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«The Vimanika Shastra English translation by G.R. Josyer [1973] This is the English translation of the Vimanika Shastra, which purports to be an ...»

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With that metal the peetha should be prepared, of any desired size. The following is given as an example. It may be 100 feet wide p. 112 and 3 feet thick, round or square. Leaving 20 feet on the western side, at intervals of 10 feet 80 spots should be marked for wheeled boats. 80 feet long, 3 feet wide, 5 feet high boat shaped dronies or containers should be fixed on the marked lines. Three feet wide openings should be made in the top of the dronies, so as to raise the wheel inside them quickly and cover them underneath. There should be fittings which enable the wheels to be lowered on land, and raised and covered underneath when going in water. The wheels should have axle rods with fittings to attract electric power. The axle rods should be 2½ feet long and 1 foot thick. The wheels should be 3 feet wide and 1 foot thick, have, 5, 6, or 7 spokes, fixed in the rims, and covered with musheeka up to 4 inches from the edge. Holes with glass coverings should be made in all the wheels. These 12 wheels, or 8, or 6, or 4, should be fixed inside the boat-like structure. For transmitting power wires made of somakaanta loha should be fixed in the holes made in the wheels. In the middle of each wheel electric aaghaata keelakaas should be fixed, and in them chhidraprasaarana keelakas. Over all the chakradronee boats, copper wire pairs should be fixed on both sides, and in the joints of the wheels. Rods should be attached to the wires so that power could be drawn from the wires and passed to the top of the wheels. And power should be passed to the wires underneath the wheels. In climbing hills, and going down slopes, by adjusting the power at the top or the bottom of the wheels, smooth progress is made possible. By adjusting the necessary keelakas it is possible to accelerate the speed, or in going down, to restrain the flow of the current, and put brake on excess speed.

For attracting power from the generator a naala or pipe with wires should be fixed at the front of the peetha through 5 faced wheel keelakas, and the wires should be connected to the fittings at the top and bottom of the wheels, with glass cups.

In order to put covering over the boat formations, pillars should be fixed between each boat line, and covered with mica sheets, as per architectural rules.

p. 113 Mica is described in "Dhatu sarvasva ". There are four kinds of mica, white mica, red mica, yellow mica, and black mica. The white mica has 16 varieties. Red mica has 12 varieties. The yellow mica has 7 varieties. And the black mica has 15 varieties. Thus there are 50 varieties in all.

Shownakeeya also says:

We shall now describe the nature of abhraka or mica. They are of 4 castes, like brahmin, kshatriya, vysya, and sudra. They are of 50 varieties. The brahmin mica has 16 varieties. The kshatriya mica has 12 varieties. The vysya mica has 7 varieties. And the sudra mica has 15 varieties, totalling 50 in all. Their names are as follows. The brahmin mica varieties are ravi, ambara, bhraajaka, rochishmaka, pundareeka, virinchika, vajragarbha, koshambara, sowvarchala, somaka, amritanetra, shytyamukba, kuranda, rudraasya, panchodara and rukmagarbha. The kshatriya varieties are shundeeraka, shambara, rekhaasya, owdumbara, bhadraka, panchaasya, amshumukha, raktanetra, manigarbha, rohinika, somaamshaka, and kourmika. The vysya varieties are krishnamukha, shyaamarekha, garalakosha, panchadhaara, ambareeshaka, manigarbha, and krownchaasya. The shoodra varieties are gomukha, kanduraka, showndika, mugdhaasya, vishagarbha, mandooka, thailagarbha, rekhaasya, parvanika, raakaamsuka, praanada, drownika, raktabandhaka, rasagraahaka, vranahaarika.

Out of these, pundareeka from the 1st class, rohinika from the second, panchadhaara from the third, and drownika from the 4th class are good for use in constructing the vimaana. These should first be purified as per rules.

The process of purification is given in "Samskaara Ratnaakara": skandhaaraka or salt of roitleria tinctoria?, shaaranika or rubus salt?, pinjulee or yellow orpiment?, cowries, borax, kaakajanghaa or wild p. 114 liquorice?, moss, rowdrikaa, salt-petre, douvaarika, shambara or benzoin, and phosphorus. These should be separately filled in the smelter. The decoctions should be filled in glass vessels. The mica is to be purified with each one of these.

