«The Vimanika Shastra English translation by G.R. Josyer  This is the English translation of the Vimanika Shastra, which purports to be an ...»
In the places in the vimaana where kitchens are located, and where sacred agnihotra fires are needed by passengers, keelaka sthambhas or pivots should be fixed. The acid vessels should be connected with power wires from the central pivot. The wires should be attached to the manis or crystals in p. 83 the acid vessels. At the top of the central pole jwaalaamukhee mani should be fixed in the centre of chumbakee keela with glass covering. On either side of it sinjeeraka mani and dridhikaa mani should be fixed. From each mani a wire should be stretched from the top of the central pole and fixed at the granthikeela at the foot of the pole. From there up to the cooking spots and agnihotra spots, a circle should be formed like a kulya, and metal tubes should be fixed therein. Wires should be drawn through the tubes to the fire places and fixed to the kharpara metallic pattikas therein.
First the bhadramushti keelaka should be revolved. The acid in the vessel will become heated.
The heat generated in the rookshna acid will pass into the manjishtha mani, and generate smoke in the mahoshnika mani. By the force of that acid intense heat will be generated. And by the heat generated in the sulphuric acid vessel flames will erupt in the prajwaalika mani. The smoke, heat and flames will pass through the wires to the sinjeeraka, dridhikaa and jwaalaa-mukhee manis.
Then the chumbaka wheel should be turned vigorously, whereupon the smoke, heat, and flames will reach the key at the top of the central pole. And on that keelee being turned, they will reach the central switchboard keelee at the foot of the pole. When that switch is put on, the heat and flames will reach the metal bands of the cooking ovens and religious fire places, and generate fires. Therefore vyshwaanara naala yantra should be fixed at the navel centre of vimaana.
According to the differences in yugas, there are three different types of planes:
Having dealt with the constituent mechanical parts of the Vimaana, we shall now deal with the Vimaanas according to their different classes.
The sootra indicates that there are different types of planes, and that they are of 3 types.
In the Krita Yuga, Dharma or Righteousness was four-footed, that is, it was four-square, fully established, all paramount, and it was adhered to implicitly by men. The men were inherently noble-born and were possessed of remarkable powers. Without needing to go through yogic discipline to attain special powers, or practise mantras which secured extraordinary results, the men of that yuga, merely by their devotion to dharma, became Siddhapurushaas or gifted with superhuman powers. They were virtuous men and men of learning and wisdom. Going in the sky with the speed of wind by their own volition was natural to them. The eight super-sensory, and now superhuman, attainments, known as animaa, mahimaa, garimaa, laghimaa, praaptih, praakaamya, eeshatwa, and vashitwa, were all possessed by them. That is, animaa is assumption of infinitesimal shape; mahimaa is growing into gigantic shape; garimaa is becoming astonishingly heavy; laghimaa is becoming weightless; praaptih is securing any desired thing; praakaamyam is becoming rid of desires; eeshatwa is attaining paramountcy; and vashitwa is becoming extremely pliant.
* * * * I. Krita yuga--1.728.000 years. II. Threthaa yuga--1.296.000 years.
III. Dwaapara yuga--864.000 years. Kaliyuga--432.000 years.
p. 85 Therefore in Krita Yuga, or first epoch, the ancients say, there were none of the three classes of Vimaanas.
Krita Yuga passed; and Tretaa Yuga commenced. Dharma then became limp of one foot. It served with 3 feet only, and grew gradually less efficient. So men's minds became dense, and the conception of Vedic truths, and anima and other super-sensory powers, became scarcer.
Therefore, by the corrosion of Dharma or righteousness, men lost the power of flying in the sky with the speed of wind.
Perceiving this, God Mahadeva, desiring to confer the power of understanding the Vedas properly on the Dwijas, or brahmins, kshatriyas, and vysyas, graciously descended on earth in the form of Dakshinaamurthy, and through the instrumentality of Sanaka and other anointed sages, classified the Veda mantras, and then bestowing his benedictory glance on the worshipping Munis or ascetics, he blessed them with the gift of Vedic perception. And then to ensure that they were properly receptive, he embraced them and entered their hearts and illuminated their memories.
The munis, overwhelmed by the Divine grace, aglow with horripilation, with voice choked with emotion, praised the Supreme with shata-rudreeya and other hymns, and manifested profound devotion.
Pleased with their receptiveness, divine Dakshinaamurthy, favouring them with a benign glance, and with smile on his face, said to them, "Till now you have been known as "Munis" or ascetics.
