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«A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of PhD at the University of Warwick This thesis is made available online and is ...»

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A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of PhD at the University of Warwick

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FAMIL Y AND FAMILIARITY:

THE DOMESTIC SPHERE IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY ENGLISH VISUAL

CULTURE In Two Volumes Volume I: Text By Kate Retford Submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, at the University of Warwick, Department of History of Art, June 2000

VOLUME 2 RESTRICTED

UNDER INSTRUCTION

FROM UNIVERSITY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

p.i List of Illustrations Acknowledgements p.xviii Declaration p.xx

Abstract

p.xxi In troducti on: p.l Family and Familiarity: The Domestic Sphere in EighteenthCentury English Visual Culture p.36

Chapter One:

The Emergence of the Companionate Ideal p.83

Chapter Two:

Conjugal Discourses and Concordia Discors p.126

Chapter Three:

The Elevation of the Moral Mother p.175

Chapter Four:

Fatherhood and the State of the Child p.214

Chapter Five:

Dynasties Chapter Six: p.252 Transgressions Conclusion: p.309 Change, Continuity and Class in the Eighteenth-Century Family Bibliography p.334

ILLUSTRA TIONS

All sizes are in centimetres, followed by inches in brackets.

All available information has been provided.

Title Page William Dickinson after Henry Bunbury, A Family Piece, stipple engraving printed in sepia, 1781, The British Museum, London, 25.1 x 36.8 (9Ys x 14%) fig.l Bartholomew Dandridge, The d'Albiac Family in Hungerford Park, oil on canvas, date unknown, current whereabouts unknown (sold Parke-Bernet, New York, 3 December 1974),94 x 133.4 (37 x 52Y2)

–  –  –

fig.3 Thomas Gainsborough, Mr and Mrs Andrews, oil on canvas, 1748/9, The National Gallery, London, 69.8 x 119.4 (27Y2 x 27) fig.4 Thomas Gainsborough, The Morning Walk: Mr and Mrs Hallett, oil on canvas, 1785, The National Gallery, London, 236.2 x 179.1 (93 x 70Y2) fig.5 Sir Joshua Reynolds, Elizabeth, Countess of Pembroke with her Son, George, Lord Herbert, oil on canvas, 1764/5, The Earl of Pembroke, Wilton House, 127 x 101.6 (50 x 40) fig.6 Sir Joshua Reynolds, Lady Cockburn and her three Eldest Sons, oil on canvas, 1773, The National Gallery, London, 141.6 x 113 (55% x 44Y2)

–  –  –

fig.9 Johann Zoffany, Queen Charlotte with her Two Eldest Sons, oil on canvas, 1764, Royal Collection, St James's Palace, 112.4 x 129.2 (44% x 50Ys) fig. 10 Sir Joshua Reynolds, Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire and her daughter, Georgiana, oil on canvas, 1786, Chatsworth House, 113 x 140 (44Y2 x 55Ys)

–  –  –

William Hogarth, Marriage A-La-Mode, Plate 1: The Marriage Contract, fig.I2 engraving, 1745, The British Museum, London, 35.6 x 44.5 (14 x 17Y2) William Hogarth, Marriage A-La-Mode, Plate 2: Early in the Morning, fig.I3 engraving, 1745, The British Museum, London, 35.6 x 44.5 (14 x 17Y2) Arthur Devis, Robert Dashwood and his Wife, Anne, of Stamford Park, fig.14 Nottinghamshire, oil on canvas, 1750, The Leger Galleries, London,

111.8 x 96.5 (44 x 38) Anon., The Honey-Moon, mezzotint engraving, 25 June 1777, The British fig.I5 Museum, London, 25.1 x 32.7 (9Ys x 12Ys) Anon., Six Weeks After Marriage, mezzotint engraving, 25 June 1777, fig.16 The British Museum, London, 25.1 x 32.7 (9Y8 x 12Y8) fig.I7 Anon., The Return from Scotland; or Three Weeks after Marriage, mezzotint engraving, 5 December 1777, The British Museum, London,