The mica is to be powdered, put in skandhaavaara acid in smelting vessel. It should be boiled for 3 days in fire, and for 3 days in electric heat. Then take the liquid and put it in a bronze vessel, pour in shaaranika acid and keep it in sun for 3 days. Then add pinjulee acid and keep buried in earth for 5 days. Afterwards add cowri acid, and boil in bhoodhara yantra for one day. Then add mustard, and adding borax acid and burning arjuna, myrabolan wood, place it in brown-barked acacia cinders for 3 days. Then add wild liquorice acid and expose it to the full moon rays on the 14th and 15 days. The mica is to be then taken out and washed in hot water. Then add wild corn, and pouring in moss acid place it under earth for 6 days. Then take out the mica, add roudri acid, place the vessel in a big fire-place, and burn in 64 feet of dried cowdung. Next taking out the mica put it in sesamum oil for 1½ days, and expose to the sun from morning to sundown. Then take out the mica, wash it clean, put in bronze vessel with salt-petre solution with dattoori or yellow thistle seeds, place it in a heap of burning kundalee or mollugo stricta leaves. Then take out the mica, add dourvaarika acid and bake for a day with hay-fire. Then put the mica in benzoin acid for 3 days. Next add one-fourth as much of camphor, and placing it in the churning machine, churn for a day. Then placing it in Simhaasya crucible cook with boiling water. Add ranjaka or phosphorus acid, 3 palas or 12 tolas of tankana or borax, 12 tolas of lime, 4 tolas of soorana root or tacca, karkotaka 20 tolas, vrishala or onion 28 tolas, koorma-tankanaka 8 palas or 32 tolas, rouhinaka or red sandal 40 tolas, shambara 80 tolas, muchukunda 12 tolas. These cleaned and filled in the crucible, and placed in simhamukha furnace filled with charcoal, and melted with 800 degrees heat will yield a metal shining like a precious stone, very light, unbreakable, unburnable and indestructible.

–  –  –

We shall now consider the parts of the vimaana: 2 feet thick and 3 feet high pillars, painted in different colours and adorned with p. 115 pictures, should be prepared, and 80 of them should be fixed in the spaces between the boats. On the pillars 10 feet wide pattikas or sheets, and of the same length as the boats, should be fitted with screws, and two-faced hinges.

In order to accommodate crew and passengers of the vimaana, and store luggage, rooms and partitions should be constructed with decorations. In order to provide secrecy, doors should be provided as also ventilators. Revolving wheels with necessary fittings and switches should be fixed so that by putting on a switch the rooms would revolve. Wheels should be fixed in the lanes between the boats. Air-pipes with wheels should be fixed. In order to ensure supply of air, tubes with wheels, and bellows with wide mouths, leaving 20 junctional centres, should be fixed. In the front, two faced tubular wheels should be fixed to dispel the air downwards or upwards or side ways, at 30 feet intervals from the aavrutta or enclosed pradesha of the vimaana. At the bottom of the vimaana metal balls with chain-wirings should be fixed for operations in the course of flight.

The 1st floor will be 7 feet high, with the roofing duly fixed with nalikaa-keelakas with 10 feet intervals. With 20 feet interval in the middle, wires with beaked ends should be attached to each keela. The fittings should be such as to enable opening and shutting like an umbrella. The cloth covering like a tent top should cover the entire floor.

The second aavarana should be made of trinetra metal.

Bodhaananda Vritti:

Having described the first floor above, now the second floor is being described. The second floor should be slightly smaller than the first floor. If the first floor is 100 feet wide, the second should be 80 feet wide. The floor should be 80 feet wide, and 3 feet thick, and made of trinetra metal. Its fittings should be like those on the first floor, and be duly connected with electric wiring from the generator.

p. 116 In order to take the vimaana through water, first the wheels at the bottom used for land route should be drawn up, and in order to prevent water coming up, the bottom should be completely covered up with ksheeree-pata or milk cloth. Four inches thick metal rods, 12 inches long, to which wheels 1 foot wide and ½ foot thick, and shaped like frog claws, are fixed, should be adjusted on both sides of the dronee or boat lines. Similarly in the front portion of the vimaana, on both sides two such wheeled rods should be fixed in order to divert water, By switching on power the main wheels will revolve, making all the wheels revolve, and expelling water, and aiding the progress of the vimaana forward.

