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«A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of PhD at the University of Warwick This thesis is made available online and is ...»

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Whilst both middling and upper-class sitters thus employed such meritocratic 43 Hunt, The Middling Sort. p.212 44 Wahrman, '''Middle-Class'' Domesticity Goes Public,' pp.401-2; D. Wahrman, Imagining the Middle Class: The Political Representation of Class in Britain, c.1780-1840 (Cambridge, 1995), pp.379-80; L. Colley, Britons: Forging the Nation 1707-1837 (New Haven and London, 1992) concepts to qualify their presence or their asserted status through portraiture, satirical thinkers utilised exactly the same notions to attack members of the regnant class. As private morality and public authority became closely allied in the new discourse, those traditionally qualified to rule by parentage alone could potentially be undermined by accusations of immorality, sexual deviance, profligacy and indolence, recreating "social superiors" as "moral inferiors".45 By emphasising legitimate sexual behaviour and monogamous marriage together with a strong work ethic, honesty and frugality, middling writers could question particular aristocrats' moral and, by association, political authority.46 The public and the private thus became ideologically interdependent and these authors' elevation of the private sphere enabled them to query the right of characters such as Cumberland to the public domain.

However, even this ideological strand should not be perceived as a uniquely middle-class device for assisting in the acquisition of power. Its core was not the eradication of aristocratic dominion, but rather the notion that privilege should be partnered with equable ethical dominion. Social hierarchies should not be undermined, but be brought into line with moral hierarchies. Rather than attempting to negate the aristocracy's influence, they emphasised that that influence should not be abused. Thus, in Pamela, Mr B's elevated position is eventually justified by his electing to follow the path of domestic probity whilst the heroine's virtue is rewarded by attendant status. Pamela is told that the "experienced truth... well-tried virtue... understanding and genteel behaviour" that she brings to the marriage "will do 45 I. Watt, The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe. Richardson and Fielding (London, 1987), p.166 As Stella Tillyard noted in Aristocrats. p. 271; "many... were openly hostile both to the idea of aristocratic government and to the idea of aristocratic licence and saw the corruption of one reflected in the corruption of the other". See Hunt, 'Middling Sort', chapter 8 for a detailed analysis of this issue.

credit" to her new "station".47 Later, Priscilla Wakefield, whilst stressing the universality of women's roles, simultaneously recommended that upper-class ladies should improve their minds "to capacitate them for the proper application of that influence, which is conferred on them by their station, for the purpose of promoting the public welfare", and referred to this influence as "the undisputed prerogative of our female nobility."48 Hannah More, the following year, decried "the ill effects" produced by the "mere levity, carelessness, and inattention (to say no worse)" of fashionable ladies. However, rather than demanding the removal of their influence, she asked that these "women of rank" should employ that leverage to "bear their decided testimony against every thing which is notoriously contributing to the public corruption."49 Although negative formulations of the influence of the aristocracy were most common, examples of the virtuous and atypically moral aristocrat, singled out and praised for adherence to the doctrines of domesticity, did appear in public discourse. Most notably, George ill and Queen Charlotte were repeatedly hailed for their parental and marital probity and thus as proper examples for all of society, not excepting the King's brother. 50 In sum, the impact of newly elevated domestic values on constructions of class took various forms. Individuals from all sectors of society were drawn to these behavioural ideals and commissioned portraits that would suggest their adherence to them. The middling classes demonstrated their private virtue and were thus deemed 47 Richardson, Pamela, p.368

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worthy of respect despite their lack of more traditional signs of status. Meanwhile, the upper classes demonstrated their private virtue to complement and to bolster their established social position, dependent on birth and inherited property. However, the need for such an equation between moral and social authority simultaneously enabled fervent attacks upon aristocrats seen to neglect the responsibilities of status and thus as undeserving of their position.

* * * * * The pictorial occupies a particular place in historical debate, one that has been largely overlooked, but one that needs careful qualification. Art historians have largely employed history as background for pictures. Historians, meanwhile, have referred to the visual in a cursory fashion, rigorously qualifying the use of various literary and personal sources whilst including illustrations with limited definition of their place in the wider picture. This dissertation has attempted to theorise that place and, rather than using history as a foil or paintings and engravings as illustrative, it has used pictures as a source material in the same way as diaries, letters and other artefacts can be used, each with their own particular problems. It has thereby demonstrated the power of the ascendant cult of sensibility, the resultant sentimentalisation of familial relationships, the ways in which such relationships and their virtuous enactment came to signify moral authority and the elevation of that authority to parallel that attained through status, property and wealth.





