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«Combat, Memory and Remembrance in Confederation Era Canada: The Hidden History of the Battle of Ridgeway, June 2, 1866 Peter Wronski (Peter Vronsky) ...»

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In the U.S. National Archives (NARA) diplomatic despatches from Consuls in Toronto, Fort Erie and Clifton (Niagara Falls), described the events and included transcripts of witness testimony and judge‘s notes from the subsequent trials in Toronto of captured Fenians who were American citizens and confidential correspondence from their U.S. State Department-paid Toronto attorneys. Reports from the U.S. Army Provost-Marshal‘s Office in Buffalo, order books from U.S. military units on the Canadian border, from U.S. Army H.Q. and General-inChief Lt. General Ulysses S. Grant, correspondence of the U.S. Army Division of the Atlantic, the Department of the East, interdepartmental correspondence between the State and War Departments and the naval log books of the U.S. Navy gunboats in the Niagara River offered some insight into the invasion from the American point-of-view as did the correspondence of the British Minister to Washington, Sir Frederick Bruce, the originals of which were purchased by the University of Rochester and are archived there.

The Archives of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto (ARCAT) and those of the Toronto Police in the City of Toronto Archives (CTA) revealed aspects of the Fenian threat from within and the making of the secret services in Canada under their founder John A. Macdonald.

Harboured in the Fort Erie Historical Museum in Ridgeway were found surviving local family accounts of profound ancestral worship as were also in regimental museums of the former 13th Battalion in Hamilton and the Queen‘s Own Rifles in Toronto.

The Thomas Sweeny papers held by the New York Public Library and published in a microfilm version, kindly lent to me by David Wilson offered detailed information on the Fenian preparation and plan for the invasion of Canada.

Between entering graduate school in 2004 and the submission of this thesis six years later, a monumental amount of primary and contemporary sources became available on the Internet through public domain digitization by Google or Microsoft or on sites like archive.org and canadiana.org, which makes available an enormous amount of nineteen century Canadian broadsides, pamphlets, and publications. Almost all of the contemporary histories of Ridgeway and early accounts of Fenianism were available on-line, including the huge Fenian Brotherhood Collection of documents made available online1 by the Catholic University of America in Washington and Harvard University Library‘s Fenian Movement open collection. 2 A most valuable resources for this study was a Canadian website www.PaperOfRecord.com which made available free of charge some 21 million pages of historical newspapers, including over 100 Canadian publications from the nineteenth century, including from Ontario, The Grand River Sachem, Cambridge Daily Reporter, Hamilton Evening Times, Kingston Chronicle and Gazette, London Advisor, Niagara Spectator, Niagara Times, Ottawa Times, St. Catharines Constitutional, St. Thomas Weekly Dispatch, Canadian Freeman, Irish Canadian, Nation, Toronto World, Welland Canal, Waterford Star, Windsor Herald, Woodstock Review, etc.3 The Internet as a source however, is not without its perils. This centrally accessible, word and date searchable and downloadable wealth of Canada‘s historical newsprint patrimony suddenly vanished literally overnight in January 2009, half way through the writing of this thesis, when the U.S. search engine Google purchased PaperOfRecord.com and incorporated it into Google News Archive, making most of the newspapers now unavailable until Google works out its pricing and search engine strategy.4 Most of the historical Canadian newspapers still cannot be found or accessed on the Google News Archive search engine except through paid subscription-based services, like WorldVitalRecords.com, a U.S. service for genealogists, to which Google is now licensing our patrimony.

http://www.aladin0.wrlc.org/gsdl/collect/fenian/fenian.shtml http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/fenians.html http://www.paperofrecord.com/ See, American Historical Association AHA Today, website, ―Paper of Record‖ Disappears, Leaving Historians in a Lurch, http://blog.historians.org/news/771/paper-of-record-disappears-leaving-historians-in-the-lurch and http://www.google.com/support/forum/p/news/thread?tid=1c47e6d29331dc2c&hl=en;

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Primary Sources (Archives) Archives of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto (ARCAT) Archbishop Lynch Papers Catholic University of America, Washington D.C.

