking, assault, rape, attempted murder, and other offenses that met criteria for serious misconduct (Berk et al., 2006). They were able to accurately predict serious misconduct over 50% of the time, with less than 3% of inmates over a 24-month period having been reported for serious misconduct (Berk et al., 2006).

They concluded that classification systems can be designed and employed to identify individuals most likely to offend and then such inmates can be placed in more restrictive housing (Berk et al., 2006). Utilizing such a system could potentially prevent rape from occurring in prison. Berk et al. (2006) explained that there is a concern of how to best maintain order while staying cost-effective. This fiscal concern likely impedes the probability of employing methods to help reduce the occurrence of rape in prison. The average cost to house a single inmate, according to Berk et al., is $30,000 per year. The cost increases significantly for more secure housing (Berk et al., 2006). Thus, it does not seem financially feasible to place large quantities of inmates in restrictive environments.

Berk et al. (2006) also explained a flaw in the current classification system. All infractions are treated the same, with minor infractions being regarded as equal to major infractions. They highly recommended a system that focuses on identifying inmates who are most likely to commit serious offenses, rather than treating all offenses the same.

Thereby, ranking infractions based on levels of severity would be significantly beneficial in minimizing sexual violence among inmates (Berk et al., 2006).

Overcrowding Research points to the growing prison population, overcrowding, and understaffing as the main culprits in the occurrence of prison rape (Hensley, 2002;



Pages:     | 1 | 2 || 4 | 5 |   ...   | 10 |


Similar works:

«So you want to reuse digital heritage content in a creative context? Good luck with that. Accepted, Art Libraries Journal 2015. Professor Melissa Terras Department of Information Studies Foster Court University College London Gower Street WC1E 6BT m.terras@ucl.ac.uk Abstract Although there is a lot of digitised cultural heritage content online, it is still incredibly difficult to source good material to reuse, or material that you are allowed to reuse, in creative projects. What can...»

«Fordham Law School FLASH: The Fordham Law Archive of Scholarship and History Faculty Scholarship 1995 Famous Victory: Collective Bargaining Protections and the Statutory Aging Process, A James J. Brudney Fordham University School of Law, jbrudney@law.fordham.edu Follow this and additional works at: http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/faculty_scholarship Part of the Labor and Employment Law Commons, and the Legislation Commons Recommended Citation James J. Brudney, Famous Victory: Collective Bargaining...»

«Native American History in the Mississippi Headwaters Region Native American History in the Mississippi Headwaters Region The Paleo-Indian Tradition (10,000 8,000 B.C.) People first moved into the Headwaters Region about 12,000 years ago. These people, known to archaeologists as Paleo-Indians, followed the mammoths, mastodons, and giant bison that migrated into the area after the retreat of the glaciers. Also known as Big Game Hunters these people used long, thin, fluted spear points that were...»

«2013 – 2014 Annual Report TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents Message from the President _ 2 Message from the CEO 4 Our Mission, Vision and History 6 Our Accomplishments 7 Message from the Treasurer 10 Board Members 11 Staff 12 Page 1 of 12 TO OUR MEMBERS Message from the President AMHO has had an exciting year. Although this is the report for the year ended March 31, 2014, I will review the past six months as well. It is always good to remind ourselves of our mission: ‘To provide leadership,...»

«Some comments on Brazilian TP System with fixed margins for the resale price method (RPM) and cost plus method (CPM). By Marcos Aurélio Pereira Valadão Background Legislation history Brazil introduced in 1996, through Law n. 9430/1996 a law on transfer pricing. The bill was proposed to deal with tax evasion trough transfer pricing schemes, and according to the proposal, it adopted the arm´s length principle. Law n. 9430/1996 was modified by Law 9.959/2000, Law n. 10.451/2002, Law n....»

«A Political Ecology of Healing 1 Elisabeth Middleton University of California, Davis, USA. The concept of historical unresolved grief has powerful implications not only for healing from our past, but for giving us the strength and commitment to save ourselves and future generations. Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart and Lemrya DeBruyn 2 1. Introduction On June 29, 2004, the Pacific and Watershed Lands Stewardship Council convened a public meeting in Chester, California, in the northeastern Sierra...»

«“TERRITORIALIDAD Y POBLAMIENTO EN MARACAIBO DURANTE EL DOMINIO ESPAÑOL 1492 -1830” SANTIAGO BRETÓN DÍAZ Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Facultad de Ciencias Sociales Departamento de Historia y Geografía Carrera de Historia Bogotá D.C. 2010 1 “TERRITORIALIDAD Y POBLAMIENTO EN MARACAIBO DURANTE EL DOMINIO ESPAÑOL 1492 -1830” SANTIAGO BRETÓN DÍAZ Trabajo de Grado para obtener el título de Historiador. Director: ARÍSTIDES RAMOS PEÑUELA Magister en Historia Pontificia Universidad...»

«CEDRAB: THE CENTRE DE DOCUMENTATION ET DE RECHERCHES AHMAD BABA AT TIMBUKTU JOHN O. HUNWICK In November-December 1967 the Unesco organised a ‘meeting of experts’ on the sources of African history which was held in Timbuktu to which the writer of this note was invited.1 T h e principal recommendation of this meeting was that a centre of documentation and research—to be called the Centre de Documentation et de Recherches Ahmad Baba—should be established at Timbuktu to collect and preserve...»

«Curriculum Vitae Perry R. Cook September, 2013 Address: Humbug Sonic Arts, 1004 Humbug Creek Rd., Applegate, OR, 97530. Phone: (541) 846-0698 FAX: (866) 388-3522 URL: http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~prc EDUCATION PhD, Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, January 1991 MS, Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, August 1987 BS, Electrical Engineering, University of Missouri, Kansas City, May 1986. Magna Cum Laude BA, Music, University of Missouri, Kansas City Conservatory of Music. May...»

«REVISTA BRASILEIRA DE GEOGRAFIA SUMARIO DO NUMERO DE JANEIRO DE 1939 APRESENTAÇÃO por JosÉ CARLos DE MAcEDO SoARES, Presidente do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística.............. •........................... 3 RESOLUÇÃO N.o 18, de 12 de Julho de 1938 da Assembléia Geral do Conselho Nacional êle Geografia, que provê à publicação da Revista Brasileira de Geografia.................... 7 ARTIGOS HISTORICO DA...»

«Persuasive Ethopoeia in Dionysius's Lysias Author(s): Kristine S. Bruss Source: Rhetorica: A Journal of the History of Rhetoric, Vol. 31, No. 1 (Winter 2013), pp. 34Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the International Society for the History of Rhetoric Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/rh.2013.31.1.34. Accessed: 04/03/2014 17:03 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at....»

«Tarih Okulu The History School Ocak Nisan 2012 January April 2012 Sayı XII, ss. 193-220. Number XII, ss. 193-220. TEMETTÜAT DEFTERLERİNE GÖRE TURGUTLU’NUN SOSYAL VE EKONOMİK DURUMU (18441845) Saadet TEKİN Özet Temettüat Defterleri XIX. yüzyıl Osmanlı sosyal ve ekonomik tarihinin önemli kaynaklarından biridir. Bu defterler, XIX. yüzyılın ilk yarısında mal-mülk, arazi, hayvan ve vergi mükellefi bütün insanların malvarlıklarını kaydetmek için hazırlanmıştır. Bu...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.