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«THE RHODESIAN CRISIS IN BRITISH AND INTERNATIONAL POLITICS, 1964-1965 by CARL PETER WATTS A thesis submitted to the University of Birmingham For the ...»

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See, for example: T. Curtin and D. Murray Economic Sanctions and Rhodesia (London: Institute of Economic Affairs, 1967); R. B. Sutcliff, Sanctions Against Rhodesia (London: Africa Bureau, 1968); L. T.

Kapungu The U.N. and economic sanctions against Rhodesia (Lexington: D. C. Heath, 1973); H. R. Strack, Sanctions: the Case of Rhodesia (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1978); and M. Bailey, Oilgate: The Sanctions Scandal (London: Coronet Books, 1979).

rise to certain anomalies about which little has been written. For example, Canada and New Zealand saw the UN as a cornerstone of their external relations, but they were placed in the invidious position of supporting the British claim that Rhodesia did not fall within the UN’s competence. The United States also found itself – not for the first or the last time – supporting British colonial policy despite its supposedly anti-imperial heritage.

There is a great deal of material in British, Australian, Canadian, New Zealand, and American archives that will illuminate how the Rhodesian Crisis was managed in its UN context, and the consequences of this.

In terms of methodology, an interdisciplinary approach – which has so far been totally lacking – may lead to greater understanding of many aspects of the Rhodesian Crisis.

Historians sometimes make excellent use of theory to frame their empirical research, but their efforts in this regard are usually limited to one or two theoretical paradigms. To give two examples: in his book Dilemmas of Appeasement, Gaines Post Jr. observed the consequences of bureaucratic politics in British foreign policy formulation during the 1930s and acknowledged the utility of deterrence theory for analytical purposes; and Louise Richardson’s When Allies Differ examined Anglo-American relations during the Suez Crisis and Falklands War from the perspective of alliance theory. 28 However, the Rhodesian Crisis provides a single case study that can be analysed from multiple theoretical perspectives in political science and international relations. At the domestic level these include intra-executive relations, bureaucratic politics, executive-legislative relations, and a variety of pluralist perspectives dealing with the media, pressure groups Gaines Post Jr., Dilemmas of Appeasement: British Deterrence and Defense, 1934-1937 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993). Louise Richardson, When Allies Differ: Anglo-American Relations During the Suez and Falklands Crises (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996).

and public opinion. At the international level there are many useful analytical perspectives and models for this study, such as the concept of crisis, theory and practice of negotiation, alliance theory, multilateral diplomacy, deterrence, and coercive diplomacy. Future research on the Rhodesian Crisis carried out from these theoretical perspectives would therefore be useful not only for scholars of British decolonisation and international history, but also political scientists interested in domestic aspects of foreign policy formulation, and international relations theorists concerned with the operation of the international states system.

–  –  –

The franchise is for voters of all races registered on one of the two rolls and extends to all citizens aged 21 years or over, resident in the country for more than two years, subject to certain property, income or educational qualifications. The following are the qualifications required for each role.

‘A’ Roll (a) Income of £792 or ownership of property of value of £1,650, or (b) Income of £528 or ownership of property of value of £1,100 and completion of a

–  –  –

(d) Appointment to the office of Chief or Headman.

‘B’ Roll (a) Income of £264 or ownership of property of value of £495, or (b) Income of £132 or ownership of property of value of £275 and two years secondary education, or Source: London School of Economics: British Library of Political and Economic Science, Papers of

Arthur George Bottomley, Bottomley 26, Box 3, Fact Sheets on the Commonwealth: Rhodesia (London:

HMSO, August 1965), p. 4, ‘Franchise’.

(c) Over 30 years of age and income of £132 or ownership of property of value of

–  –  –

(e) Kraal heads with a following of 20 or more heads of families, or (f) Ministers of religion.

Provision is made for a person paying for property by instalments to qualify for the ‘B’ Roll. A married woman is deemed to have the same qualifications as her husband (one wife only) if she does not qualify in her own right. No limit is set to the number of persons who can register as voters but in elections in ‘A’ Roll constituencies ‘B’ Roll voters do not count for more than 25 per cent of ‘A’ Roll votes cast; in ‘B’ Roll electoral districts ‘A’ Roll votes do not count for more than 25 per cent of ‘B’ Roll votes cast.

Registered voters on 30th April 1963 were as follows:

–  –  –

(a) United Kingdom.

(i) The National Archives: Public Records Office, Kew.