Fenian Collection: www.aladin/wrlc.org/gsdl/collect/fenian.shtml City of Toronto Archives (CAT) Letter Books of the Chief Constable 1859-1921; Toronto Board of Commissioners of Police, Minutes, 1864-1865: RG9/Fond 38 Toronto Police Service, Series 90 Toronto City Council Minutes Fort Erie Historical Museum, Ridgeway (FEHM) Fenian Raid and Battle of Ridgeway papers Hamilton Public Library Clipping File (CF) – Biography: Alexander Somerville Library and Archives of Canada (LAC) Adjutant General‘s Office, Letters Received, RG9 IC1, Vol. 220 Adjutant General‘s Office, Letters Sent 1847-1868, RG9 IC1, Vol. 290 Stephen Beatty, Reminiscences of the Fenian Raid 1866, manuscript, John Colin Armour Campbell fonds, (R9262-0-2-E), Notes on Military Affairs,, MG29-E74, Vol. 1, Folder 4 Civil Secretary‘s Letter Books, RG7-G-16-C, Vol. 36 George T. Denison, The Fenian Raid at Fort Erie and an Account of the Battle of Ridgeway, [original manuscript] George Taylor Denison III Fonds, MG29-E29, Volume 43, File 1 Department of Justice, Numbered Central Registry Files, RG-13-A2, Volumes 13-16, 20 Department of Militia, Deputy Minister Dockets, RG9 IIA1 Fenian Papers, John A. Macdonald Papers, MG26 A, Volume 56; [Microfilm Reels C1507-1508] Fenian Raid Service Records, Adjutant General‘s Office, United Canada, Pensions and Land Grants, RG9 IC5; Compensation of Injuries, Wounds, etc, Received on Active Service Fenian Raids 1866-1868, Volumes 30-32 [FRSR] Andrew McIntosh, manuscript, Personal Recollections of the Fenian Raid, June 2, 1866, by one who was there, MG29-E108, Volume 1 Gilbert McMicken Secret Service Reports, John A. Macdonald Papers, MG26 A, Vol. 233-237;

[Microfilm Reels C1660-1663] Miscellaneous Records relating to the Fenian Raids, British Military and Naval Records "C" Series, RG8-1, Volume 1672; [Microfilm reel C-4300] Report of the Commissioners Appointed to Consider the Defences of Canada, February 6, 1862, RG9-IIA1, Vol. 482 Proceedings of a Court of Inquiry held in Hamilton on Tuesday the 3rd day of July A.D. 1866 by order of His Excellency the Commander-in-chief on the application of Lieutenant Colonel Booker to examine and report on the circumstances connected with the late engagement at Lime Ridge, dated Ottawa, June 24, 1866. United Canada Subject Files, Adjutant General‘s Correspondence; Correspondence relating to complaints, courts martial and inquiries, RG9-I-CVolume 6 [Booker Inquiry] Proceedings of the Court of Inquiry Upon the Circumstances of the Engagement at Fort Erie on the 2nd of June 1866, United Canada Subject Files, Adjutant General‘s Correspondence;

Correspondence relating to complaints, courts martial and inquiries, RG9-I-C-8, Volume 7 [Dennis Inquiry] United Canada Subject Files, Clothing and arms records relating to militia units in Ontario and Quebec, RG9-IC8, Volume 18 United Canada Subject Files, Frontier Service Reports 1865-1867, RG9 IC8, Volume 8 Upper Canada Sundries, RG 5, series A 1, Vol. 67 Missouri Historical Society AO481 Fenian Papers 1869-1992 New York City Public Library William Sweeny Papers, MssCol 2934 [Microfilm: NY Public Library Photographic Service, 1978.] Queen‟s Own Rifles Regimental Museum Battle of Ridgeway papers Royal Hamilton Light Infantry Wentworth Regiment Museum 13th Battalion Order Books 1866 United Church of Canada Archives formerly at Victoria College Nathanael Burwash Collection University of Rochester Library The Papers of William Henry Seward Microfilm set in Department of Rare Books and Special Collections University of Toronto Archives Charles P. Stacey Papers U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) USS Michigan Logbook No. 16, Logbooks of U.S. Navy Ships, 1801 – 1940, Records of the Bureau of Naval Personnel, 1798 - 2003, RG 24, National Archives Building, Washington, D.C.

Despatches From U.S. Consuls in Fort Erie 1865-1906, Records of the Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State, 1788-1964, RG 84; (National Archives Microfilm Publication T465, roll 1) National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD.

