WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 10 | 11 || 13 | 14 |   ...   | 34 |

«CORA WEISS ORAL HISTORY PROJECT The Reminiscences of Cora Weiss Columbia Center for Oral History Columbia University PREFACE The following oral ...»

-- [ Page 12 ] --

Weiss: That's a serious problem, because I had a big fight with the representative from Amnesty [International], I'll never forget it. But I can't remember what it was about. [laughter] She, I think, was only an intern at the time at AI [Amnesty International]. But because she represented such a powerful institution, she brought authority to the table. I mean, her views were taken seriously. But I can't remember what. So, we argued, we compromised, we discussed, we agreed.

And UNIFEM brought a woman from the Namibian Mission to the U.N. who could help us learn Security Council language. The reason we picked Namibia is because Namibia was going to be the president of the Security Council in October, and we needed a friend. Namibia had just completed something called the Windhoek Declaration, which was a declaration about women

–  –  –

This tall, wonderful woman came, I can't remember her name, and she helped us with Security Council language. And we began drafting. We drafted a draft for October, because Namibia would be president, Jamaica had a woman ambassador, and was on the Council, and Anwarul Chowdhury from Bangladesh was on the Council. So, we had three good friends, three feminists.

We geared our effort to October. We had a draft ready. We went around the table, and assigned people to the different countries, the fifteen countries of the U.N., to, "Lobby them" on the draft.

We sent the draft to Angela King. She was the Secretary General's gender advisor. She was from Jamaica. She took the draft and she gave it to her deputy, who was a young Russian man. The combination of “Russia,” culturally, politically, historically and “man” didn't bode well for us.

He stayed up all night long, and he turned our draft into nineteen paragraphs. The only thing wrong with it—I was going to show it to you, but I didn't bring it to the table is that it never utters the word, "Shall." And that omission of demand is what created the doubts. He brought it to her in the morning, and she took it to the Security Council on the last day of Namibia's presidency.

And they had never seen anything like it before, and Anwarul Chowdhury made a terrific speech.

He also made a terrific speech in March, on International Women's Day. So, we knew we had a solid friend. And basically, how could all these men and one or two women say no to women?

We created kind of an embarrassing situation. Embarrassment is a very important form of diplomacy. I discovered that during the Vietnam War. They adopted it unanimously. So here's another doubt: They didn't vote, they adopted. That created yet another doubt in—

–  –  –

Weiss: Well, it turns out not to be.

Q: Oh.

Weiss: But the women, who had no experience with U.N. resolutions or the Security Council, doubted that it was real, that it was as valuable as a resolution that would be voted. But again, Hans Corell came to our rescue and said, "Look at Article 25. The Security Council dealt with it, and now member states are required to carry it out." And so, we have. Even the United States came through in December of 2010, with a National Action Plan.

Q: Do you recall what nation you lobbied?

Weiss: Oh, that's a good question. Probably Jamaica, because I knew the ambassador, and she was a friend. Lucille Mair.

Q: Did you have any conversation with the Americans?

Weiss: No. I deliberately stayed away, because I didn't want them to turn me down. So, somebody who wasn't known to them went to see them.

–  –  –

Weiss: Who was the U.S. ambassador?

Q: I can't remember.

Weiss: I have to look it up. I have no idea. It could have been Madeleine Albright.

Q: Albright?

Weiss: In 2000? I don't know.

Q: Could have been. Yes, could have been.

Weiss: So, one day, I asked Madeleine Albright at a meeting at the Council on Foreign Relations, how come you don't implement 1325, which was adopted on October 31st? "Oh," she said, "Because it was adopted on Halloween."

Q: [laughs] What did she mean by that? Or, what did you think she meant by that?

Weiss: She didn't take it seriously.

–  –  –

Weiss: Anyway, it's been adopted. We have a National Action Plan in the United States. It has its wrinkles, because the first agency in the U.S. that it was given to for drafting, national action, was the military. The Department of Defense. That was the last place that we had in mind when we were working around the table, because this was a peace agreement, as far as we were concerned. It was to promote peace, and it was to include women at the peacemaking table. We discovered in the Irish Peace Agreement that it made a huge difference. That's a whole story about the Irish Peace Agreement and me.

Q: Well, now you can fast forward to that. It's a logical subparagraph.

Weiss: Except I think the Irish Peace Agreement was April 10, 1998. But in any event, it's linked because I took a group of Americans, I think we were a dozen, on a peace process tour to Ireland, September 16th to 25th, 1994. I have two huge files about it in the office. We went to the North.