1. Records of the Cabinet Office.

CAB 128: Cabinet Minutes (CM and CC Series), 1945-1974.

CAB 129: Cabinet Memoranda (CP and C Series), 1945-1967.

CAB 130: Miscellaneous Committees: Minutes and Papers (GEN, MISC and REF Series), 1945-1976.

CAB 133: Commonwealth and international conferences, and ministerial visits to and from the UK: Minutes and Papers (ABC and other Series), 1944-1970.

CAB 148: Defence and Oversea Policy Committee and Sub-committees: Minutes and Papers (DO, DOP, and OPD Series), 1964-1970.

2. Records of the Foreign Office.

FO 371: Political Departments: General Correspondence, 1906-1966.

3. Records of the Commonwealth Relations Office.

DO 183: Central African Office and Commonwealth Relations Office: Central Africa: Registered Files (CAO Series), 1962-1966.

4. Records of the Ministry of Defence.

AIR 20: Air Ministry: Papers of the Air Historical Branch, 1874-1983.

DEFE 24: Defence Secretariat: Registered Files, 1952-1983.

DEFE 25: Chief of the Defence Staff: Registered Files (CDS, SCDS and ACDS (OPS) Series), 1957-1980.

DEFE 32: Chiefs of Staff Committee: Secretary’s Standard Files, 1946-83.

(ii) Other repositories

1. Bodleian Library, Oxford.

Papers of Viscount Boyd of Merton (MS Eng. c.3404 and MS Eng. c.3815).

Papers of Lord George-Brown (MS Eng. b.2052, MS Eng. c.5002, MS Eng.

c.5004, and MS Eng. d.2594).

2. British Library of Political and Economic Science, London School of Economics.

Papers of the Fabian Society International and Commonwealth Bureau (Fabian Society/2 and Fabian Society J73a/1).

Papers of Arthur George Bottomley (Bottomley 10, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, and 26).

Papers of Alastair Hetherington (Hetherington 7-10).

Papers of George Edward Cecil Wigg (Wigg 4).

3. Centre for Southern African Studies, Borthwick Institute of Historical Research, York.

–  –  –

Papers of Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir John Slessor (CSAS MF 106).

Papers of George Ivan Smith (CSAS MF 107-108 and SMI).

4. Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge.

Diplomatic Oral History Programme Interviews (GBR/0014/DOHP).

Papers of Michael Stewart (STWT 9/5/4 and STWT 7/6/1).

Papers of Patrick Gordon Walker (GNWR 3/4).

5. National Museum of Labour History, Manchester.

Commonwealth Papers: Southern Rhodesia Correspondence (1961-1969) and Southern Rhodesia Documents (1963-1966)

6. Rhodes House Library, Oxford.

Oxford Colonial Records Project: Interviews with Lord Caradon (MSS Brit. Emp.


Papers of the Africa Bureau (MSS Afr. s1681).

Papers of Sir Roy Welensky (MSS Welensky).

7. Royal Commonwealth Society Library, Cambridge.

Papers of the Joint Africa Board (Chairman’s Newsletters and Council Minutes).

8. School of Oriental and African Studies, London.

Papers of Leonard Barnes (PP MS 9 Barnes, Boxes 17, 19, and 20).

Archives of the Movement for Colonial Freedom (MCF Boxes 20, 59, 60 and 84).

(b) Commonwealth

1. Canadian National Archives, Ottawa.

Records of the Department of External Affairs (RG 25).

Records of Arnold Smith (MG 31 and MG 47).

2. National Archives of Australia, Canberra.

Records of the Cabinet Office: Eighth Menzies Administration – Cabinet Files, Folders of Decisions of Cabinet and Cabinet Committees (Series A 5828).

Records of the Department of External Affairs: Central Office, Correspondence files, multiple number series (Series A 1838).

Records of the Prime Minister’s Department: Correspondence files, annual single number series, classified (A 1209).

3. Archives New Zealand, Wellington / Te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga.

Records of the Department of External Affairs (Series ABHS 950, W4627).

(c) United States (i) Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, Texas.

1. National Security File Country Files: Rhodesia (Box 97); United Kingdom (Boxes 207-209 and 212and Zambia (Box 102).

Intelligence File: National Intelligence Estimates (Box 8).

Name Files: Edward K. Hamilton (Box 3); Ulric Haynes (Box 1); and Robert Komer (Box 6).

2. Oral History Interviews.

David Bruce (9 December 1971, AC 73-39).