Despatches From U.S. Consuls in Toronto, Canada 1864-1906, Records of the Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State, 1788-1964, RG 84; (National Archives Microfilm Publication T491, roll 1: Jan. 11, 1864 – Dec. 31, 1866; roll 2: Jan. 3, 1867 – Jan. 2, 1868) National Archives at College Park, College Park, MD.

Letters Received by the Secretary of War from the President, Executive Departments, and War Department Bureaus 1862-1870, (National Archives Microfilm Publication M494, roll 88);

Records of the Office of the Secretary of War, 1791 -1947, RG 107, National Archives Building, Washington, DC.

Telegrams Collected, Records of the Office of the Secretary of War, RG 107, National Archives Building, Washington, D.C.

Letters Sent; Letters Received, Records of the Headquarters of the Army 1828-1903, RG 108;

National Archives Building, Washington, DC.

Provost Marshal, 30th Congressional District, New York, Letters, Records of State And District Offices, Record Group 110.4; Letters Received May 1863 – December 1865 [2283]; Register of Received [2284]; Letters Received 1863-1865 [2285], Records of the Provost Marshal General‘s Bureau, RG 110; National Archives Building, Washington D.C., Reports 1863 – 1872, War Department, Records of the U.S. Army Continental Commands, 1817 – 1940, Division of the Atlantic, Department of the East, RG 393: Inventory Identifier 1428, National Archives Building, Washington D.C.

(Reports and Government Publications) Correspondence Respecting the Recent Fenian Aggression Upon Canada, London: 1867

Correspondence Relating to the Fenian Invasion and Rebellion of the Southern States, Ottawa:

Executive Documents for the Second Session of the Fortieth Congress of the United States, 186768 Washington DC: 1868 Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, Executive Documents Printed by the Order of The House of Representatives During the Second Session of the Thirty-Ninth Congress, 1866-‘67, Volume 13 (1866), Part I, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1867 United Province of Canada, Legislative Assembly Journals, 1841, Appendix S, Report of the Commissioners appointed to investigate certain proceedings at Toronto, connected with the Election for that City, and Appendix OO.

(Contemporary books on the Battle of Ridgeway pre-1911) [s.n.] (The Fenian Raid Into Canada) The Fenian Raid At Fort Erie, Toronto: W.C. Chewett & Co., 1866 Denison, George T. Fenian Raid On Fort Erie; With an Account of the Battle of Ridgeway, June, 1866, Toronto: Rollo & Adam, 1866

Gauust, Doscen, B.F.H.D. [pseudonym], History of the Fenian Invasion, of Canada, Hamilton:

W.M. Brown & Co, 1866 Gregg, George R. and Roden, E. P. Trials of the Fenian Prisoners at Toronto, Toronto: Leader Steam-Press, 1867 Macdonald, Captain John A. Troublous Times in Canada: The History of the Fenian Raids of 1866 and 1870, Toronto: W.S. Johnston & Co., 1910 Scian Dubh [James McCarroll], Ridgeway: An Historical Romance of the Fenian Invasion of Canada, Buffalo, NY: McCarroll & Co, 1868 Somerville, Alexander. Narrative of the Fenian Invasion of Canada, Hamilton, ON: Joseph Lyght, 1866 (Contemporary articles on the Battle of Ridgeway pre-1911) Beatty, Stephen. Fenian Raid 1866 with Lt. Colonel J. Stoughton Dennis at Fort Erie June 2, 1866, St. Catharines, ON.: The Star Journal, 1910 Cumberland, Barlow ―The Fenian Raid of 1866 and Events on the Frontier.‖ Royal Society of Canada Proceedings, Vol. 4, Sec. 2 (1910) Cooper, John A. ―The Fenian Raid 1866‖, The Canadian Magazine, Vol. 10, no. 1 (Nov. 1897) Ellis, William H. ―The Adventures of a Prisoner of War‖, Canadian Magazine, Vol. 13, No. 3, July 1899 Larmour, Robert. ―With Booker‘s Column‖, [Part 1] Canadian Magazine, Vol. 10, no. 2 (Dec.