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British Museum Print Room:

Whitley Papers

Chatsworth House:

Chatsworth MSS 113-1117: Letters of Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire

Courtauld Institute:

Courtauld Institute Press Cuttings, Vol. I (1731-1811)

Heinz Archive, National Portrait Gallery:

Sitters Books of Sir Joshua Reynolds (photocopied)

Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire:

Catalogues to the collection from 1769, c.1771, c.1778 and c.1796

Lincolnshire Record Office:

BNLW 2-4: Brownlow Family Documents

National Art Library, Victoria and Albert Museum:

F.48.F.5: Forster Collection, 'Garrick Letters 1776-1779 and undated' F.48.F.6: Forster Collection, 'Garrick Letters Miscellaneous 1774-1777' PRIMARY Diary and Letters of Madame d'Arblay, ed. C. Barrett, 6 Vols. (London, 1904) G. Armstrong, An Essay on the Diseases most Fatal to Infants (1767) (London, 2nd edition, 1771) R. Baker, Observations on the Pictures now in Exhibition at the Royal Academy, Spring Gardens, and Mr Christie's (London, 1771) Baron and Feme, A Treatise of the Canon Law Concerning Husbands and Wives (1700) (London, 2nd edition, 1719) w. Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England, 4 Vols. (1765) (Oxford, 3rd edition, 1768) A Brief for her Grace the Duchess of Kingston; containing the points of law, and cases adjudged on which her Grace's defence will rest. By a Student of Gray's Inn (London, 1776) The British Magazine and Review J. Brown, An Estimate of the Manners and Principles of the Times 2 Vols. (1757) (London, 6th edition, 1757/8) Domestic Medicine; or, A Treatise on the Prevention and Cure of W. Buchan, Diseases by Regimen and Simple Medicines (1769) (Dublin, 3 rd edition, 1774) F. Burney, Evelina; or, The History of a Young Lady's Entrance into the World (1778), ed. E.A. Bloom (Oxford, 1982) W. Cadogan, An Essay upon Nursing, and the Management of Children (1748) (London, 5th edition, 1752) H. Chapone, A Letter to a New-Married Lady (London, 1777) Characters and Observations: An Eighteenth-Century Manuscript with a Foreword by Lord Gorell (London, 1930) Lord Chesterfield's Letters, ed. D. Roberts (Oxford and New York, 1998) C. Cibber, The Careless Husband, A Comedy (London, 1777) A Circumstantial Narrative of a Late Remarkable Trial, to which are added the Letters that were produced on the occasion (London, 1770) The Letters and Journals of Lady Mary Coke, ed. J.A. Home, 4 Vols. (Bath, 1970) G. Coleman, 'Polly Honeycombe,' in A Collection of the Most Esteemed Farces and Entertainments Performed on the British Stage 6 Vols. (Edinburgh, 1786), III, pp.169-94 S. Cooke, Consolation for Parents upon the Loss of Children (London, 1721) The Exemplary Mother: or, Letters between Mrs Villars and her M.S. Cooper, Family 2 Vols. (London, 1769) The Court Letter Writer; or, The Complete English Secretary for Town and Country (London, 1773) The Daily Universal Register T. Day, The History of Sandford and Merton (London, 1783-9) D. Defoe, Conjugal Lewdness; or, Matrimonial Whoredom (London, 1727) D. Defoe, The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders (1722), ed. J.

Mitchell (Harmondsworth, 1983) D. Defoe, Roxana (1724), ed. 1. Mullan (Oxford and New York, 1996) Autobiography and Correspondence of Mary Granville, Mrs Delany, with interesting Reminiscences of King George III and Queen Charlotte, ed. Lady Llanover, 3 Vols.

(London, 1861-2) The Devil Divorced; or, The Diabo-Whore (London, 1782) Georgiana: Extracts from the Correspondence of Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, ed. Earl of Bessborough (London, 1955) F. Douglas, Reflections on Celibacy and Marriage; in Four Letters to a Friend; In which the ADVANTAGES and DISADVANTAGES of the two STATES are compared (London, 1771) H. Downman, Infancy, a Poem (London, 1774) The Ear- Wig; or, An Old Woman's Remarks on the Present Exhibition of Pictures of the Royal Academy (London, 1781) M. Edgeworth, Belinda (1801), ed. E. Ni Chuilleanain (London, 1994) M. Edgeworth, Letters for Literary Ladies (1795), ed. C. Connolly (London, 1993) The English Chronicle, and Universal Evening Post An Epistle from L---y W---y to S-r R---d W---y, Bart. (London, 1782) The Exhibition; or, A Candid Display of the Genius and Merits of the Several Masters, whose Works are now Offered to the Public, at Spring Gardens. By an Impartial Hand (London, 1766) Fenelon's Treatise on the Education of F. de Salignac de la Mothe Fenelon, Daughters: Translated from the French, and adapted to English Readers, with an Original Chapter 'On Religious Studies' (1707, first French edition 1688) (Cheltenham, 1805) The Female Husband and Other Writings (1746), ed. C.E. Jones H. Fielding, (liverpool, 1960) H. Fielding, 'The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews' (1742), in A.