But before we got to the North, we got off the airplane, and we went immediately to Mary Robinson, who was then president. Even though it was drizzling, she walked us around the president's place. It's like a little mansion, in Dublin. She talked to each one of us. It was a remarkable choreography and conversation. We told her we were going to the North, and she invited us to come back when we were finished, to report to her, which was fabulous opening.





We then went to Belfast, we went to the North. We were met by Caitriona Ruane, who worked for the Center for Research and Documentation. It was a research outfit, and she hosted us and took us around. We met with the Irish women, Catholic and Protestant. The one thing they asked

–  –  –

They would be attacked. When we finished the tour, after we had been in a prison, we had been in the police department, we had met with Irish Catholics and Protestants and slept in the homes—all of us were assigned to a home of Northern Irish people. When we went back to Dublin to take the plane back to New York, we met with not only Mary Robinson, but with Jean Smith, who was President Kennedy's sister and the U.S. Ambassador to Ireland. The one thing we told both of the women was, the one message we're bringing back is the Irish women need a safe place to meet. And they arranged it. At that place, the Irish women agreed that they would go to George Mitchell, who was the U.S. facilitator for the Irish peace talks, to resolve The Troubles, to end The Troubles.

George Mitchell said to them, "No, you can't have a place at the table, because it's only set for political parties." They went back and they formed the Irish Women's political party. They came to George, and they said, "We're sent by the political party, the Irish Women's—" He said, "Fine." They got not one, but two seats at the table. What they did at that table has not been replicated since. They refused to let the men, who represented the political parties, go forward until they got their human rights demands institutionalized. It was a remarkable and successful effort.

Q: These were human rights for women?

Weiss: Human rights for everybody.

–  –  –

Weiss: Those human rights demands are in the famous agreement, it's called the "Good Friday Agreement." That agreement is referenced by many of the subsequent peace processes. The South Africans went to Ireland to talk to the people who sat at the table. How did you do it?

What did you do? They learned lessons from the Troubles Agreement, from the Good Friday Agreement, to use for South Africa's agreement to end Apartheid. It was used by other countries.

It's a very important agreement, and the fact that it has these institutions for human rights is, "Spot on," as they say in South Africa. So, where were we? We have 1325. We use it. We have training sessions about it.

There's an organization that's devoted almost entirely—the Global Network of Women Peacebuilders—it's devoted almost entirely to implementing 1325 in developing countries, and helping the women understand how they can use it at the local level, as well as at the national level, because your village shouldn't be an exclusively male hierarchy, ignoring the women, ignoring their right to participation. It gives women the right to participate.

Q: Now, going through your speeches, I noticed that it was post 1325 that you make a very obvious effort to publicize 1325, and going back to it in many kinds of contexts, not just peace process, but women, the particular roles of women, and actually, in some cases, discriminatory policies towards women, et cetera, et cetera. Do other people do that, or have you taken this as

–  –  –

Weiss: Oh, sure. No, it's among my missions, but it's integrated with everything I do. I do peace education, and then women. I'm working now on an op-ed piece that's being written by Sanam Anderlini, and I'm helping her edit it, for [William J.] Hague, the foreign minister of England, who's called a meeting for next week of ministers, a ministerial meeting on rape. Initially, it was going to be rape, I think, of women in general, rape and abuse. But now, it's limited to rape and violent conflict. The problem with his proposal, and the direction that he's going to take the discussion, is that he wants to pluck rape out of war and let the war go on. That's one of my bestused phrases these days.

So, I had an opportunity yesterday to meet Peggy Kerry, who is a friend, and who works at the U.S. Mission in charge of non-governmental organizations, civil society. She told me that he was going to go, that John Kerry, her brother, was going to go to Hague's conference for one day. I said, "Peggy, would you like John to take a message to Hague? We can't let rape be plucked out of war and let the war go on. They have to be dealt with simultaneously." She said, "Of course.

Of course that's right." "Well," I said, "It's not the way it's going to happen.” She's going to convey my message. I spoke to Sanam this morning, and I said, "Send me an executive summary of the op-ed," which she's putting on OpenDemocracy.org in London. So, that's how things happen. You have lunch with somebody, you meet them, they tell you something that you might know something about.