24.8 x 32.1 (9% x 12Ys)

–  –  –

fig.19 John Collett, Modern Love, Plate 2: The Elopement, engraving, 24 June 1782, The British Museum, London, 34.3 x 43.5 (13Y2 x 17Ys) John Collett, Modern Love, Plate 3: The Honey-Moon, engraving, 24 June fig.20 1782, The British Museum, London, 34.6 x 43.5 (13% x 17Ys) John Collett, Modern Love, Plate 4: Discordant Matrimony, engraving, fig.21 29 June 1782, The British Museum, London, 34.6 x 43.5 (13% x 17Ys)

–  –  –

50) fig.23 Arthur Devis, Sir George and Lady Elizabeth Strickland, oil on canvas, 1751, Ferens Art Gallery, Kingston upon Hull, 90.2 x 113 (35Y2 x 441;2) Sir Godfrey Kneller, Charles, 2nd Duke of Richmond and his Wife, Sarah, fig.24 oil on canvas, 1720s, Goodwood House, 162.6 x 121.9 (64 x 48) Joseph Wright of Derby, Fleetwood Hesketh, oil on canvas, 1769, Private fig.25 Collection, 127 x 101.6 (50 x 40) Joseph Wright of Derby, Frances Hesketh, oil on canvas, 1769, Private fig.26 Collection, 127 x 101.6 (50 x 40) fig.27 Benjamin West, George III, oil on canvas, 1779, Royal Collection, Windsor Palace, 255.3 x 182.9 (100Y2 x 72) fig.28 Benjamin West, Queen Charlotte, oil on canvas, 1779, Royal Collection, Windsor Palace, 256.5 x 181.6 (101 x 71 Y2)

–  –  –





Joseph Wright of Derby, Mr and Mrs Coltman, oil on canvas, 177112, The fig.31 National Gallery, London, 127 x 101.6 (50 x 40) fig.32 John Russell, Admiral Hon. John Leveson Gower and his Wife, nee Boscawen, oil on canvas, c.1787, Private Collection, 61 x 48.3 (24 x 19) Johann Zoffany, Mr and Mrs Garrick by the Shakespeare Temple at fig.33 Hampton, oil on canvas, 1762, Private Collection, 99.7 x 125 (39 1,4 x 49 1,4) Sir Joshua Reynolds, The Earl and Countess of Mexborough, oil on fig.34 canvas, 1762, Doddington Hall, size unknown

–  –  –

Bartholomeus van der HeIst, Portrait of a Promenading Couple, oil on fig.36 canvas, 1661, Staatlicke Kusthalle, Karlsruhe, size unknown Attributed to Caspar Netscher, Nicolas Maes or Jan Mytens, William, 1st fig.37 Earl of Portland and his first Wife, Anne Villiers, oil on canvas, late 1600s, Welbeck Abbey, 145.4 x 189.9 (571,4 x 74%) Arthur Devis, Sir Peter and Lady Leicester, oil on canvas, 1743/5, current fig.38 whereabouts unknown (sold Christies, London, 20 July 1951), 100.3 x 125.7 (39Y2 x 49Y2)

–  –  –

Attributed to John Thomas Seton, Portrait of the Dibdin Family, oil on fig.40 canvas, c.1790, current whereabouts unknown (sold Sothebys, London, 20 March 1974), 71.1 x 91.4 (28 x 36) Attributed to Thomas Bardwell, Sir Rowland Winn and his Wife, Louise fig.41 Sabine d'Hervert, oil on canvas, 1770, Nostell Priory, size unknown Joseph Wright of Derby, The Reverend d'Ewes Coke, his Wife, Hannah fig.42 and his Cousin, Daniel Parker Coke, oil on canvas, 178112, Derby City Art Gallery, 152.4 x 177.8 (60 x 70) Sir Joshua Reynolds, David and Eva Maria Garrick, oil on canvas, fig.43 1772/3, current whereabouts unknown (sold Christies, London, 21 November 1980), 137.2 x 167.5 (54 x 66) Francis Cotes, A Lady and a Gentleman, oil on canvas, 1769, Museum of fig.44 Fine Arts, Boston. The original was 134.6 x 152.4 (53 x 60), the surviving section is 121.9 x 33.1 (48 x 33'1s).