1897); [Part 2], Canadian Magazine, Vol. 10, no. 3 (Jan. 1898) Stinson, J.T.R. ―The Battle of Ridgeway, or Lime Ridge,‖ Journal of Education for Upper Canada, Vol. 19, no. 6 (June 1866) (Contemporary books and other material pre-1911) [s.n.] Canadian Border Songs of the Fenian Invasion, 1870.

[s.n.], ―The Fort Erie Medal‖ The Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal, Vol. 3, No.

2., October 1874 [s.n.], A Life of James Stephens: Chief Organizer of the Irish Republic, New York: Carleton, [s.n.], The Hand-Book of Toronto, Toronto: Lovell & Gibson, 1858 [s.n.], History of Welland County, Welland Tribune Printing House, 1887 [s.n.], Illustrated Historical Album of the 2nd Battalion Queen‘s Own Rifles, Toronto: Toronto News Company, 1894 [s.n.], ―Old English Rifles‖, The Engineer, 20 August 1886, London [s.n.], The Spirit of Toryism Exemplified in the Brutal Conduct Exhibited Towards Alexander Sommerville [sic] of the Scots Greys, Glasgow: Muir, Gowans & Co., 1832 Breeze, J.T. A Poem on the Grand Trunk Railway: Its Achievements, Institutions, Scenery, Military and Principal Characters, Montreal: 1867 Clark, C.S. Of Toronto The Good, Montreal: Toronto Publishing Company, 1898.

Denieffe, Joseph. A Personal Narrative of the Irish Revolutionary Brotherhood, New York:

Gael Publishing, 1906 Davitt, Michael The Fall of Feudalism in Ireland, London & New York: 1904 Denison, Frederick C. Historical Record of the Governor-Generals Body Guard, Toronto: 1876 Denison, George T. Soldiering in Canada, Toronto: George L. Morang & Co., 1901 Denison, ―A Visit to General Robert E. Lee,‖ Canadian Monthly, March 1872 Gray, John Hamilton Confederation; or, The Political and Parliamentary History of Canada from the Conference At Quebec, in October, 1864 to the Admission of British Columbia, in July, 1871, Toronto: Copp, Clark & Co., 1872.

Hansard, HC Debates, 08 August 1832 Vol 14 cc 1241-2 [http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1832/aug/08/case-of-alexandersomerville[14/09/2009]] Hardee W. J., Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics for the Exercising and Manoeuvring of Troops Vol. 1, 1855 Hardee, William Joseph. Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics, Volume 2, Philadelphia: J.B.

Lippencott & Co. 1861 Inglis, David. Righteousness Exalteth a Nation: A Thanksgiving Sermon, Hamilton, C.W.;

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King, John McCaul: Croft: Forneri: Personalities of Early University Days, Toronto:

Macmillan Co. Ltd., 1894 O‘Neill, John. Address of General John O‘Neill President F.B. To the Officers and Members of the Fenian Brotherhood On the State of its Organization and its Disruption,[New York, Feb. 27, 1868], New York: [s.n.] 1868 O‘Neill, John. Official Report of the Battle of Ridgeway, Canada West, Fought on June 2, 1866 (June 27, 1866), New York: John A. Foster, 1870.

Rutherford, John The Secret History of the Fenian Conspiracy: Its Origins, Objects & Ramifications, Volume 1, London: C. Keegan Paul & Co., 1877 Secretary of War, Drill and Rifle Instruction for the Corps of Rifle Volunteers, London: 1859 Somerville, Alexander. The Autobiography of a Working Man, Manchester: Ainsworth, 1848 Somerville, Alexander. History of the British Legion and the War in Spain, London: James Pattie, 1839.

Taylor, Conygham C. The Queen's Jubilee and Toronto 'Called Back‘ From 1887 to 1847, Toronto: William Briggs, 1887 Tracy, Basil. The Tercentenary History of Canada, Vol. 3, New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1908 Toronto City Directory, 1875-1885 Thompson, John H. Jubilee History of Thorold Township and Town From the Time of the Red Man to the Present, Thorold: Thorold and Beaverdams Historical Society, 1891 Buffalo City Map 1, Erie County 1866 Atlas, Stone and Stewart, 1866 (Newspapers) Buffalo Commercial Advertiser Cincinnati Daily Gazette The Examiner The Globe The Globe & Mail The Hamilton Evening Times Hamilton Herald Irish American Irish Canadian Leader New York Times St. Catharines Journal The Southern Cross The Spectator Toronto Telegram The Volunteer Review and Military and Naval Gazette Secondary Sources (Books, articles, chapters on Battle of Ridgeway)

Andrews, Allen. Brave Soldiers, Proud Regiments: Canada‘s Military Heritage, Vancouver:

Ronsdale Press: 1997.

