WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 8 | 9 || 11 | 12 |   ...   | 52 |

«Combat, Memory and Remembrance in Confederation Era Canada: The Hidden History of the Battle of Ridgeway, June 2, 1866 Peter Wronski (Peter Vronsky) ...»

-- [ Page 10 ] --

Bernard Porter points out, ―A strong aversion to the use of spies was one of the alien traditions of government which the British brought to India in the nineteenth century.‖18 While aware that there were connections between Fenian Irish-Americans and exiles in the U.S. and the IRB in Ireland, authorities would not appreciate the scope of this connection until Stephens travelled to the U.S. in the summer of 1864 to prepare the American Fenians for his planned uprising in Ireland.19 It would be, however, an incident in Toronto on Guy Fawkes‘ Night in 1864 that would trigger the British Consul in New York City—the Truro, Nova Scotiaborn Edward Mortimer Archibald20 to overlook the current British scruples on domestic spying and instead call for spies to be inserted into the Fenian organization in North America and to alert the Foreign Office to the possibility of a Fenian cell in Canada.21 On the night of November 5, 1864, reacting to rumours in Toronto‘s Catholic community that Orangemen planned to assemble and burn effigies of Daniel O‘Connell along with that of Guy Fawkes, the Hibernian Benevolent Society and a Fenian cell harboured within it, put three-hundred men armed with muskets into the streets of Toronto. Operating in small squads, they seized control of strategic points in the city and immobilized the Toronto Police. After holding the city in their control for most of the night, the squads assembled into two large companies on opposite sides of the city and fired off their weapons into the air, rattling window-panes everywhere. Then they melted away as quickly as they appeared leaving in their wake a shocked and frightened Protestant populace.22 Porter, Plots and Paranoia, p. 83 Marta Ramón, A Provisional Dictator: James Stephens and the Fenian Movement, Dublin: University College Dublin Press, 2007, pp. 162-165; Kennedy, pp. 120-121 Edith J. Archibald, Life and Letters of Sir Edward Mortimer Archibald, Toronto: George N. Morang, 1924. p. 20 NA/PRO, FO 5/1334 Archibald to Burnley, December 12, 1864, cited in Kennedy, p. 109 See for details: Peter Vronsky, ―The Guy Fawkes‘ Night Incident In Toronto, 1864‖, www.petervronsky.org/thesis-references; Globe, November 7, 1864; Toronto Board of Commissioners of Police, Minutes, November 12, 1864 CTA; Michael Cottrell, ―Green and Orange in Mid-Nineteenth Century Toronto: The The Toronto Guy Fawkes‘ Night incident triggered a paranoid panic in Upper Canada through November and December 1864 and alerted the British authorities to the global scope of the Fenian threat within the empire. In Canada itself, there was little appreciation of the nuances of the Fenians‘ republican United Irishmen roots. Despite the emergence in Canada of a prosperous Irish-Catholic middle class by the 1860s, nonetheless, in the wake of a long history of lingering Catholic-Irish and Protestant hostilities transplanted to Canada and transformed frequently by unique local conditions into radical ‗Green vs. Orange‘ sectarianism, the Fenians once identified by name were now permanently associated with the traditional perception of the internal radical Catholic threat.23 Guy Fawkes‘ Day Episode of 1864.‖ Canadian Journal of Irish Studies Vol.19. No.1. (1993); C.P. Stacey, ―A Fenian Interlude‖.

For a sample of material and literature on Irish Catholic immigrant vs. Protestant settler relations is Canada 1815see: FitzGibbon to Baines, June 4, 1824, Upper Canada Sundries, RG 5, series A 1, Vol. 67; FitzGibbon to Hillier, June 10, 1824, CO 42, Vol. 373: p. 149. LAC; J.K. Johnson, ―Colonel James FitzGibbon and the Suppression of Irish Riots in Upper Canada,‖ Ontario History, Volume 58, No. 3, September, 1966; Donald

MacKay, Flight From Famine: The Coming of the Irish to Canada, Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1990. pp. 48Howard Morton Brown, Lanark Legacy: Nineteenth Century Glimpses of an Ontario County, Perth, ON:

General Store Publishing House, 1984. pp. 43-55; Carol Bennett, The Robinson Settlers 1823-1825, Renfrew, ON:

Juniper Books, 1987; Mary Agnes FitzGibbon, A Veteran of 1812: The Life of James FitzGibbon, Toronto: William Briggs, 1894; Hereward Senior, Orangeism: The Canadian Phase, Toronto: McGraw Hill, 1972, p. 11; Michael S.