–  –  –

Weiss: It's you and me. It's not corporations and it's not government. It's people who have the right to vote, and it's people whose public opinion, whose opinions, help to move policy, we hope. It's worked in a number of cases.

Q: But when you talk about it, you also talk about it in terms of—you said— Weiss: Organized.

Q: —non-government agencies, in terms of organizations.

Weiss: Right. NGO [Non-Governmental Organization] is a phrase that—it means NonGovernmental Organization.

Q: Right.

Weiss: But I think it frequently means No-Good Organization. So I prefer to talk about Organized Civil Society, or CSOs, Civil Society Organizations.

Q: Well, give me an example of an organization in which you and I would be participants in

–  –  –

Weiss: Women Strike for Peace was a Civil Society Organization. The Hague Appeal for Peace is a Civil Society Organization. The Lawyer's Committee on Nuclear Policy is a Civil Society Organization.

Q: Aha.

Weiss: They are organizations that bring together mere mortals and promote social change, or whatever they promote. They're not limited to social change, but I work with the social change Civil Society Organizations. I am passionate about organized civil society. I think I would never be in a corporation, that I'm aware of, because I'm not out for profit. I've long ago decided never to be in government.

Q: So, these are—in some of the pieces I have, the list of organizations with which you've been identified, committees, conferences, et cetera, runs page after page after page that are any number of organizations. So, this is, to my mind, then, this is the connection between the listing of all of those organizations and the philosophy behind it.

Weiss: The philosophy behind it is that— Q: You have to be organized.

Weiss: You have to be organized and be—you have to be people of similar mindsets, I mean, to

–  –  –

Q: Now, I've interviewed a number of people who are deeply embedded in conservative movements. They start with the argument that anything the government does is wrong, and the alternative to the government is the individual, or people who organize outside of government agencies which is, in many cases, exactly what you're talking about.

Weiss: Except that that's an anarchic argument, isn't it?

Q: Yes. Tell me why.

Weiss: We support government, because government makes change, makes policy. So we're there to influence government. I hope that's one major distinguishing characteristic. I mean, that sounds like libertarians and anarchists.

Q: Yes. Yes.

Weiss: Yes, well, that's not my cup of tea.

Q: That's what I was trying to get at.

Weiss: You know, I'll tell you another thing, since we were talking about women. I've looked through some of the things I've said a long, long, long time ago, my early, early speeches. I'm

–  –  –

because a man was elected and not me, and the women voted for the man when I was in high school—I don't know what it was because of. Or, because of the influence I had from my mother and books that I read when I was very young, but I started out talking about “Women, women everywhere, and not enough in power.” Or, “Women count if you count the women.” Or, “Where are the women?” I just wanted women, period. Then I evolved and the movements evolved, and we all got more sophisticated. At one point, Bella Abzug started to talk about—she wanted a large group of women, concentration of women. A "critical mass" was the word she used. So, I adopted that idea, and then I realized that if you had a critical mass of women in this country, they could be Tea Party women, because the Tea Party had a majority of women members.

Q: Oh, yes?



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 10 | 11 || 13 | 14 |   ...   | 34 |


Similar works:

«INDONESIAIN 1985 Chills and Thaws Donald E. Weatherbee On August 17, 1985, Indonesia celebrated the 40th anniversary of its proclamation of independence from the Dutch. The four decades are almost evenly divided by the political discontinuity of gestapo, the aborted leftist coup of October 1, 1965, which ushered in President Suharto's New Order and the politicial dominance of the Indonesian Armed Forces. The New Order's ambivalence toward its historical origins was still apparent in 1985 in the...»

«Issue 92: America’s 20th Century Evangelical Awakening A New Evangelical Awakening: Did You Know? Interesting and Little Known Facts about America's Mid Century Evangelical Resurgence Mr. Evangelical One of the most important 20th-century shapers of modern evangelicalism was a man whose name is unknown to most evangelicals today: Harold John Ockenga (AH-ken-gay). During his lifetime Ockenga served as founder and first president of the National Association of Evangelicals; president of the...»

«Terrible Silence, Eternal Silence A Consideration of Dinah’s Voicelessness in the Text and Interpretive Traditions of Genesis 34 Caroline Blyth Doctor of Philosophy The University of Edinburgh 2008 I declare that I, Caroline Blyth, have composed this thesis, that it is entirely my own work, and that it has not been submitted for any other degree or professional qualification. Silence can be a plan rigorously executed The blueprint to a life It is a presence it has a history a form Do not...»

