«The Vimanika Shastra English translation by G.R. Josyer  This is the English translation of the Vimanika Shastra, which purports to be an ...»
768. Some of these forces are indicated by the sound "s" Some of the forces emanating from the sun and the elements are indicated by the sound "ou". Similarly other concerned forces are indicated by the letters "ma" and "ha".
The Varuna and Soorya force contents of all root metals are of four groups. In each group the force content is said to be 1, 67, 768. Of the Koorma and Kashyapa forces of Vaaruna group, the 67th from Ooshaa koorma, and the 85th Kaashyapa force, called "Kaala", are indicated by the letter "Sa".
Of the solar group of forces, maartaanda and bhoota 71st, and the ruchika force 160 are indicated by the sound "ra". Similarly, of the forces of sun and stars in aditi, the 9th called "Sundaa", and the stellar force 101 called "Bhowma" are indicated by the letter "Ma". And in the dhruva varga, soma and baadaba forces, 109 and 14 respectively, are indicated by the visarga sound "ha".
The four forces working inside the earth, by flux of time mature into the Souma type metal.
In Soundaala metal, the 11th force, dhanadaa, in Koorma is indicated by letter "sa". The 110th Kaashyapee force, rook, is indicated by the sound p. 17 "ow". The sun's 100 powered dravamukhee shakti, and bhoota-shakti known as [paragraph continues] anvee 700 powered, are together indicated by the anuswaara sound "m". The sun's kaantaa shakti 49, and the stars' 25 shaktis, varchaa, are indicated by the letter "da". Similarly the soma forces in dhruva varga, is indicated by the long "aa" in "daa". The moon's 364 ujwalaa and baadabaa's 500 known as kaala are indicated by the letter "la".
That is "Soundaala".
Regarding the third, "Mourtwika", Koormashakti, paarthiva 1300, is indicated by the letter "ma".
Kaasyapa shakti, kaalima 2001, is indicated by the sound "ow". Maartaanda shakti, laaghava 260, is indicated by the sound "r": bhootashakti, vaarchulee 37, by the letter "tha": stellar force, rukshmaka 1063, is indicated by the letter "va". Arkashakti, varuna 113, is indicated by the sound "e": soma force rijukaa 8009, and pooshnikaa 1012, are indicated. by the letter, "ka".
Taking soma metal first, it should be filled in a wide-brimmed vessel and adding jambeera or citron juice, likucha or lime juice, vyaaghra or castor, chinchaa or tamarind, and jamboo or rose apple juices, it should be boiled to 27th degree of heat for a day. Then taking it out and washing it, it should be boiled in 5 kinds of oils, 4 kinds of acids, and 7 kinds of decoctions.
They are named in "Samskaara Darpana":
Gunjaa or wild liquorice, Kanjala, castor, kunjara, and karanja or Indian beach oils, praana-kshara, viranchi, kanchuki, and khura acids, and hingoo or asafoetida, parpata, ghontikaaa, jataamaamsee or spikenard, white gourd or Vidaaraanginee, and matsyaakshee decoctions.
That is the process of purification of soma metal.
The purification of Soundaala metal is like that of soma with regard to boiling in the cauldron, but the process of purification is with 6 acids, 7 oils, and 5 decoctions. They are, according to Samskaara Darpana."-p. 18 Ingaala or, ingudee, gouree or reddish herb, couries, grapes, rata, aapya, and ulbana oils, ankola, mushti, shankha, bhallaataka, kaakola, and virancha acids, and kuluththa or horsegram, nishpaava, sarshapa or mustard, aadhaka, and wheat decoctions or gruels.
Mourthweeka metal also should be baked like soundaala, and then should be boiled with shivaari oil, kudupa acid and vishambharee leather decoction.
Having defined the root-metals and their purification, we next consider the casting of Ooshmapaa loha.
The heat-proof metals are made out of the three, Souma, Soundaala, and Morthweeka mentioned in the previous chapter. It is said in "Loha Ratnaakara" that each of the three yields varieties of seed metals. Their names are, in souma group,--souma, soumyaka, sundaasya, soma, panchaanana, ooshmapa, shaktigarbha, jaangalika, praanana, shankha, and laaghava; The names of the metals of soundeera origin, are viranchi, souryapa, shanku, ushna, soorana, shinjikaa, kanku, ranjika, soundeera, mugdha, and ghundaaraka. In the mourthweeka group, the 11 are anuka, dvyanuka, kanka, tryanuka, shvetaambara, mridambara, baalagarbha, kuvarcha, kantaka, kshvinka and laghvika.