Bertie Historical Society, Battle of Ridgeway: Stories and Legends of the Fenian Raid, June Brewster, N. ―Recollections of the Fenian Raid‖ in Welland County Historical Society Papers and Records, Vol. 2, Welland Canada: 1926 Cruickshank, E. A. ―The Fenian Raid of 1866‖,Welland County Historical Society Papers and Records, Vol 2, Welland Canada: 1926 Docker, John Thornley Dunnville Heroes: The W.T. Robb and the Dunnville Naval Brigade in the 1866 Fenian Invasion, Dunnville, ON: Dunnville District Heritage Association, 2003.

Duff, Louis Blake. ―Sam Johnston, Smuggler, Soldier and Bearer of News,‖ Welland County Historical Society Papers and Records, Vol 2, Welland Canada: 1926 Duggan, G.C. ―The Fenians in Canada: A British Officer‘s Impression‖, The Irish Sword, (Winter 1967.) Dunn, J.F. ―Recollections of the Battle of Ridgeway‖, Welland County Historical Society Papers and Records, Vol 2, Welland Canada: 1926.

Fryer, Mary Beacock. Battlefields of Canada, Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1986.

Greenhous, Brereton; Brown, Kingsley Sr. & Brown, Kingsley Jr. Semper Paratus: The History of the Royal Hamilton Light Infantry, Hamilton, ON: RHLI Historical Association, 1977 Griffith, Justus A. ―The Ridgeway Semi-Centennial‖, Ontario Historical Society Papers and Records, Vol. 15, 1917, Pp. 18-27 Junor, David. ―Taken Prisoner by the Fenians‖, Canadian Magazine, May 1911 Mackenzie, George A. ―What I Saw of the Fenian Raid‖, The Hamilton Spectator, November 27, Mackenzie; George A. ―Young Adventurer in ‘66 Tells Story of Raid‖, Hamilton Herald, June 27, 1927 Maryniak, Benedict. The Fenian Raid and Battle of Ridgeway June 1-3, 1866, http://www.acsu.buffalo.edu/~dbertuca/g/FenianRaid.html McCallum, Fred H. ―Experience of a Queen‘s Own Rifleman at Ridgeway‖, Third Annual Report of the Waterloo Historic Society, Berlin [Kitchener]: Waterloo Historic Society, 1915 Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Recreation, Conservation Review Board, Re: City of Toronto – Intention to Designate 62 Laing Street (Maple Cottage) 16 December 1991 Neidhardt, W.S. Fenianism in North America, University Park and London: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1975.

Owen, David. The Year of the Fenians: A Self-Guided Tour of Discovery and an Illustrated History of the Fenian Invasion of the Niagara Peninsula and the Battle of Ridgeway in 1866, Buffalo, NY: Western New York Heritage Institute, 1990 Quesley, F.M. ―The Fenian Invasion of Canada West‖, Ontario History, Vol. 53 (1961), No. 1 Reavley, Albert W. ―Personal Experience in the Fenian Raid‖, Welland County Historical Society Papers and Records, Vol 2, Welland Canada: 1926.

Read, Colin. ―The Red River Rebellion and J. S. Dennis, ―Lieutenant and Conservator of the Peace‖, Manitoba History, No. 3, 1982 ( Reid, Brian A. ―‗Prepare for Cavalry!‘ The Battle of Ridgeway‖ in Donald E. Graves (ed), Fighting for Canada: Seven Battles, 1758-1945, Toronto: Robin Brass Studio, 2000 Senior, Hereward. Last Invasion of Canada: The Fenian Raids, 1866-1870, Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1991 Severence, Frank. ―The Fenian Raid of ‗66‖ in Frank H. Severence, (ed) The Book of the Museum, Publications of the Buffalo Historical Society, Volume XXV, Buffalo, NY: Buffalo Historical Society, 1921.

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