Francis Cotes, Mr William Earle Welby and his first Wife, Penelope, oil fig.45 on canvas, 1769, Private Collection, 132.1 x 149.9 (52 x 59) Thomas Gainsborough, Penelope, Viscountess Ligonier, oil on canvas, fig.46 1770, Huntington Art Gallery, San Marino, 240 x 157.5 (94Y2 x 62) Thomas Gainsborough, Edward, 2nd Viscount Ligonier, oil on canvas, fig.47 1770, Huntington Art Gallery, San Marino, 238.8 x 157.5 (94 x 62) fig.48 Sir Joshua Reynolds, Emily, Countess of Kildare, oil on canvas, 1753, Private Collection, 127 x 101.6 (50 x 40)

–  –  –

fig.50 Allan Ramsay, James, Earl of Kildare, oil on canvas, 1765, Private Collection, 123.2 x 99.1 (48V2 x 39) fig.51 Allan Ramsay, Emily, Countess of Kildare, oil on canvas, 1765, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, 124.5 x 99.1 (49 x 39) fig.52 Thomas Gainsborough, Portrait of the Artist with his Wife and Daughter, oil on canvas, c.1748, The National Gallery, London, 92.1 x 70.5 (361ti x 27%) fig.53 Arthur Devis, A Family Group on a Terrace in a Garden, oil on canvas, 1749, Fairfax House, York, 101.6 x 124.5 (40 x 49) Sir Joshua Reynolds, Mrs Hoare and her Son, oil on canvas, 1760s, The fig.54 Wallace Collection, London, 132.4 x 101.6 (52Ys x 40) Charles Phillips, Sir William Strickland and his Family in a Parkland fig.55 Setting, oil on canvas, 1731, current whereabouts unknown (sold Sothebys, London, 9 July 1980),52.7 x 73 (20% x 28%) Sir Joshua Reynolds, The Han. Mrs Bouverie of Delapre and her Child, fig.56 Harriet, oil on canvas, 1770, The Earl of Radnor, 160 x 167.6 (63 x 66) Joseph Highmore, Mrs Sharpe and her Child, oil on canvas, 1731, Paul fig. 57 Mellon Collection, 127 x 101.6 (50 x 40) Joseph Wright of Derby, Lady Juliana Elizabeth Wilmot and her Son, fig.58 Robert John, oil on canvas, 1788, Private Collection, 213.4 x 157.5 (84 x 62)

–  –  –

fig.60 Raffaello Sanzio, Madonna della Sedia, oil on panel, 1514, Pitti Palace, Florence, 180.3 diameter (71) fig.61 Nathaniel Hone, Mrs Ann Gardiner and her Son, Kirkman, oil on canvas, 1776, current whereabouts unknown (sold Christies, London, 28 June 1763), 121.9 x 96.5 (48 x 38) Sir Joshua Reynolds, Lady St. Asalph and her Son, George, oil on canvas, fig.62 1786, Jacob Epstein Collection, 143.2 x 111.8 (56% x 44) Jean-Laurent Mosnier, Mere Allaitant son Enfant, oil on canvas, 1762, fig.63 Macon, Musee Municipale, size unknown Sir Joshua Reynolds, Hope Nursing Love, oil on canvas, 1769, The Earl fig.64 of Shelburne, 124.5 x 100.3 (49 x 39'12) William Hogarth, The Edwards Hamilton Family, oil on canvas, 1733, fig.65 current whereabouts unknown (sold Christies, London, 17 July 1987),

