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«Self-defence as a ground of justification in cases of battered women who kill their abusive partners CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION: I declare that ...»

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Canada Canadian Criminal Code South Africa Domestic Violence Act 106 of 1998 Republic of South Africa Constitution Act 200 of 1993 Republic of South Africa Constitution Act 108 of 1996 United States of America Model Penal Code (1962) Case Law Australia Barton v Armstrong [1969] 2 NSWR 451 Beckford [1987] 3 WLR 611 Bonython (1984) 38 SASR 45 C [1993] 60 SASR 467 Chhay (1994) 72 A. Crim. R. 1 Clark v Ryan (1960) 103 CLR 486 Conlon (1993) 69 A. Crim. R 92 (SC NSW) DPP Reference (No 1 of 1991) (1992) 60 A Crim R 43 Dziduch (1990) 47 A. Crim. R. 378 (CCA NSW) Ellem (1994) 75 A Crim R 370 Farrell (1998) 72 ALJR 1292 Fry (1992) 58 SASR 424 Gray (1998) A. Crim. R 593 (CCA Qld) Hawes (1994) 35 NSWLR 294 Hector [1953] VLR 543 Hickey (1992) Crim LJ 271 Howe [1958] 100 CLR 448 Johnson [1964] Qd R 1 Keith [1934] St. R. Qd 155 Lane [1983] 2 VR 449 Lawrie [1986] 2 Qd R 502 Lean and Alland (1993) 66 A. Crim. R. 296 Lock (1997) 91 A Crim R 356 Marwey (1977) 138 CLR 630 Masters (1986) 24 A. Crim. 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England Jackson [1891] 1 Q.B. 671 New Zealand Ruka v Department of Social Welfare [1997] 1 NZLR 154 Wang [1990] 2 NZLR 529 South Africa Baloyi 2000 1 SACR 81 CC Bester v Commercial Union Versekeringsmaatskappy van SA Bpk 1973 1 SA 769 A Biyela 1958 1 PH H12 A Botes 1966 3 SA 606 O Coopers (SA) Ltd v Deutsche Schädlingbekampfung Mbh 1976 3 SA 352 A De Blom 1977 1 SA 513 A De Oliveira 1993 2 SACR 59 A Dougherty 2003 2 SACR 36 W Engelbrecht 2005 2 SACR 41 W Ex Parte Die Minister Van Justisie: In Re S v Van Wyk 1967 1 SA 488 A Ferreira and Others 2004 2 SACR 454 SCA Gentiruco AG v Firestone SA (Pty) Ltd 1972 1 SA 589 A Government of the Republic of South Africa v Basdeo and Ano 1996 1 SA 355 A Holzhausen v Roodt 1997 4 SA 766 W Jackelson 1926 TPD 685 Jackson 1963 2 SA 626 A Jonas Stolleh v Piet Mthwalo and Ano 1947 NAC 33 Joshua 2003 1 SACR 1 SCA K 1956 3 SA 353 A Karvie 1945 TPD 159 Kibi 1978 4 SA 173 E Kleyn 1927 CPD 288 Kotze 1994 2 SACR 214 O M 1991 1 SACR 91 T Makwanyana 1995 2 SACR 1 CC Mahomed v Shaik 1978 4 SA 523 N Mann v Mann 1918 CPD 89 Menday v Protea Insurance Co Ltd 1976 1 SA 564 E Mfuseni 1923 NPD 68 Mngomezulu 1972 1 SA 797 A Mnguni 1966 3 SA 776 T Mogohlwane 1982 2 SA 587 T Mokgiba 1999 1 SACR 534 O Mokoena 1976 4 SA 162 O Morela 1947 3 SA 147 A Mothoana 1992 2 SACR 383 O Motleleni 1976 1 SA 403 A Ndara 1955 4 SA 182 A Ndlangisa 1969 4 SA 324 E Nomahleki 1928 GWL 89 Ntanjana v Vorster and Minister of Justice 1950 4 SA 398 KNtsomi v Minister of Law and Order 1990 1 SA 512 C Ntuli 1975 1 SA 429 A Patel 1958 3 SA 121 A Ruto Flour Mills Ltd v Adelson (1) 1958 4 SA 235 T Segatle 1958 1 PH H125 A T 1986 2 SA 112 O Teixera 1980 3 SA 755 A Thomas 1928 EDL 401 Trainor 2003 1 All SA 435 (SCA) Van Vuuren 1961 3 SA 305 E Van Wyk 1967 1 SA 488 A Vilbro 1957 3 SA 223 A ME Kampmann ‘The Legal Victimization of Battered Women’ 1993 15 Women’s Rights Law Reporter 101 Zikalala 1953 2 SA 568 A United States of America Acers 164 U.S. 388 (1896) Allery 682 P.2d 312 (Wash 1984) Aris 264 Cal. 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V

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Zawitz MW ‘Violence Between Intimates’ (November 1994) U.S. Department of Justice NCJTITLE:

“Self-defence as a Ground of Justification in Cases of Battered Women Who Kill Their Abusive Partners”

AUTHOR:

D Singh

DEGREE:

LL.D

SUPERVISOR:

Professor S Lotter

SUMMARY:

The dissertation outlines a comprehensive background to the endemic scourge of domestic violence, with further consideration being given to an understanding of domestic violence and the recognised characteristics of an abuser and the victim of intimate violence. The study focuses on the heterosexual domestic relationship and is restricted to a situational construct of the aggressor being the male partner in the relationship. The study reflects on inter alia the socio-economic and psycho-social dynamics that are pertinent in an abusive domestic relationship and the impact of these factors on the conduct of the abuser and the victim. This assessment is considered to be an important base for the further research as it clearly positions the circumstances of the victim of the abuse. The study then proceeds with an in-depth examination of the law of self-defence in South Africa with a specific emphasis on the application and understanding of the law and the situations under which the act of killing the abuser may be justified under the law. A comparative study is conducted with the U.S.A, Canada and Australia and the legal lessons that would be relevant for the South African law are highlighted. The importance and impact of expert evidence in cases involving battered women who kill their abusive partners is stressed; given that the lived reality of a battered woman is often not well understood by the ordinary person, which include members of the judiciary. The test of the battered woman syndrome is specifically interrogated as a comparative standard for the conduct of the battered woman and rejected. The research emphasises the importance of understanding the action of the battered woman against the standard of a reasonable person in the circumstances of the accused. Finally, the dissertation positively concludes on possible application of self-defence as a justification in cases of battered women who kill their abusive partners.

KEY WORDS/PHRASES:

domestic violence • intimate partner violence • battered woman syndrome • intimate partner homicide • self-defence • imminent danger • inevitability of harm • lived reality/circumstances of the victim of violence • expert evidence and domestic violence •

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