Henceforth, having by my grace attained insight into the Vedas, you shall be known as "Rishis" or seers. You will cultivate the Vedic mantras, and practising celibacy, you will adore the divine Goddess of the Vedas, and winning her favour, and approaching the Great God Easwara by Yogic Samadhi, ascertain His mind, and by His and my grace, rising to the pinnacle of intellectual vision, become adepts in the meaning and purport of the Vedas; and confirming by them your own experiences and meditative introspection, you will create the Dharmashaastras or moral codes, Puranas and Itihaasas, and physical and material sciences, in conformity to the truths of the Vedas, for the benefit of mankind. And for travelling in the sky, propagate the art of manufacturing Vimaanas, and for attaining wind-speed, evolve Ghutica and Paadukaa methods through Kalpashaastras or scientific treatises."
p. 86 Then those munis or seers, enshrining in their hearts God Mahadeva in the form of Dakshinaamurthy, produced the Dharmashaastras or ethical codes, epics, chronicles, manuals on rituals, treatises on the arts and sciences, ritualistic and sacrificial codes, in conformity to the Vedas, and propagated them among men. Amongst them it is said that there are six treatises bearing on the manufacture of Vimaanas produced by the ancient seers. In them are described three classes of vimaanas, known as maantrikaas, taantrikaas, and kritakaas, capable of flying everywhere.
It is said in Vimaana Chandrika,
"I shall indicate the different kinds of vimaanas. In Tretaa yuga as men were adepts in mantras or potent hymns, the vimaanas used to be produced by means of maantric knowledge. In Dwaapara yuga as men had developed considerable tantric knowledge, vimaanas were manufactured by means of tantric knowledge. As, both mantra and tantra are deficient in Kaliyuga, the vimaanas are known as kritaka or artificial. Thus, owing to changes in dharma during the yugas, the ancient seers have classified the vimaanas of the 3 yugas as of 3 different types."
"Vyomayaana Tantra" also says, "By the influence of mantras in Tretaa, vimaanas are of maantrika type. Owing to the prevalence of tantras in Dwaapara, the vimaanas are of taantrika type. Owing to decadence of both mantra and tantra in Kaliyuga, the vimaanas are of artificial type." Thus 3 classes of vimaanas are mentioned in shaastras by ancient seers.
In "Yantra Kalpa" also, "Vimaanas are classified into mantra and other varieties by experts according to differences in yugas. They are defined as maantrika, taantrika, and kritaka."
The same is expressed in "Kheta yaana pradeepika," and also "Vyoma Yaana Arkaprakaashikaa."
p. 87 Thus according to shaastras vimaanas are divided into 3 classes, on the basis of differences in the modes of their manufacture.
"Pancha-vimshan Maantrikaaha Pushpakaadi Prabhedena" Sootra 2.
In the previous sootra vimaanas were specified as of 3 types owing to differences in the 3 yugas.
In this sootra maantrika vimaanas or vimaanas flying by maantrik power are said to be 25.
Shounaka Sootra says, Maantrika vimaanas in Tretaayuga are 25. Their names are pushpaka, ajamukha, bhraajasvat, jyotirmukha, kowshika, bheeshma, shesha, vajraanga, dyvata, ujvala, kolaahala, archisha, bhooshnu, somaanka, panchavarna, shanmukha, panchabaana, mayoora, shankara, tripura, vasuhaara, panchaanana, ambareesha, trinetra and bherunda.
The vimaanas of Tretaayuga are 32 of the maantrika type. Their names as given by Maharshi Gowtama are Pushpaka, ajamukha, bhraaja, swayamjyoti, kowshika, bheeshmaka, shesha, vajraanga, dyvata, ujvala, kolaahala, archisha, bhooshnu, somaanka, varnapanchaka, shanmukha, panchabaana, mayoora, shankara priya, tripura, vasuhaara, panchaanana, ambareesha, trinetra, and bherunda, etc.
"Bhyravaadi Bhedaat Tantrikaa-shshat-panchaashat." Sootra 3.
In previous sootra the names of maantrika vimaanas were mentioned: In this sootra the names of taantrika vimaanas of Dwaapara yuga are mentioned.
p. 88 In shape, movement and speed there is no difference between maantrika and taantrika vimaanas.
There is however one difference in taantrika vimaanas, that is, the way in which the shakti or power at the junction of sky and earth is incorporated.
Lalla also says, There is only one difference between taantrika vimaanas and maantrika vimaanas: the adaptation of the power of sky and earth. In shape, and movement. variations, they are identical. The taantrika vimaanas are of 56 varieties.