«© 2001 The Society for the Social History of Medicine Who's Afraid of Susan Sontag? or, the Myths and Metaphors of Cancer Reconsidered By BARBARA CLOW* SUMMARY: Susan Sontag's book, Illness as Metaphor, has framed our understanding of the relationship between disease metaphors and illness experiences in modern Western society. Downloaded from http://shm.oxfordjournals.org/ at National Cheng Kung University Library on May 21, 2013 Her view that metaphors can render diseases socially as well as...»

«Sage Thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus) Introduction Sage thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus) appears to be stable or increasing in much of its range. Sage thrashers can likely persist with moderate grazing and other land management activities that maintain sagebrush cover, tall vigorous shrubs, and the quality and integrity of native vegetation. Sage thrashers are vulnerable where sagebrush habitats are severely degraded or converted to annual grasslands or to other land uses. There is a high...»

«Complete Citation: Johnson, Laurie (2004). Out of the shadow of Brisbane: CBD development and local identity. Eucalypt: The Australian Studies Centre Journal, 3, 49-60. ISSN ISBN 84-477-0751-2. Accessed from USQ ePrints http://eprints.usq.edu.au ‘Out of the Shadow of Brisbane’: CBD Development and Local Identity Laurence Johnson The story of the shopping centre and CBD redevelopment in the regional Queensland city of Ipswich provides a cautionary tale for local politicians and regional...»

«People and Events Behind the Fractal Images When asked to write this article I, without space limitation, have unleashed a flood of recollections about some men and some ideas involved in the art of fractals, including both art for art’s sake and art for the sake of science. A few of these recollections may even qualify as history, or perhaps only as what the French call le petite histoire. As some readers may already know, history for me is forever a part of the present. The Prehistory of...»

«David BIRMINGHAM, Lusotopie 1998, p. 345-355 Merchants and Missionaries in Angola* T he assumption that is commonly made about Protestants in the Portuguese world is that they were seen as subversive foreigners. This assumption may prove to be partially accurate when the history of the great Angolan rebellion of 1961 is written and Benedict Schubert, author of an Alemannic book on the Church and the war in Angola1, will no doubt have an opinion on the subject. The assumption may also prove to...»

«The Four Legged Homeless: A Comparative Study of Animal Control Policies between Helena, Montana and the Flathead Reservation Abigail Hoover Honors Thesis April 13, 2011 Contents Abstract 2 Introduction 3 Chapter 1. Development of Animal Welfare in the United States 7 Chapter 2. Helena, a One Hundred Year History: 1864 to 1960 13 Chapter 3. The Lewis and Clark Humane Society: 1960 to 1975 23 Chapter 4. Animal Control on the Flathead Reservation 32 Conclusion 44 Bibliography 53 1 Abstract This...»

«A SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF ST. PAUL'S CHURCH IN BROOKLINE A CENTENNIAL PUBLICATION I849-I949 A SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF ST. PAUL'S CHURCH IN BROOKLINE ROBERT PAYNE BIGELOW Parish Historian BROOKLINE, MASSACHUSETTS 1949 INCORPORATORS JI October, r849 AuGusTus AsPINWALL HARRISON FAy BENJAMIN HowARD ELIAKIM LITTELL }AMES PATTEN JOHN CLARKE, SR. HARRISON BIRD FREDERICK P. LADD }AMES s. AMORY JOHN SHEPHERD WILLIAM AsPINWALL, Clerk RECTORS WILLIAM HoRTON, I849-I852 JoHN SEELEY SToNE, I852-I862...»

«Member of IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature June 2012 Conquistadors, cannibals and climate change A brief history of biochar From Conquistadors to soil scientists, the evolution of terra preta into biochar is a bizarre and intriguing story. Progress has been slow and sporadic, yet research from the past decade hints at what could be a very exciting future. A new adventure is beginning. Here be dragons On 5 August 1495 Christopher Columbus received a rather peculiar letter...»

«Working paper no. 6 Citizenship in the discourse of Egyptian political parties Arab Forum for Alternatives Main Researcher: Mohamed Elagati Researcher: Nouran Ahmed Assistant Researcher: Mahmoud Bayoumi June 2015 EUSPRING INTRODUCTION The concept of citizenship is one of the most complicated in political and social sciences. Its long process of historical development makes dealing with it particularly complicated. Citizenship is by nature a multi-dimensional concept: there is a legal...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.