68.6 x 85.7 (27 x 33%) Allan Ramsay, Queen Charlotte with her two Eldest Sons, oil on canvas, fig.66 1764/9, Royal Collection, Buckingham Palace, 248.9 x 161.9 (98 x 63%) John Singleton Copley, Sir William Pepperrell and his Family, oil on fig.67 canvas, 1777, North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, 228.6 x 274.3 (90 x 108)

–  –  –

fig.70 Sir Joshua Reynolds, Lady Melbourne and her Son, Peniston, oil on canvas, 1773, Firle Place, 236.2 x 143.5 (93 x 56Y2) fig.71 Benjamin West, The West Family, oil on canvas, c.1772, Paul Mellon Collection, Yale Center for British Art, 52 x 66.7 (20Y2 x 26%) fig.72 Anon. (Artist working in the circle of Joseph Highmore), Cornelius Lyde and his Family, oil on canvas, date unknown, current whereabouts unknown (sold Parke-Bernet, New York, 11 March 1977), 132 x 146 (52 x 57Y2) fig.73 Johann Zoffany, Lord Willoughby de Broke and his Family, oil on canvas, 1766, The Leger Galleries, London, 100.3 x 125.7 (39Y2 x 49Y2) fig.74 Joseph Wright of Derby, Three Children of Richard Arkwright with a Kite, oil on canvas, 1791, Col. Peter Arkwright, 195.6 x 152.4 (77 x 60) fig.75 Joseph Wright of Derby, Three Children of Richard Arkwright with a Goat, oil on canvas, 1791, Col. Peter Arkwright, 195.6 x 152.4 (77 x 60) fig.76 Johann Zoffany, Three Daughters of John, 3,d Earl of Bute, oil on canvas, 1763/4, Private Collection, 101.6 x 121.9 (40 x 48) fig.77 Johann Zoffany, Three Sons of John, 3,d Earl of Bute, oil on canvas, 1763/4, Private Collection, 101.6 x 121.9 (40 x 48) fig.78 Bartholomew Dandridge, Frederick, 3,d Duke of Somerset with his Sister, Mary, oil on canvas, c.1750, current whereabouts unknown (sold ParkeBernet, New York, 3 December 1974),111.8 x 122.5 (44 x 48%)

–  –  –

George Romney, The Clavering Children, oil on canvas, 1777, Henry E.

fig.80 Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, 152.4 x 121.9 (60 x 48) Johann Zoffany, Sir Bellingham Graham and his Family, oil on canvas, fig.81 date unknown, Private Collection, 101.6 x 124.5 (40 x 49) Thomas Gainsborough, Robert and Susannah Charieton, oil on canvas, fig.82 date unknown, Richmond Museum of Fine Arts, Virginia, 144.8 x 116.8 (57 x 46) William Hogarth, The Four Stages of Cruelty, Plate 1: The First Stage of fig.83 Cruelty, engraving, 1751, The British Museum, London, 38.1 x 30.5 (15 x 12) Arthur Devis, The Ciavey Family in their Garden at Hampstead, oil on fig.84 canvas, 1754, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 127 x 101.6 (50 x 40) Johann Zoffany, The Blunt Children, oil on canvas, 1768170, Birmingham fig.85 Museums and Art Gallery, 76.8 x 123.8 (30IA x 48%) Sir Joshua Reynolds, Master Henry Hoare as 'The Young Gardener', oil fig.86 on canvas, 1788, Toledo Museum of Art, 127.6 x 101.3 (50IA x 39Ys) fig.87 Arthur Devis, John Bacon and his Family, oil on canvas, 1742/3, Yale Center for British Art, 76.2x 131.1 (30x 51%) fig.88 Thomas Gainsborough, Sir Thomas Rumbold, M.P. and his Son, William, oil on canvas, c.1770, on loan to the Victoria Art Gallery, Bath, 236.2 x 152.4 (93 x 60)

–  –  –



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