In Shounaka Sootra, In Dwaapara taantrika vimaanas are 56. Their names are, bhyrava, nandaka, vatuka, virinchi, vynateya, bherunda, makaradwaja, shringaataka, ambareesha, sheshaasya, saimtuka, maatrika, bhraaja, paingala, tittibha, pramatha, bhoorshni, champaka, drownika, rukmapunkha, bhraamani, kakubha, kaalabhyrava, jambuka, garudaasya, gajaasya, vasudeva, shoorasena, veerabaahu, bhusunda, gandaka, shukatunda, kumuda, krownchika, ajagara, panchadala, chumbuka, dundubhi, ambaraasya, maayooraka, bheerunalika, kaamapaala, gandarksha, paariyaatra, shakunta, ravimandana, vyaaghra, mukha, vishnuratha, sowarnika, mruda, dambholi, brihathkunja, mahaanata, etc.
In Dwaapara yuga taantrika vimaanas are said to be 56. Their names according to sage Gowtama, are bhyrava, nandaka, vatuka, virinchika, tumbara, vynateya, bherunda, makaradhwaja, shringaataka, ambareesha, sheshaasya, symhika, maatruka, bhraajaka, pyngala, tittibha, pramatha, bhoorshnika, champaka, drownika, rukmapunkha, bhraamanika, kakubha, kaalabhyirava, jambuka, gireesha, garudaasya, gajaasya, vasudeva, shoorasena, veerabaahu, bhusundaka, gandaka, shukatunda, kumuda, krownchika, ajagara, panchadala, chumbaka, dundubhi, ambaraasya, mayoora, bheeru, nalikaa, kaamapaala, gandarksha, paariyaatra, shakuntaka, ravimandana, vyaaghramukha, vishnu ratha, souvarnika, mruda, dambholee, bruhatkunja, mahaanata.
In shape and movements there is no difference in the vimaanas, except in the matter of the use of mantraas and tantraas. The kritaka or artificial vimaanas are of 25 varieties.
According to Shownaka sootra "Tishyay kritaka bhedaah panchavigamshatih! teshaam naamaanyanukramishyaamah: shakuna sundararukma mandala vakratunda bhadraka ruchaka vyraaja bhaaskara gajaavarta powshkala virinchi nandaka kumuda mandara hamsa shukaasya somaka krownchaka padmaka symhika panchabaana owryaayana pushkara kodandaa iti."
Says "Maanibhadra Kaarikaa":
In Kaliyuga, the kritaka or artificial vimaanas are said to be 25. Their names are given below as indicated by sage Gowtama: shakuna, sundara, rukmaka, mandala, vakratunda, bhadraka, ruchaka, viraajaka, bhaaskara, gajaavarta, powshkala, viranchika, nandaka, kumuda, mandara, hamsa, shukaasya, sowmyaka, krownchaka, padmaka, symhika, panchabaana, owryaayana, pushkara, and kodanda.
These 25 kinds of vimaanas are to be made of Raajaloha metal only.
Says Kriyaasaara, In manufacturing artificial aeroplanes the best of metals are those known as Ooshmapaa or heatimbibing or heat resisting metals. Out of them the variety known as Raajaloha or king of metals is most suited to Shakuna and other vimaanas.
p. 90 Three kinds of metals, soma, soundaala, and maardweeka, in the proportion of 3, 8, and 2, adding borax, to be filled in crucible or smelter, and placed in furnace, and heated to 272 degrees, and melted thoroughly, and churned, will result in the alloy Raajaloha.
Vishwambhara also says, "In the science of metals, for the manufacture of aeroplanes, 16 types of Ooshmapaa or heatsucking lohas or metals are the very best. The fourth in that series, is called Raajaloha. Out of that alone should shakuna vimaana be constructed."
The parts of shakuna vimaana are:
Peetha or floor board; hollow mast; three wheeled keelakas with holes; 4 heaters, air-suction pipes, water jacket, oil tank, air heater, chhullee or heater, steam boiler, vidyud-yantra or electric generator, air propelling yantra, vaatapaa yantra or air-suction pipe, dikpradarsha dhwaja or direction indicating banner, shakuna yantra, two wings, tail portion for helping vimaana to rise, owshmyaka yantra or engine, kiranaakarshana math or sun-ray attracting bead. These 28 are parts of Shakuna vimaana.
The construction of the vimaana:
The floor-board or base should be made of levelled Rajaloha sheet, shaped quadrangular, circular, or cradle shaped. The weight of the peetha should be one-hundredth of that of the plane, and its width should be half the height of the vimaana. In the centre of the peetha the hollow mast should be fixed with screw joints.
Lalla defines the mast in "Yantra kalpataru". The stambha or mast should be made of haatakaasya metal and not otherwise.
Haatakaasya metal is described in "Lohatantra": 8 parts of suvarchala or natron, 16 parts of laghukshwinka or light zinc, 18 parts of lagbu bambhaari, and 100 parts of copper, filled in smelter, placed in koorma vyaasatika furnace, and with the aid of mahormi bellows boiled to 307 degrees, will yield haatakaasya metal.