Humphreys, ed., Henry Fielding: Joseph Andrews and Shamela (London, 1993), pp.45-370 H. Fielding, The History of Tom Jones (1749), ed. R.P.C. Mutter (Hannondsworth, 1985) H. Fielding, The Modem Husband; A Comedy (London, 1732)

–  –  –

W. Fleetwood, The Relative Duties of Parents and Children, Husbands and Wives, Masters and Servants (1705) (London, 3rd edition, 1722) S. Foote, The Nabob; A Comedy in Three Acts (1772) (London, 1795)

1. Fordyce, The Character and Conduct of the Female Sex. and the Advantages to be Derived by Young Men from the Society of Virtuous Women. A Discourse in Three Parts. Delivered in Monkwell-Street Chapel. January 1, 1776 (London, 1776) J. Fordyce, Sermons to Young Women 2 Vols. (1766) (Dublin, 4th edition, 1766) J. Forrester, Dialogues on the Passions, Habits, and Affections peculiar to Children (London, 1748) B. Franklin, Reflections on Courtship and Marriage: in Two Letters to a Friend (1750) (London, 1759) Free Thoughts on Seduction, Adultery and Divorce... by a Civilian (London, 1771) A Full and Complete History of His R--I H-- The D-- of C--d and Lady G--r, the Fair Adulteress 2 Vols. (1770) (London, 3rd edition, 1770) The Letters of Thomas Gainsborough, ed. M. Woodall (London, 1963) H. GaIly, Some Considerations upon Clandestine Marriages (London, 1750) Some Unpublished Correspondence of David Garrick, ed. G.P. Baker (Boston, 1907) The Private Correspondence of David Garrick with the most Celebrated Persons of his Time, ed. J. Boaden, 2 Vols. (London, 2nd edition, 1835) D. Garrick and G. Colman, 'The Clandestine Marriage, a Comedy' (1766), in H.W.

Pedicord and F.L. Bergman, eds., The Plays of David Garrick Vol. I: Garrick's Own Plays 1740-1766 (Carbondale and Edwardsville, 1980) pp.253-331 J. Gay, Three Hours After Marriage (Dublin, 1717) The Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser The General Advertiser The General Evening Post

The Generous Husband; or, the History of Lord Lelius and the Fair Emilia:

containing likewise the genuine memoirs of Asmodei, the pretended Piedmontese count, from the time of his birth, to his late ignominious fall in Hyde Park (London, 1771) The Gentleman's Magazine The Genuine Copies of Letters which passed between his Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland and Lady Grosvenor (1770) (London, 5th edition, 1770) T. Gisbome, Enquiry into the Duties of the Female Sex (1797) (London, 9 th edition, 1810) O. Goldsmith, 'She Stoops to Conquer, or, The Mistakes of a Night' (1773), in A.

Friedman, ed., Collected Works of Oliver Goldsmith Vol. V: Plays, Prefaces and Introductions (Oxford, 1966), pp.87-217 O. Goldsmith, The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), ed. C. Coote (Harmondsworth, 1986) W. Gouge, Of Domesticall Duties (1622) (London, 3rd edition, 1634) J. Gregory, A Father's Legacy to his Daughters (London, 1774) George Savile, Marquess of Halifax, 'The Lady's New Year's Gift; or, Advice to a Daughter' (1688), in J.P. Kenyon, ed., Halifax: Complete Works (Harrnondsworth, 1969), pp.271-313 The Harcourt Papers, ed. E.W. Harcourt, 14 Vols. (Oxford, 1880-1905) The Hardships of the English Laws in Relation to Wives (London and Dublin, 1735) w. Hayley, A Philosophical, Historical, and Moral Essay on Old Maids: by a Friend to the Sisterhood 3 Vols. (1785) (London, 2nd edition, 1786) E. Haywood, The Female Spectator (1744-6), ed. G.M. Finnager (London, 1993) E. Haywood, The History of Miss Betsy Thoughtless (1751), ed. B. Fowkes Tobin (Oxford and New York, 1997)



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