«TECHNICAL PROGRAM Download the WTC 2016 App Booth Underground connections What if you could rely on a global network of experts who can bring an ...»
Complex Projects in Rock and Related Technology I Chair: M. Swinton, Kiewit Infrastructure Co, USA ITA Co-chair: D. Singh, President TAI, India 14:00-14:20 Chicago TARP McCook Main Tunnel – World’s Largest Live Tunnel Connection is Underway at Chicago’s Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) F. Oksuz and M. Sanchez, Black & Veatch; M. Padilla and D.
Schiemann, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District;
C. Scalise, Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago and M. Trotter, Kiewit Infrastructure Company Chicago’s Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) is a nearly $4.0 billion and over 30 years long program and arguably the largest and longest combined sewer tunnel and reservoir system in the world.
Recently, a massive tunnel construction is underway for connection of the McCook Reservoir to the existing TARP tunnel system.
Once completed in two stages in 2017 and 2019, the reservoir will hold 38 billion liters (10 billion gallons) of combined sewer overﬂows (CSO) and ﬂood waters from the city of Chicago and over 20 communities in Cook County, Illinois. McCook Main Tunnel will connect Chicago TARP’s Mainstream Tunnel to the McCook Reservoir. Connecting two 10-meter (33-ft) diameter tunnels at 92 meters (300 feet) underground has not been a simple task for the McCook Tunnel Project participants, the project owner U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), local sponsor Metropolitan Water Reclamation District (MWRD) of Greater Chicago, designer Black & Veatch, and the contractor, Kiewit Infrastructure Company (Kiewit). Yet alone excavating and lining massive size tunnels, the team is also challenged with live tunnel conditions in TARP Mainstream Tunnel that carries CSO and ﬂood ﬂows from city of Chicago which runs full during rain events and must remain in service at all times. The project is a noteworthy feat for engineering and construction with the upcoming installation of world’s largest underground wheel gates for ﬂow control within the tunnel. In this paper, we describe one of its kind elements of this major tunnel system along with key design and construction considerations, speciﬁcally for the live tunnel connection which is a rare occurrence in the tunneling industry.
14:20-14:40 A Novel Continuous Conveyor System and its Role in Record-Setting Rates at the Indianapolis Deep Rock Tunnel Connector D. Workman, The Robbins Company and D. Martz and S. Lipofsky, J.F. Shea The Indianapolis Deep Rock Tunnel Connector (DRTC)—ﬁrst in a vast network of storm water storage tunnels below Indiana, USA—was a wildly successful endeavor. Crews for the Shea/Kiewit JV drove a
6.2 m Robbins Main Beam TBM to world record rates. The machine achieved 124.9 m/day, 515.1 m/week, and 1,754 m/month in limestone and dolomite rock. The advance rates can be attributed to many factors including ground conditions and knowledgeable crew, but WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA TUESDAY 26 APRIL continuous conveyors are also of key importance. The novel conveyor system, manufactured by The Robbins Company, enabled continuous tunneling in a difﬁcult layout that included two 90-degree curves and two S-curves. Spanning 11,777 m in its longest iteration, the system included nine booster drives plus a main drive. A vertical belt moved muck up the 76 m deep shaft to a radial stacker for temporary storage.
The system, one of the most complex in North America and the ﬁrst to operate in 90-degree curves, made swift tunneling possible. This paper will examine the world-class tunneling done at the Indianapolis DRTC and the role of continuous conveyance in reaching high advance rates. The logistics of the system will also be examined as it could apply to future tunneling projects with similarly complex layouts.
14:40-15:00 Avoiding Karst by Getting Under It – Jefferson Barracks Tunnel, St. Louis P. Pride, Metropolitan St. Louis Sewer District and J. Raymer, K. Bettger and B. Haag, Jacobs Engineering The Jefferson Barracks Tunnel is in the ﬁnal stages of design and is expected to go out to bid in the summer of 2016. The project is located in south St. Louis County along the west bank of the Mississippi River, about 13 km downstream of the St. Louis Gateway Arch. The project consists of a deep sanitary sewer tunnel, a deep pump station and several intakes. The intakes will divert sanitary ﬂows into the tunnel and the tunnel will convey the ﬂows by gravity to the Lemay No. 3 Pump Station, which will pump them up into the Lemay Waste Water Treatment Plant. The tunnel is about 5.4 km long and will be lined with 84-inch (2.1 m) ﬁberglass pipe. It drops at a gradient of 0.1 percent from south to north and will be bored through strong limestone using a hard-rock tunnel boring machine (TBM). The diameter of the TBM is anticipated to be about 3.4 m.