The said metals are to be mixed in requisite proportions and melted. It is said in "Lohatantra" that ushnambhara metal is produced by mixing numbers 10, 5, 8 of soma, soundala, mourthweeka groups of metals respectively in the proportion of 1, 3, 7, and mixing with one third the quantity of tankana or borax and melting in the crucible. Similarly taking metals no, 3, 5, and 7 respectively in the three groups in the proportion of 4, 1, and 8, and mixing with tankana, and melting in crucible, the metal ooshma is obtained. Metal ooshmahana is produced by melting metals 2, 5, and 9 from the three groups in the proportion of 6, 3, and 7, with tankana. Metal Raaja is produced by melting nos. 3, 8, and 2 of the three groups as before. Similarly metal Aamlatrit is produced by taking numbers 9, 7, 1 in the three metal groups, in the proportion of 10, 7, 8 and mixing with tankana and melting as prescribed.
Similarly metals 6, 4, 5, respectively in the proportion of 5, 5, 12, melted with tankana or borax, will yield the metal veerahaa. The metal panchaghna is got by taking numbers 8, 6, and 4 of the three groups in the proportion of 20, 18, 26, and mixing with tankana or borax and melting.
The metal agnitrit is produced by mixing numbers 5, 2, 10, in the proportion of 30, 20, and 10, and melting with borax in the crucible. The metal bhaarahana is produced by mixing numbers 7, 11, and 6 in the three groups in the proportion of 5, 12, and 7, mixing with borax, and melting in the crucible.
To produce metal sheetahana, metals 10, 9, and 3 in the three groups respectively, in the proportion of 22, 8, and 10, should be mixed with borax and melted in the crucible. Garalaghna is produced by taking numbers 11, 10, and 11 in the three groups in the proportion of 20, 30, and 8, and melting with borax in the crucible.
Similarly Aamlahana is produced by taking numbers 11, 8, and 4 in the three groups in the proportion of 20, 12, 36, and melting with borax in the crucible. Metal Vishambhara is produced by taking numbers 19, 8, and 10 in p. 20 the three Ooshmapa groups respectively in the proportion of 20, 12, and 6, and melting with borax in the crucible.
Metal vishalyakrit is produced by taking numbers 3, 5, and 11, in the proportion of 20, 12, and 6, and melting in the crucible with borax. Dwijamitra is produced by taking numbers 8, 3, and 9 in the pro-portion 5, 8, 10, and melting with borax in the crucible. And metal Vaatamitra is produced by taking numbers 8, 6, and 5 in the three groups of Ooshmapa metals, in the proportion of 22, 8, and 10, and adding borax and melting in the crucible.
According to "Nirnayaadhikaara", the melting of the superior, medium, and inferior kinds of metals is to be done in 407 different kinds of crucibles. They are divided into 12 groups. For the melting of the root-metals the second group of crucibles is considered the best.
Lallacharya also states that metallurgists mention 12 kinds of metals: kritaka or artificial, apabhramshaka or corrupted, sthalaja or mud-born, khanija or found in mines, jalaja or aquatic, dhaatuja or mineral-born, oshadhivargaja or vegetation-born, krimija or evolved from vermin, maamsaja or flesh-born, kshaaraja or grown from salts, baalaja or hairborn, and andaja or resultant from eggs. Different classes of crucibles are to be used for melting different kinds of metals. In the second class of crucibles there are said to be 40 varieties. Of them, number 5, known as antarmukha or inward-mouthed, is prescribed for melting the root-metals.
It is described in "Mooshaakalpa" or art of making crucibles. 8 parts of gingelly manure or blackgram flour, 4 parts of metal rust, 3 parts of metal, 3 parts of laangalee or jussieuea repens or gloriosa superba, 6 parts of gum arabic, 2 parts of ruruka, 3 parts of salt-petre, 5 parts of creepers, 6 parts of charcoal, 5 parts of 5 kinds of grasses, 4 parts of paddy husk ashes, 2 parts of red arsenic, 2 parts of naagakesara, 5 parts of varolika p. 21 flower, 5 parts of borax, 2 parts of black laamancha or scented grass or andropogon muricatus, 5 parts of sindoora or red ochre, 2 parts of gunja seeds or wild liquorice, 4 parts of sea-foam, all these are to be ground and made into fine flour, to which are added equal quantity of gum and 5 parts of earth and dust, and the whole is baked in a vessel with shivaaree oil for 3 yaamaas or 9 hours. When the contents have unified and become properly fluid, it should be poured through the nozzle into the crucible mould, and allowed to rest. The resultant crucible, known as "antarmukha," would be best suited to melt the metals required for producing a Vimaana.
Having dealt with crucible in the last sootra, we now consider the fire-place.