For the supply of air inside, on the sides of the 2nd floor, should be fixed, air pipes 6 inches wide and made of ksheeree pata or milk cloth, cleaned with acid, from the partitions in the 1st floor upto the top of the vimaana, their tops being covered with revolving metal covers, with air sucking pumps worked by power. The air so pumped into the pipes will fill both the second and 1st floors, and provide air comfort for the crew and passengers of the vimaana.

Above the roofing of the two floors all round, spreading out and closing up keelakas should be fixed. So as to separate the floors, foldable chain fittings should be fixed at 10 feet intervals. Wires from the electrical generator should be connected to the fittings, so that by their operation the floors will be separated, and the separated floors simultaneously move on land and in the air.

In the 2nd floor also cabins, partitions and seating and doors and windows should be constructed as attractively as in the first floor. The enclosing walls of the floor should be 7 feet high from its peetha, and half a foot thick. In order to draw electric current from the third floor two poles should be erected in the back room with transmitter from which wires will pass the current to the various fixtures on the floor.

At the front of the vimaana a mast should be erected. At its foot two bells made of bronze should be fixed in order to indicate time to the crew and passengers. In every room on the floor alarm p. 117 chains, as in railways, should be fixed so that the occupants may call for help in times of danger.

On hearing the call the crew will rush to the room and attend to the requirements of the passengers. Sound transmitter, image transmitter, direction indicator, time-piece, and cold and heat gauges should be installed on either side of the floor, with necessary cable connections.

Then in order to protect against excessive wind currents, storms, and heat-waves, three machines should be installed at the back, on either side, and on both sides of the turret.

They are described in "Yantra Sarvasva" as three-faced air protection yantra, solar-blaze conditioning yantra, and rain storm protection yantra. Their construction is given here as per shaastras.

First, three-faced air force reducing yantra. It must be made of Vaaruna Metal:

Vaaripanka, vishaari, borax, jaalikaa, mango, vishodara, vaaripanchaka, kshaarasaptaka, kshona, manjula or madder root, godhara, vaarunaasyaka, paarvana or chlorodendrum phlomoides, aruna, kaakatunda, bhoodhara, vaarunaabhraka, natron, kundaaleemukha, lodhra or benzoin, varikudmala or water flower, shaarikaarasa, panchabaanasahodara, lead 5 parts, soorana or tacca, honey 8 parts, vaata, kankanikodara, Sunda, anjana or eye-black, kukkutaandaka, khaadira or brown-barked acacia, loddhruka, simhikaa-mukha, koormajangha, and masoorika or lentil, all these to be cleaned, and filled in crucible, placed in padmamukha furnace, and heated to 700 degrees with 5 faced bellows, poured into equifying yantra and churned, will yield a light, smokecoloured, impregnable vaaruna metal.

Then it is to be purified, according to "Kriyaasaara." First, place it in shundeera acid (great-leaved laburnum?) and boil for 3 days, and then with kuttinee yantra beat it into flat pattis, make thick decoction of soorana root or tacca, and smear it to 1 inch thickness on it and heat it for 3 yaamaas or 9 hours. Then mritsaara, vaagura, opium, should be boiled together for a day. The concoctions will become red like lac. The metal patti should be smeared with it and heated in the taapana yantra for a yaama or 3 hours. Then keep it p. 118 in the sun for a day. Then kantaka or small caltrap, heranda, dhavalodara, and chaaraka, and gingelly should be mixed together, and the oil extracted. The metal should be smeared with it and kept in the sun for 3 days, and then heated in the sun for a day. Then paste the gum of kankola or cubeb pepper 1 inch thick, and stick into it thumb-sized vaatakuthaaraka manis, place in furnace of brown-barked acacia and cool for 9 hours. The metal will become like diamond.

Out of this a cover should be made for the vimaana, with necessary fittings for spreading over and folding up, connected with electric wires drawn from inside the vimaana. The charge of electricity will permeate all over, as well as the manis on the pattika. Three serpent-faced keelakas should be fixed. These will suck in the fierce wind as it blows, and belch it out to the upper regions, so that the wind force on the vimaana will be curbed, and danger therefrom averted.

The rain storm protection yantra should be made of crowncha metal. Says "Kriyaasaara", The metal that can destroy the dravapraanana force of water is krowncha loha. Therefore the varshopasamhaara yantra should be made out of that alone.

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