The Owner’s original concept was for a relatively shallow tunnel so as to minimize construction and pumping costs. The preferred alignment ran close to the river, next to the existing force main, which was to be abandoned. Keeping the tunnel close to the force main would reduce the amount of shallow sewer work needed to connect the existing feeder sewers to the new tunnel. Several geotechnical investigations were performed, with shallowly focused geophysics and the borings all going exactly down the conceptual tunnel depth.
15:00-15:20 Squeezing Ground: Conditions & Lessons Learned at the New Irvington Tunnel A. M. Wirthlin, McMillen Jacobs Associates; R. Fusee, Mott McDonald; R. Nolting and Y. Sun, McMillen Jacobs Associates and D. Tsztoo, San Francisco Public Utilities Commission Excavation and initial support of the New Irvington Tunnel presented signiﬁcant challenges, including rapidly changing ground conditions, heavy ground loads, and squeezing. Such behaviors were anticipated from historic tunneling records of the adjacent Existing Irvington Tunnel, and extensive site investigation, but clearer understanding of their actual extent and causes has resulted from convergence measurements, observations of ground behavior, initial support monitoring and detailed geologic mapping. Time-dependent movements, documented hours to months after excavation in clay-rich rock and in moderately to intensely fractured rock, identiﬁed squeezing areas, allowed classiﬁcation by currently-used predictive methods and added to the list of lessons learned in tunneling such ground.
22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 15:20-15:40 Construction of Headrace Tunnel of Uma Oya Water Conveyance Project, Sri Lanka A. Rahbar, Farab Co; J. Rostami, The Pennsylvania State University and M. Rouholamin and A. Mostajer Haghighi, Farab Co Uma Oya Multipurpose Development Project is under construction in Sri Lanka. This project involves 2 Rolled Concrete Core (RCC) Dams connected through a tunnel currently under construction by Drill and Blast method. The water is transferred from ﬁrst diversion dam to the 2nd regulatory dam and from which, it will be transferred through a 14 km headrace tunnel to the top of a 650 m deep drop shaft that feeds the high pressure water to an underground powerhouse and turbine chamber for generation of 120 MW of electricity. The Headrace and Tailrace tunnels are being excavated by two 4.4 m diameter double shield TBMs. The headrace tunnel has already passed 5km milestone and is mined in hard rock, while the tailrace tunnel has been completed in rather weak and fractured ground. This paper will review the history of the project along with the geology of the site. The operation of TBM in headrace tunnel will be discussed in more detail, focusing on the challenges of excavating through very strong and abrasive quartzite and gneiss on this site, as well as reaches of tunnel in high inﬂow of water reaching 400 L/Sec.
15:40-16:10 Break 16:10-16:30 Evaluation of the Performance of a Raise Boring Machine in Pb-Zn Underground mine, Balya, Turkey A. Shaterpour Mamaghani, Istanbul Technical University;
T. Erdogan, Sargin Construction and Machinery Industry Trade Inc and E. Dogan And N. Bilgin, Eczacibasi Esan Improved safety and more environmentally friendly operation are basic advantages of mechanical excavation over the drill and blast method. Raise Boring Machine s(RBM s) are one of the types of these machines which have recently been increased use in Turkey.
The excavated hole with RBM is more stable than other methods and has better air ﬂow, making it ideal for ventilation shafts. This paper is a summary of the performance of a RBM in the Balya PB-Zn Mine in Turkey. Length and diameter of the ventilation shaft are 200 m and 2. 4 m, respectively. The geological and geotechnical characteristics of the strata excavated in the mine are ﬁrst given and later the validity of a model developed to predict the machine performance is discussed. It is believed that the results of this study and the model given to estimate the performance of the RBM will be useful guide for future applications.
16:30-16:50 Settlements Due to Blasting Vibrations W. Bilﬁnger, Vecttor Projetos; M. Waimberg EGT Engenharia and C. Nahas, Engecorps During excavations of the tunnels of the Porto Maravilha Project in Rio de Janeiro, signiﬁcant settlements were measured. These settlements could not be associated to volume loss, as the tunnels WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA TUESDAY 26 APRIL are located mainly in rock. Settlements at the surface were higher than at tunnel crown, showing that a volume reduction occured in loose sands that overlay the ﬁrmer strata. Simpliﬁed analyses showed that the loose sand would liquefy in an seismic environment and the vibrations induced by drill and blast excavations are interpreted as being responsible for the settlements.
16:50-17:10 The Dynamic Response of the Taru-Toge Tunnel During Blasting Ö. Aydan, Univ. of the Ryukyus; H. Tano, Nihon University; M.
Imazu, Nuclear Damage Compensation and Decommissioning Facilitation Co; H. Ideura and M. Soya, Shimizu Corporation Taru-Toge tunnel is being constructed using drilling-blasting technique as a part of expressway project connecting Shin-Tomei Expressway and Chuo Expressway at the boundary of Shizuoka and Yamanashi Prefectures in the Central Japan. The maximum overburden is about 400 m. The authors have been carrying out a monitoring program to measure dynamic and multi-parameter responses of tunnel during and soon after the blasting operations using a multi-parameter monitoring system (Acoustic Emissions (AE), Electric Potential (EP), Temperature (T), Humidity (H) and Air Pressure (P)) and stand-alone type compact accelerometers developed by the ﬁrst author. The measured response involves dynamic vibrations and other measurable parameters caused by blasting as well as by stress-redistribution around the tunnel face. This is one of the ﬁrst attempts in the world to measure the response of rock mass caused by blasting at a very close vicinity of the tunnel face. In this paper, the authors present the outcomes of this unique monitoring study on the dynamic responses of the Taru-Toge tunnel during excavation and discuss their implications in actual applications.
17:10-17:30 Geotechnical Investigation of a Fault Zone Using a Horizontal Geotechnical Boring G. Sanders, J. G. Shaughnessy and M. Gilbert, CDM Smith A new raw water intake from the South Holston River to the Kingsport water treatment plant is under construction. The exploration for the 335 meter long horseshoe shaped tunnel design took advantage of the site topography along the alignment to better deﬁne the complex geology consisting of Knox Limestone and Sevier Shale formations separated by a fault zone. To assess the geological conditions and to determine the extent of the fault zone, a 183 meter long horizontal boring and geophysical investigation was performed along a portion of the tunnel’s horizontal alignment. Explorations deﬁned the fault zone width at approximately 5 meters and packer testing along the alignment provided a means of estimating groundwater inﬂows. As the tunnel excavation advances, comparisons of exploratory data versus encountered conditions will be made. This paper provides details on the geotechnical investigation, lessons learned, and the inﬂuence of the geology on the tunnel design.
22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 Posters (On display in the exhibit hall during exhibit hours. Authors will be at their poster from 13:00-14:00 for discussion.) Overcoming Massive Squeezing Ground Utilizing Curved Tunnel Face and Full-face Excavation with Early Ring Closure H. Tamaru, Central Nippon Expressway Company Ltd and K. Tanimura, A. Kimura and F. Kusumoto, Shimizu Corporation The Hachinoshiri tunnel is a 2,469 m long two-lane road tunnel on the Chubu-Odan Expressway. Since more than 70% of the total tunnel length consists of low strength rock masses the competence factor of which is less than 1.0, it is expected that a self standing span cannot be achievable because of no ground arch to be established. The tunnel was thus designed with tunnel support patterns forming multi-arc early ring closure that can develop the load-carrying capacity estimated from the exerted earth pressure, Po, which can result from the competence factor, cf. The tunnel support pattern was selected based on the competence factor at tunnel face, then the subsequent tunnel support patterns were determined with reference to the monitoring data. The tunnel construction adopted full-face excavation accompanied by early ring closure using a 330 kW road header. The proposed construction methods at this tunnel site have turned out ensuring tunnelling in massive squeezing rock, so that they can be veriﬁed as reasonable tunnelling technologies, clarifying the relationship between the characteristics of the mechanical behaviour of the tunnel and its design parameters.