Dean Rusk (8 March 1970, AC 74-245-D).

G. Mennen Williams (8 March 1974, AC 79-79).

3. State Department Administrative History (1968).

4. White House Central File.

–  –  –

6. White House Telephone Conversations.

Conversations between the President and Dean Rusk (Tape Numbers WH6511.05 and WH6511.09).

(ii) Bentley Historical Library, Michigan.

1. G. Mennen Williams Papers.

State Department Files (Microfilm Edition).

Undersecretary of State for African Affairs Series.

Published collections of documents and archival guides Ashton, S. R. and Wm. Roger Louis. eds. British Documents on the End of Empire Series A, Volume 5, East of Suez and the Commonwealth 1964-1971. London: The Stationery Office, 2004.

Part I: East of Suez.

Part II: Europe, Rhodesia, Commonwealth.

Part III: Dependent Territories, Africa, Economics, Race.

Cook, Chris. The Longman Guide to Sources in Contemporary British History. 2 Vols.

London: Longman, 1994.

Murphy, Philip. ed. British Documents on the End of Empire Series B, Volume 9, Central Africa. London: The Stationery Office, 2005.

Part I: Closer Association, 1945-1958.

Part II: Crisis and Dissolution, 1959-1965.

Thurston, Anne. ed. Records of the Colonial Office, Dominions Office, Commonwealth Relations Office and Commonwealth Office. London: HMSO: 1995.

United Kingdom Commonwealth Relations Office. Cmnd. 2807, Southern Rhodesia:

documents relating to the negotiations between the United Kingdom and Southern Rhodesian Governments November 1963 – November 1965. London: HMSO, 1965.

United States Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States 1964-68, Vol.

XXIV, Africa. Washington D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1999.

Windrich, Elaine. ed. The Rhodesian problem: a documentary record, 1923-1973.

London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1975.


Allison, Graham T. Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis. Boston:

Little, Brown, 1971.

Almond, Gabriel. The American People and Foreign Policy. New York: Praeger, 1960.

Bailey, M. Oilgate: The Sanctions Scandal. London: Coronet Books, 1979.

Ball, George. The Past has another Patter: Memoirs. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1982.

Barber, James. Rhodesia: The Road to Rebellion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967.

Barston, R. P. Modern Diplomacy. London: Longman, 1988.

Benn, Tony. Out of the Wilderness: Diaries, 1963-67. London: Hutchinson, 1987.

Berthelot, Helen W. Win Some Lose Some: G. Mennen Williams and the New Democrats.

Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1995.

Beschloss, Michael. Reaching For Glory: Lyndon Johnson’s Secret White House Tapes 1964-1965. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.

Bill, James A. George Ball: Behind the Scenes in U. S. Foreign Policy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.

Birmingham, D. The Decolonization of Africa. London: UCL Press, 1995.

Blake, Robert. A History of Rhodesia. London: Eyre Methuen, 1977.

Borstelmann, Thomas. The Cold War and the Color Line: American race relations in the global arena. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Bottomley, Arthur. Commonwealth, Comrades and Friends. Bombay: Somaiya Publications, 1985.

Boyce, D. G. Decolonisation and the British Empire, 1775-1997. Basingstoke:

Macmillan, 1999.

Brown, Bruce. New Zealand Foreign Policy in Retrospect. Wellington: Institute of International Affairs, 1970.

Brown, George. In My Way. London: Gollancz, 1971.

Brown, Judith M. and Wm. Roger Louis, eds. The Oxford History of the British Empire Volume IV: The Twentieth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Callaghan, James. Time and Chance. London: Collins, 1987.

Camilleri, Joseph A. An Introduction to Australian Foreign Policy. Milton, Queensland:

Jacaranda Press, 2nd edn., 1975.

Carver, Michael. Out of Step. The Memoirs of Field Marshal Lord Carver. London:

Hutchinson, 1989.

Casey, Richard Gardiner. Friends and Neighbors. East Lansing: Michigan State College Press, 1955.

Castle, Barbara. The Castle Diaries 1964-1970. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984.

Chamberlain, Muriel E. Decolonisation: The Fall of the European Empires. Oxford:

Blackwell, 1985.

Chan, Stephen. The Commonwealth in World Politics: A Study of International Action.

London: Lester Crook Academic Publishing, 1988.

Charlton, Michael. The last colony in Africa: diplomacy and the independence of Rhodesia. Oxford: Blackwell, 1990.

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