Experts mention 532 varieties of vyaasatikaas or fire-places. Of them Koorma-vyaasatika, or tortoise-shaped fire-place is best suited for melting the seed-metals for the Vimaana.
Kunda-kalpa or the art of furnace construction mentions 532 kinds of furnaces. They are divided into seven classes, each including 76 varieties. Furnace no. 9 in the 7th class, is best suited for melting the requisite metals of the vimaana, and its name is koorma-vyaasatikaa, or tortoiseshaped furnace.
It is said in "Kunda-nirnaya ", that on a prepared ground, a quadrilateral or circular shaped furnace 10 feet wide should be constructed, shaped like a tortoise. In order to place the bellows, there should be constructed a pedestal shaped like a tortoise, and with five faces. In the middle of the furnace arrangements should be made for placing the crucible. On either side of the furnace there should be an enclosure for stocking charcoal. And on either side there should be a mechanism for receiving the molten metal.
The making of bellows is referred to in this sootra. It is said in "Bhastrikaa Nibandhana," that as there are 532 kinds of furnaces, there are 532 kinds of bellows. Narayana also says that there are 532 varieties of bellows used in melting metals. They arc divided into 8 classes. In the eighth class, the variety numbered 16 is the one suited for the tortoise--shaped furnace. The construction of
bellows is described in the work "Bhastrikaa-Nibandhana", as follows:
The barks of suitable trees, leather, thick cloth made from milk cream, bark of areca-nut palm tree, and trinetra (bael? Bengal Quince?), shundeera, suranji, silk-cotton, sheneera, munjaakara, and jute by due processing yield suitable cloth of 605 varieties with which pretty and attractive bellows could be made, with fittings of wood or copper.
This chapter deals with the mirrors and lenses which are required to be installed in the vimaana.
They are seven different ones. Their names are p. 23 given by Lalla in "Mukura-kalpa" as Vishwakriyaadarpana, or television mirror, Shaktyaakarshana darpana or power-capturing mirror, Vyroopya darpana or appearance changing mirror, Kuntinee darpana, Pinjulaa darpana, Guhaagarbha darpana, and Rowdree darpana or terrifying darpana.
Vishwakriyaa darpana is to be fixed on a revolving stand near the pilot so that he could observe
whatever is happening outside on all sides. Its manufacture is thus described in Kriyaasaara:
Two parts of satva, 2 parts of shundilaka, one part of eagle bone, 5 parts of mercury, 2 parts of the foot-nails of sinchoranee, 6 parts of mica, 5 parts of red lead, 8 parts of pearl dust, 18 parts of the eyeballs of sowmyaka fish, one part burning coal, 8 parts of snake's slough, 3 parts of eye pigment, 6 parts of maatrunna, 10 parts of granite sand, 8 parts of salts, 4 of lead, 2 parts of sea foam, 3 parts of white throated eagle's skin, 7 parts of bamboo salt, 5 parts of vyraajya or white keg tree bark, these ingredients should be purified, and weighed, and filled in a beaked crucible and placed in the furnace called chandodara and subjected to a 800 degree heat, and when duly liquified, should be poured into the funnel of the kara-darpana yantra or hand-mirror mould. The result will be an excellent mirror in which will be reproduced minute details of the phenomena outside.
Next Shaktyaakarshana darpana:
As the vimaana flies through the regions of the sky, three classes of destructive forces tend to overcome it. This mirror is capable of neutralising and overcoming their effects.
Dhundinaathaachaarya also says: The wind, solar rays, and fire are known as trivargas. Each of the three has 122 evil effects on the plane's pilot. Those evil forces this mirror will absorb and nullify.
Paraankusha also says: There are certain crucial regions in the air routes of the vimaana, at which the wind, solar heat and fire have 366 malefic influences, and shaktyaakarshana mirror is meant
to safeguard against them. It is to be prepared as follows:
5 parts of haritaala or yellow orpiment, 5 parts of virinchi, 8 parts of salts, 4 parts of gingelly husk, 6 parts of diamond, 1 of red mica, 8 parts of burning coal, 3 parts of sand, 2 parts of tortoise egg, 3 parts of bhaarani, 3 parts of kanda, 5 parts of powshkala, 5 of coral, 2 of pearl, 6 of sea-shell, p. 24 8 of borax, 3 parts of Bengal quince seed, and 5 of shankha or conch, cleaned, [paragraph continues] powdered, filled in swan crucible, placed in mandooka furnace and boiled to 500 degrees and poured slowly into vistritaa-mirror yantra will yield a fine shaktyaakarshana mirror.
The Vyroopya--darpana Mirror: