FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 25 | 26 || 28 | 29 |   ...   | 56 |


-- [ Page 27 ] --

Nevertheless, many scholars observe the mirroring of this figure with Christ, as in their respective parousiai.303 This idea, observed from the early Church, fits well with the concept of apocalyptic antimonies described by Martyn.304 Overall, Chrysostom’s reading contributes to the reading of 2 Thess 2 for several reasons: 1.) in the history of influences, it perpetuates the historically dominant reading of τό κατέχον as the Roman Empire; 2.) it demonstrates speculative restraint with regard to difficult material, and; 3.) he moves beyond repetition of the text or doctrine to meaningful outworking of the material in a specific congregation, which is engendered by his pastoral concern. At the same time that modern scholarship expands by means of these contributions, it offers new insights based on further revelations regarding apocalyptic material and literary relationships.

2.7. General Pastoral Concern One final element, hinted at throughout the chapter, deserves attention as a motivating factor in Chrysostom’s exegesis of 2 Thessalonians: general pastoral concern for the flock. We have seen how certain areas of his homilies Best, Thessalonians, 283–84 and 288–89. See also n. 196 above.

Wanamaker, Thessalonians, 245.

J. L. Martyn, “Apocalyptic Antinomies in Paul’s Letter to the Galatians,” NTS 31 (1985): 410-424.

reflect pastoral concerns as they relate to other influences on his exegesis.

Under this influence specifically, though, two topics merit consideration: love and education.

I. Love305 Viewed as the highest virtue in the early Church, it is no surprise that love becomes a central aspect of Chrysostom’s sermons. Beginning with his second homily, he notices the growth of the Thessalonians’ love for one another (2:3). Drawing attention to the fact that it was “equal on the part of all,” he challenges the divisive love that takes shape in his own congregation as groups become closely knit and withdraw from or exclude other members of the body.306 He rebukes this form of “love” as injurious, characterising it as a misnomer that truly leads to divisions, distractions, and schisms. In its place, he reasserts the love of the Thessalonians, challenging them to love all, even one’s enemies, and offers the particular example of stopping the gossip from speaking ill of another as love toward one another.307 Later, when observing Paul’s humility in request for prayer, he connects this with the love that the apostle had for the Thessalonians and draws an analogy to his own relationship with his congregation. He perceives his own request for prayer as a bold gesture of imitation that is grounded in love. Prayer itself becomes a response of love that binds the body together. In it, Chrysostom sees the potential to form a close community able to forgive wrongs because, in the act of approaching God in prayer, they realise their place in his gracious love. This, he contends, is the reason why Christ asserts, Mitchell describes Chrysostom’s interpretive methodology as a “hermeneutic of love” in which love is the prerequisite for understanding the subject. Mitchell, The Heavenly Trumpet, xix and 31.

John Chrysostom, 2 Thessalonians 2 (NPNF1 13:381).


“Where two or three are gathered in my name, there I am among them” (Matt 18:20).308 Lastly, when considering Paul’s prayer that the Lord direct the hearts of the Thessalonians (2 Thess 3:5), he draws attention to the number of paths that draw us away from love, such as “vainglory” (κενοδοξία; one of the logismoi), affliction, and temptations. Chrysostom recognises the correct path as the one that leads toward the love of God. It is a path that includes Christian unity in love. It is a path on which one finds oneself when they demonstrate in living (e.g. despising wealth) their love for God above everything else, and on which they require the guiding assistance of God.309 Again, Chrysostom’s interpretation pushes beyond the historical elements surrounding the text to the subject matter, the Someone who motivates its writing and who continues to speak through it.

II. Education Growing out his own love for his congregation, Chrysostom emphasises the education of his hearers. In general terms, the homilies can be taken as the clearest example of the importance of properly instructing his community. At the same time, when reading 2 Thessalonians, Chrysostom drives home the necessity of teaching. Looking at Paul’s reminder to the Thessalonians, “Do you not remember that I told you these things when I was with you?” (2:5), he reflects on the necessity of repeatedly reading and teaching Scriptures as a means of tending the spiritual “soil” of one’s soul. He pushes the point so far as to encourage his “disciples” to “do the things spoken for your recollection,” so as to express their education concretely. In order to John Chrysostom, 2 Thessalonians 4 (NPNF1 13:391-92).

John Chrysostom, In Epist. ii ad Thess. 5 (PG 62:493).

achieve this, however, the “soil” must be appropriately prepared to receive the repeated instruction and cleared of all “thorns.”310 He asserts further that instruction is not the responsibility of the teacher alone, but is to be taken up by every Christian.

In his final homily, Chrysostom explicates this latter point in relation to Paul’s exhortation that the Thessalonians imitate the example that he gave them (3:7) and the prayer that “the Lord be with [all of]311 you” (3:16). He contends that the prayer belongs to those who “do the things of the Lord.”312 Matthew 28:19-20 gives weight to his interpretation in describing what to “do” (baptise and teach) and the promise of Christ’s presence (conditioned upon the “doing”). Chrysostom then raises the questions he perceives likely to be on the hearts of his congregants. What about those who are not teachers, like Chrysostom? Is Christ present with those not in the occupation of teaching the gospel?313 The Church Father offers one response to address both concerns: every person is a teacher, first of him/herself, and then of others within their sphere of influence (e.g. children, spouses, servants).314 When the congregants apply this practice of teaching the gospel and observing all that Christ has commanded (Matt 28:20), then they can pray for and expect Christ’s enduring presence (2 Thess 3:16; Matt 28:20).

Chrysostom’s interpretation does not cohere with his contemporaries or modern biblical scholars on this passage. Again, he illuminates the divergences of their exegetical aims. Yet, Chrysostom is able to critically John Chrysostom, 2 Thessalonians 3 (NPNF1 13:386-87).

πάντων is not present in Chrysostom’s manuscript.

John Chrysostom, 2 Thessalonians 5 (NPNF1 13:396).

The latter of these questions is implicit.

John Chrysostom, 2 Thessalonians 5 (NPNF1 13:396-98).

evaluate the text and to always return to Scripture’s purpose of orienting its readers to God.

3. Conclusion In summary, we see how multiple influences culminate in Chrysostom’s particular reading of 2 Thessalonians and that the Church Father does not interpret within a hermeneutical vacuum. A variety of elements from his background shape the questions that Chrysostom asks and the emphases

that he makes:

His Antiochene exegetical heritage results in detailed attention to the semantic range of certain terminology, the historical meaning, and the λέξις of the text that leads to θεωρία and practical outworking for his congregation(s).

Second, Chrysostom’s esteem for Paul influences his language and undergirds the bipartite division of his homilies, so that they include both doctrine (i.e. exegesis of Scripture) and praxis. Within this esteem we also see his advocating the emulation of the apostle as an exemplar of virtue and one for whom all things were spiritual.

–  –  –

consideration of both Paul’s aim in writing 2 Thessalonians and how it functions in the receptive community.

Fourth, the well-developed tradition of reading Scripture in its canonical context, shaped by a view of divine authorship of Scripture, guides Chrysostom’s reading of the epistle and enables him to make connections between texts with diverse, human authors.

Perhaps the most theologically significant influence on Chrysostom is his monastic/ascetic background, which helps him to recognise issues related to the logismoi and passions in the text, as well as causes him to advocate a semi-ascetic-moralism in his congregants.

Not satisfied with theological abstraction, Chrysostom also grounds his discussion on hell and apocalyptic material with practical concerns.

Lastly, his general pastoral concern tends to guide much of his discussion of 2 Thessalonians, particularly regarding communal, Christian love and education/instruction in Christian doctrine and living.

The compartmentalisation of these influences is a decidedly false

–  –  –

monasticism/asceticism demonstrate. Furthermore, these impulses are not to be taken as an exclusive or complete list, though they are notably influential.

They provide a greater understanding of how and why Chrysostom reads 2 Thessalonians in the way that he does and, in some cases, how later interpreters receive and expand this reading.

Chapter 3: Haimo of Auxerre

1. Background Haimo of Auxerre arrived on the scene in the wake of the Carolingian reforms, which saw the shift of learning centres from the British Isles to the Continent and the “upgrading of the intellectual qualifications of the clergy, both monastic and secular.”1 Of primary importance was education as preparation for the study of Scriptures. This entailed engagement with the Fathers and the Bible together as inseparable authorities.

Until the twentieth century, Haimo was largely forgotten and the bulk of his works were erroneously attributed to Haymo of Halberstadt (d. 853) or Remigius of Auxerre (d. 908).2 Riggenbach’s rediscovery of Haimo around of the turn of the century3 began the process of reconstructing this historically significant theologian.

The details of Haimo’s origins are unclear.4 He certainly flourished during the Carolingian era at the Abbey of St. Germain in Auxerre, in modernday France, and the bulk of his work came from 840-860.5 Haimo follows the Marcia L. Colish, Medieval Foundations of the Western Intellectual Tradition, ed.

Robert Baldock, The Yale Intellectual History of the West (London: Yale University Press, 1997), 66.

For a more complete list of false attributions, see Johannes Heil, “Haimo’s Commentary on Paul: Sources, Methods and Theology,” in Études d’exégèse carolingienne autour d’Haymon d’Auxerre, ed. Sumi Shimahara, Collection Haut Moyen Âge 4 (Turnhout: Brepols, 2007), 112–13.

Eduard Riggenbach, Die ältesten lateinischen Kommentare zum Hebräerbrief (Leipzig:

A. Deichert, 1907).

Heil suggests Spain as Haimo’s place of birth because of, among other points, his eventual relocation to Cessy-les-Bois, which was populated at the time by Spanish emigrants, and his apparent alignment with the approach of Theodulf of Orléans over against the insular “exegesis and tradition” adopted by Alcuin and Rabanus Maurus. Heil, “Haimo’s Commentary,” 114–19.

Riggenbach, Die ältesten lateinischen Kommentare, 80; Beryl Smalley, The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages (Oxford: Blackwell, 1952), 39; John J. Contreni, “Haimo of Auxerre, Abbot of Sasceium (Cessy-les-Bois), and a New Sermon on 1 John v, 4-10,” Revue Bénédictine 85 (1975): 310; Louis Holtz, “Introduction,” in Murethach, In Donati artem maiorem (CCCM 40:xxiv); Hughes, Constructing Antichrist, 146. Hughes Oliphant Old, proposes a date for Haimo’s birth around 790, yet somewhat perplexingly suggests the date of his death was in 855, against the scholarly consensus and without any indication as to his significant work of Bede and the Irish scholars (e.g. Admonán6), and was himself educated by the Irish master Murethach.7 The primary indication of Murethach’s influence on Haimo is his use of phrases common to his master as well as grammatical and lexical concerns in his exegetical undertakings.8 Additionally, Haimo has a tendency to incorporate the method of quaestiones into his commentaries, an approach found in Fathers like Jerome, but also highly appropriated by the Irish exegetes.9

–  –  –

Cessy-les-Bois indicates that Haimo was transferred to this abbey from St.

Germain later in his life. He likely died sometime in 875-878.10 decision for this date. Hughes Oliphant Old, The Reading and Preaching of the Scriptures in the Worship of the Christian Church, vol. 3 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999), 216; His source is likely Ceslas Spicq, Esquisse d’une histoire de l’exégèse Latine au Moyen Âge (Paris: J.

Vrin, 1944), 50.

The hermeneutical influence of Admonán via Murethach is more abundantly clear in Haimo’s other works, including the commentary on 1 Thessalonians. T. O’Loughlin, “Res, tempus, locus, persona: Adomnán’s Exegetical Method,” in Spes Scotorum Hope of Scots, ed.

Dauvit Broun and Thomas Owen Clancy (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1999), 139–58.

Holtz, “Introduction,” xxix–xxxi, xxxiii–xxxiv; Contreni has challenged this stance insofar as it places Murethach and Haimo in a teacher-student relationship. He suggests instead that they were colleagues in the 830s, John J. Contreni, “‘By Lions, Bishops Are Meant; by Wolves, Priests’: History, Exegesis, and the Carolingian Church in Haimo of Auxere’s Commentary on Ezechiel,” Francia 29, no. 1 (2002): 54; Heil follows Contreni in this regard, arguing further that Theodulf of Orléans was a key theological influence on

Haimo, Johannes Heil, “Theodulf, Haimo, and Jewish Traditions of Biblical Learning:

Exploring Carolingian Culture’s Lost Spanish Heritage,” in Discovery and Distinction in the Early Middle Ages: Studies in Honor of John J. Contreni, ed. Cullen J. Chandler and Steven Stofferahn (Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, forthcoming), 118–20.

Shared phraseology includes “ita iungendum; iunctio talis est; ita iungitur; sequitur;

subauditur; subaudis; subaudiendum; ac si diceret; tale est ac si dicat; et est sensus; quare dicat, ipse subinfert (subintulit).” Holtz, “Introduction,” xxx; see also Heil, “Haimo’s Commentary,” 107.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 25 | 26 || 28 | 29 |   ...   | 56 |

Similar works:

«R. Zaslavsky/Melville, “Bartleby.” [Northwestern-Newberry pagination in brackets] Herman Melville (1819-1891) [13] Bartleby, the Scrivener A Story of Wall-Street [1853; 1856] I am a rather elderly man. The nature of my avocations for the last thirty years has brought me into more than ordinary contact with what would seem an interesting and somewhat singular set of men, of whom as yet nothing that I know of has ever been written:—I mean the law-copyists or scriveners. I have known very...»