Cross, ―The Shiners War: Social Violence in the Ottawa Valley in the 1830‖, Canadian Historical Review, Vol. 54, No. 1, March 1973; Paul Romney, ―A Struggle for Authority: Toronto Society and Politics in 1834,‖ in Victor L Russell. (ed), Forging a Consensus: Historical Essays on Toronto, Toronto: University Of Toronto Press, 1984;

Paul Romney, ―From the Types Riot to the Rebellion: Elite Ideology, Anti-legal Sentiment, Political Violence, and the Rule of Law in Upper Canada,‖ Ontario History Vol.79, No. 2 (June 1987): pp. 115-140; Sean T. Cadigan, ―Paternalism and Politics: Sir Francis Bond Head, the Orange Order, and the Election of 1836,‖ Canadian Historical Review, Vol. 72, No. 3 (1991): pp. 319-347; J.F. Pringle, Lunenburgh or the Old Eastern District, Cornwall: 1890. pp. 159-160; Fitzgibbon to Joseph, June 24, 26; July 6, 1836, Civil Secretary‘s Letter Book, RG7G-16-C, Vol. 36. LAC; Ruth Bleasdale, Unskilled Labourers on the Public Works of Canada, 1840-1880, PhD dissertation, University of Western Ontario, 1984; Ruth Bleasdale, ―Class Conflict on the Canals of Upper Canada in the 1840s‖, Labour/Le Travailleur, 1981; reprinted in Laurel Sefton MacDowell & Ian Radforth (eds) Canadian Working Class History, 2nd Edition, Toronto: Canadian Scholar‘s Press, 2000, pp. 81-108; J. Lawrence Runnalls, The Irish on the Welland Canal, St. Catharines: St. Catharines Public Library, 1973; St. Catharines Journal, July 7, August 11, 1842; Michael J. Cottrell, ―Political Leadership and Party Allegiance Among Irish Catholics in Victorian Toronto,‖ in McGowan & Clarke (eds.), Catholics at the ―Gathering Place,‖ Toronto: Canadian Catholic Historical Association, 1993. p. 53; H.C. Pentland, ―The Development of a Capitalistic Labour Market in Canada‖, The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, Vol. 25, No. 4 (Nov., 1959) and see on Pentland, Donald Akenson, Being Had: Historians, Evidence and the Irish in North America, Toronto: P.D. Meany, 1985., p. 111; p.





136; William S. Prince to Attorney General John A. Macdonald, October 28, 1865; Letter Books of the Chief Constable 1859-1921, RG9/Fond 38 Toronto Police Service, Series 90, Toronto Archives. [Hereinafter ―LBCC‖];

Don Akenson, The Orangeman: The Life and Times of Ogle Gowan, Toronto: James Lorimer & Co., 1986; W. B.

Kerr, ―When Orange and Green United 1832-1839: The Alliance of Macdonell and Gowan,‖ Ontario History, Vol.

The last of the big bloody uprisings in Ireland before the dawning of Fenianism was the 1798 United Irishmen Rebellion: a fusion of sectarian nationalist republican rebellion with a predominantly Catholic peasant agrarian uprising which went on for months. Although the rebels consisted of both Catholics and Protestants (mostly Presbyterians), it targeted the so-called Protestant Ascendancy and its British patrons. With Protestants being broadly associated with loyalty to the Crown and Catholics traditionally associated with rebellion, the uprising was characterized by sporadic massacres of loyal Protestant populations by rebels wielding pikes24 and by brutally fierce reprisals from British troops and loyalist militia against the suspected Irish Catholic population, particularly in the rural regions. In the end it is estimated that the final death toll in the 1798 rebellion ranged between 30,000 and 50,000.25 The memories of these horrific events as depicted in unnecessarily exaggerated reports and portrayals of the massacres in British print and graphic media would be transplanted to Canada with the early waves of predominantly Irish Protestant immigrants arriving after the Napoleonic Wars ended in 1815. When the Fenians invaded Canada in 1866, the atrocities in Ireland of 68 years before were still fresh in the collective memory and mythos of Protestants in 34, 1942; Herewerd Senior, Orangeism: The Canadian Phase, Toronto: McGraw Hill, 1972. pp. 7-10; Matthew Barlow, Fear and Loathing in Saint-Sylvestre: The Corrigan Murder Case, 1855-58, Master‘s Thesis, Simon Fraser University, 1998; J.R. Miller, ―Anti-Catholic Thought in Victorian Canada,‖ Canadian Historical Review, Vol. 66 (1985), pp. 474-494; Murray Nicolson, ―Irish Tridentine Catholicism in Victorian Toronto: Vessel for Ethnoreligions Persistence,‖ in Mark G. McGowan and David Marshall (eds.) Prophets, Priests and Prodigals: Readings in Canadian Religious History, 1608 to Present, (Toronto, 1992), pp. 117-134; J. Martin Galvin, ―The Jubilee Riots in Toronto, 1875,‖ CCHA Report, Vol 26 (1959), pp. 93-107; Emmet Larkin, ―The Devotional Revolution In Ireland, 1850-75, The American Historical Review, Vol. 77, No. 3 (June 1972), p. 651; Mark McGowan, The Waning of the Green: Catholics, The Irish, and Identity in Toronto, 1887-1922, Montreal & Kingston: McGillQueen‘s University Press, 1999. p. 7 Pikes traditionally associated with Irish rebellion are long staffed spears with a hook, designed for fighting cavalry. Well trained ‗pikemen‘ were a formidable force in the short-range and inaccurate smoothbore musket age and when deployed in force could make short work of cavalry or musketeers within pike range.

Thomas Pakenham, The Year of Liberty: The Great Irish Rebellion of 1798, London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1997, p. 107; Cathal Póirtéir (ed), The Great Irish Rebellion of 1798, Dublin: Mercier Press; Boulder, Colo.: Irish American Book Co., 1998; Ciarán Priestley, Clonsilla and the Rebellion of 1798, Dublin : Four Courts Press, 2009;

Jim Smyth (ed), Revolution, Counter-Revolution and Union : Ireland in the 1790s, Cambridge, UK; New York:

Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Canada: the bloody pike massacres of 1798 defined in their imagination what to expect from what they believed was Irish Catholic rebellion.

In the wake of the Guy Fawkes‘ Night incident in Toronto a Canada-wide fear of a ‗St.

Bartholomew‘s night massacre‘ obsessed Protestant commentators in the press26 while the term ―Fenian‖ now entered the lexicon of official Canadian correspondence.27 John A. Macdonald, as Attorney-General had initiated the formation of a special undercover police force in Canada West two months earlier, the Frontier Constabulary under Stipendiary Magistrate Gilbert McMicken. It original purpose was to respond to U.S. Army recruiters in Canada (―crimpers‖),28 but now it would be assigned to deal with the Fenian threat.29 Space does not permit to tell the full story of the Frontier Constabulary (and Toronto Police) undercover operations against the Fenians in Upper Canada and in the United States at places like Chicago, Pittsburgh, New York, Detroit, Cincinnati and Nashville.30 The operational history of what has been called Canada‘s first secret service between its founding in 1864 and the invasion at Fort Erie in June 1866 is preserved in the Canadian archives in the form of some 3,422 pages of reports by McMicken and his nearly 50 agents.31 Except for one journal article and an unpublished master‘s thesis, a comprehensive operational history of the Frontier Constabulary, its battle with crimpers, Globe, November 7; November 19, 1864 [n.a.] ―The Fenians‖, December 17, 1864, Macdonald Papers, MG26A, Volume 56, pp. 22219-22240 [Reel C1507], LAC;

William F. Raney, ―Recruiting and Crimping in Canada for the Northern Forces, 1861-1865‖, The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 10, No. 1. (June, 1923), pp. 21-33 Jeff Keshen, ―Cloak and Dagger: Canada West‘s Secret Police, 1864-1867‖, Ontario History, Vol. 79, December 1987, pp. 353-381(p. 356); Gregory S. Kealey, Presidential Address, ―The Empire Strikes Back: The NineteenthCentury Origins of the Canadian Secret Service‖, Journal of the CHA, New Series, Vol. 10, 1999, pp. 3-19 (p. 9);