«The 6th International Conference on the History of Chemi stry NEIGHBOURS A N D TERRIT O RI E S THE EVO LV I N G I D E N T I T Y O F CHEMIS T R Y PROCEEDIN GS José Ra món Bertomeu-Sánchez, Duncan Thorburn Burns, Brigitte Va n Tiggelen (Editors) THE 6TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY Neighbours and Territories: The Evolving Identity of Chemistry The 6th International Conference on the History of Chemistry NEIGHBOURS AND TERRITORIES THE EVOLVING IDENTITY OF CHEMISTRY...»

«Human Movement Science 33 (2014) 1–13 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Human Movement Science journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/humov Regulating emotions uniquely modifies reaction time, rate of force production, and accuracy of a goal-directed motor action Garrett F. Beatty a, Bradley Fawver a, Gabriella M. Hancock b, Christopher M. Janelle a,⇑ a Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States b Department of...»

«ATTACHMENT B TIMELINE The following timeline chronologically outlines the key dates in the pre-history and history of Centennial Parklands. DATE EVENT 286-248 Permian period – Sydney region was a broad swampy river basin, covered with lush plant life. million years ago 230 million Early Triassic period – Sediment of sand, silt and clay eroded from inland mountains fills Sydney Basin. years ago Permian swamps become coal layers. Sand becomes sandstone, the silts and clays became mudstone and...»

«Newand OldWorld Foodways in Florida: Eating for 500 Dr. Gary R. Mormino, Frank E. Duckwall Professor of History and Co-Director of Florida Studies Program, University of South Florida St. Petersburg Hurtling across the universe at warp speed, a death star is on a collision course with Planet Earth. Humanity has twenty-four hours to prepare for a climactic last act. Astrologers and astronomers predict landfall at the happiest place on earth—Main Street Disney. Having just celebrated your...»

«Whole-body relics in Chinese Buddhism – Previous Research and Historical Overview Justin Ritzinger∗ and Marcus Bingenheimer 1. Previous Research on Whole-body Relics Within the last few years four books1 on Buddhist relics have been published and relics feature prominently in a number of other monographs and articles.2 Clearly the topic is popular these days. 3 The aim of this article is to give an overview of the scholarship that has been done on a special type of relic, the whole-body...»

«THE MONSTERS OF EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY AUDREY WATTERS Copyright © 2014 Audrey Watters The Monsters of Education Technology is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 License. For Seymour CONTENTS Introduction I. The Hidden History of Ed-Tech The History of the Future of Ed-Tech Un-fathomable: The Hidden History of Ed-Tech Teaching Machines: A Brief History of “Teaching at Scale” II. The Ideology of Ed-Tech Against “Innovation” Engaging Flexible Learning Robots and...»

«The Gospel of John and Gnosticism 1 Introduction 2 Teachings about Gnosticism 2.1 History of Gnosticism 2.2 Characteristics of Gnosticism 3 John’s Gospel in light of Gnosticism 3.1 Reaching out to Gnostics 3.1.1 Logos and Knowledge 3.1.2 Dualistic Language 3.2 Correcting Gnostic teachings 3.2.1 The Love of the Father 3.2.2 The Flesh of the Son 4 Summary 1 1 Introduction It would be safe to say that the Gospel of John is one of the most deeply investigated and disputed subjects in the realms...»

«ESSAY GRIDLOCK RULES: WHY WE NEED FILIBUSTER REFORM IN THE U.S. SENATE SENATOR JEANNE SHAHEEN* The increasing use of the filibuster in recent decades has led to numerous proposals to redesign the procedural rules of the Senate. In this Article, Senator Jeanne Shaheen draws on her experience with procedural delays and participation in continuing reform efforts to articulate a vision for practical, effective filibuster reform. The existence of the filibuster is explained through the history of...»

«Guide to Processed Collections in the University Archives Introduction The Brigham Young University Archives preserves records documenting the history of the university and its people as well as their impact on the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and society. This guide describes the processed collections housed by the University Archives. A processed collection is one that has been rehoused and carefully described with either a catalog record or a finding aid or, in many cases,...»

«THE HISTORY OF TERRORISM Publié avec le concours du Ministère français chargé de la culture, Centre national du livre. Published with the assistance of the French Ministry of Culture’s National Center for the Book. The publisher gratefully acknowledges the generous contribution to this book provided by the Literature in Translation Endowment Fund of the University of California Press Foundation, which is supported by a major gift from Joan Palevsky. THE HISTORY OF TERRORISM FROM ANTIQUITY...»

«Chapter Four AN INFORMATION-BASED REVOLUTION IN MILITARY AFFAIRS* Major Norman C. Davis, USMC The world is on the cusp of an epochal shift from an industrialto an information-based society. History demonstrates that changes of this magnitude do not occur without being accompanied by fundamental change in the way war is conducted.1 This “Information Revolution” is a product of advances in computerized information and telecommunications technologies and related innovations in management and...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.