W. A. Crockett, ―The uses and abuses of the secret service fund: the political dimension of police work in Canada, 1864–1877‖ (MA thesis, Queen‘s Univ., Kingston, Ont., 1982); and C.P. Stacey, ‗The Shadow of the Civil War‘ in Cloak and Dagger in the Sixties, pp. 3-4, [typescript], CBC Broadcast Script, February 1954, C.P. Stacey Papers, Box 47, University of Toronto Archives; Andrew Parnaby and Gregory S. Kealey, ―The Origins of Political Policing in Canada: Class, Law and the Burden of Empire, Osgoode Hall Law Journal, Vol 41, Nos. 2 & 3 (2003) pp. 211See Peter Vronsky, ―Origins of the Canadian Secret Services, 1864-66‖, www.petervronsky.org/thesis-references Macdonald Papers, MG26A, McMicken [Police] Reports [―Secret Service Reports‖], Volumes 232-237, pp.100812-104234 [Reels C1660-1663] LAC Confederate operatives, ordinary criminals and then later the Fenians, remains to be still untangled and written.32 The appointment of Gilbert McMicken and the issue of his success or failure as secret service chief in Canada West is a controversial one and also beyond the scope of this thesis.33 Regardless of McMicken‘s success or failure in correctly assessing in June 1866 the mass of intelligence data he collected and forwarded to Macdonald, the raw reports serve as a Keshen, ―Cloak and Dagger‖ for operational history while the financial and administrative aspects of the Frontier Constabulary are treated by W. A. Crockett.

According to the DCB, a full-scale biography of Gilbert McMicken is being undertaken by Dale and Lee Gibson who in 1987 presented a paper based on their preliminary work at the Canadian Law in History Conference held at Carlton University, Ottawa, ―Who was Gilbert McMicken, and why should legal historians care?‖ There are shorter biographical sketches of McMicken in Canadian album (Cochrane and Hopkins), vol.3;



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 8 | 9 || 11 | 12 |   ...   | 52 |


Similar works:

«The City as a Historical Actor: The Urbanization and Ottomanization of the Halvetiye Sufi Order by the City of Amasya in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries By Hasan Karatas A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Near Eastern Studies in the Graduate Division of the University of California, Berkeley Committee in charge: Professor Hamid Algar, Chair Professor Leslie Peirce Professor Beshara Doumani Professor Wali Ahmadi...»

«Title: The Loyal Karens of Burma Author: Donald Mackenzie Smeaton (1846-1910) THE LOYAL KARENS OF BURMA, BY DONALD MACKENZIE SMEATON, M. A BENGAL CIVIL SERVICE SECOND EDITION LONDON KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO. LTD 1920 CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION II. THEIR ORIGIN, LANGUAGE, AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS III. SOME OF THEIR NATIONAL CUSTOMS IV. THEIR AGRICULTURE: PEE BEE YAW, THE GODDESS OF THE HARVEST V. THEIR FOLK-LORE: ONE OF THEIR SATIRICAL TRADITIONS VI. SOME OF THEIR FIRESIDE STORIES VII....»

«1999] BUCKLEY V. VALEO CHALLENGING BUCKLEY V. VALEO: A LEGAL STRATEGY by John C. Bonifaz, Gregory G. Luke and Brenda Wright* In its 1976 ruling in Buckley v. Valeo,1 the United States Supreme Court sanctioned a system of unlimited campaign spending in federal elections. Since that ruling, this nation has witnessed an explosion of political expenditures. The 1996 election cycle marked the most expensive election in U.S. history, with congressional and presidential candidates spending a total of...»

«VOLUME 122 MARCH 2009 NUMBER 5 © 2009 by The Harvard Law Review Association IN MEMORIAM: OLIVER OLDMAN The editors of the Harvard Law Review respectfully dedicate this issue to Professor Oliver Oldman. William P. Alford∗ Ollie Oldman may have had the most cluttered, paper-filled office in the modern history of the Harvard Law School. To be sure, there has been much competition for this title. Paul Freund was legendary not only for his brilliance in constitutional law but also for turning his...»

«Stephen Deputy, MD The Neurological Examination Introduction The Neurological Examination is, by necessity, long and cumbersome. That does not mean that every patient with a neurological chief complaint needs to undergo a “complete” Neurological exam. (Can you imagine testing each and every sensory dermatome for all modalities of primary sensation and doing a Cremaster reflex on a patient presenting with headaches?). The purpose of the Neuro Exam is to answer questions gleaned from the...»

«Switch Client | Preferences | Help | Sign Out My Lexis™ Shepard's® History Alerts Search Get a Document More Source: Legal States Legal U.S. California Find Statutes, Regulations, Administrative Materials & Court Rules CA Deering's California Codes Annotated, Constitution, Court Rules & ALS, Comb Book Browse TOC: Deerings California Code Annotated, Court Rules and ALS CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE Part 4. Miscellaneous Provisions Title 4. Civil Discovery Act Chapter 9. Oral Deposition Inside...»

«REPORT ON EXAMINATION OF HIGHMARK BCBSD INC. AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2012. TABLE OF CONTENTS SALUTATION SCOPE OF EXAMINATION SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS SUBSEQUENT EVENTS COMPANY HISTORY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL INSURANCE HOLDING COMPANY SYSTEM INTERCOMPANY AGREEMENTS TERRITORY AND PLAN OF OPERATION LOSS EXPERIENCE ACCOUNTS AND RECORDS FINANCIAL STATEMENTS Analysis of Assets Statement of Liabilities, Surplus and Other Funds Summary of Operations Statement of Income Reconciliation of Surplus from...»

«With Regard to the Symbolism of the Neo-Eneolithic Art in Carpatho-Danubian rea MINISTERUL EDUCAŢIEI NAŢIONALE ANALELE UNIVERSITĂŢII DIN ORADEA ANNALS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ORADEA FASCICOLA ISTORIE – ARHEOLOGIE HISTORY ARCHAEOLOGY SERIES TOM XXIII 2013 ANALELE UNIVERSITĂŢII DIN ORADEA SERIA ISTORIE – ARHEOLOGIE COLEGIUL DE REDACŢIE/ COMITETUL ŞTIINŢIFIC/SCIENTIFIC EDITORIAL BOARD: COMMITTEE Acad. Ioan Aurel-POP (Cluj-Napoca) Director /Director Nicolae BOCŞAN (Cluj-Napoca) Conf....»

«LEGAL STUDIES RESEARCH PAPER SERIES Working Paper No. 35 December 2005 Second-Guessing the Spymasters with a Judicial Role in Espionage Deals 91 IOWA L. REV. (forthcoming 2006). A. John Radsan Associate Professor of Law William Mitchell College of Law 875 Summit Avenue St. Paul, Minnesota 55105-3076 www.wmitchell.edu Direct: (651) 290-7504 E-mail: jradsan@wmitchell.edu This paper can be downloaded without charge from the Social Science Research Network Electronic Paper Collection:...»

«Gina Alvarado Merino* PolítIcas neolIberales en el manejo de los recursos naturales en Perú: el caso del conflIcto agromInero de tambogrande IntroduccIón Perú es un país con una larga historia de explotación minera que data de tiempos prehispánicos. Sin embargo, a partir de la colonización española de nuestros territorios, la minería adquirió un papel distinto que ha marcado la relación entre los países en vías de desarrollo con los industrializados. Esta historia, especialmente...»

«IGLESIAS DEL SIGLO XII AL XIII CON COLUMNAS GEMELAS EN SUS PILARES* Hay períodos en la historia de la arquitectura en que las formas, en constante fluir, cambian y se modifican aparentemente de manera sencilla, con trabazón y continuidad perfectas. Tal es, por :ejemplo, o, por lo menos, así lo interpretan actualmente la mayoría de los :historiadores del arte y de la arquitectura, el que conduce desde las grandes iglesias.góticas francesas de fines. del siglo XII hasta las del XIV. Durante...»

«FORUM ON PUBLIC POLICY RELIGION, EDUCATION AND THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN MEDIEVAL UNIVERSITIES: LESSONS LEARNED OR LOST? by Kimberly Georgedes* INTRODUCTION Religion, education and government were very closely connected in the Middles Ages, as indeed in nearly every age except the modern world, beginning perhaps as early as the Reformation, but with continuing secularization of education through the Scientific Revolution, but more importantly, the Enlightenment. Here I propose to give some...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.