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Designing and Building CSO Tunnels in Midwestern Geology – A Critical Review and Study of Project Implementation and Construction Methods P. Smith, D. Day and M. Anderson, Black & Veatch The Midwest is presently the focus for Combined Sewer Overﬂow (CSO) abatement in the United States (U.S.). Most of the EPA mandated utility and municipal long term CSO abatement programs in large metro areas in the Midwest such as Cleveland, Indianapolis, Columbus, Chicago, St Louis, Akron, Fort Wayne, Louisville, Kansas City, Omaha and Pittsburg use or will use deep tunnels for storage and conveyance of CSOs. This paper will compare design methods speciﬁed and implemented for tunnel construction in Midwestern geology such as soft ground and mixed face EPBM tunnels, hard rock TBM tunnels, drill & blast tunnels, road header tunnels along with tunnel lining systems. It will also review the performance of successful CSO systems that include design life cycle, vortex and drop shaft conﬁgurations, pump stations, storage and conveyance strategies and long term operation and maintenance criteria.
WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA TUESDAY 26 APRIL Recursive Reﬁnement of Geotechnical Design for Copenhagen Cityring Metro N. Katić & C. Bonde, Geo and G. Kafantaris, CMT Within the investigation works for the Copenhagen Cityring metro, Geo/CMT have carried out 90 geotechnical boreholes. Together with the previously available investigation, this resulted in more than 15 km of vertical drillings and several thousands of laboratory tests. The design is made for 17 stations, four shafts and two parallel 16 km long tunnels. The geotechnical investigation and design have been carried out in several stages comprising appropriate reﬁnement of structural design and design of excavation operations, including TBM break-in and launching operations at each station shaft. Acceptance of the solution and / or reﬁnement of the investigation and design schedule in the next stage were based on the geological conditions, area availability at surface level, planning and cost control criteria. The applied recursive design reﬁnement is presented herein with an example of the Østersøgade shaft location.
Percussion Drilling as Fast and Efﬁcient Investigation in Construction Stage G. Höfer-Öllinger and P. Pointner Geoconsult ZT GmbH and M. Stadlober ÖBB Infra, GB PNA Investigations from tunnel face are part of risk mitigation measures during the excavation works. With the tunnel equipment, percussion drillings of up to 30-40m can be achieved. Core drillings are state of art method for investigation exceeding 50m. At Koralm base tunnel, up to 270m deep percussion drillings were performed with drilling rigs and accompanied by an intensive investigation program. These investigations consisted of monitoring during the drilling, ﬁeld tests (with packer, using the preventer, borehole imaging) and in laboratory. Percussion drillings are cheaper and save time of interruption of the excavation progress.
Tunneling Advances through Innovation II Chair: M. Preedy, Sound Transit, USA ITA Co-chair: G. Seingre, ITA WG17 Animateur, Switzerland 14:00-14:20 The Widening of the “Montedomini” A14 Motorway Tunnel in the Presence of Trafﬁc G. Lunardi, S. Agresti, D. Basta, Rocksoil S.p.A.
and R. Trapasso, Ghella S.p.A.
At a distance of 10 years from the ﬁrst application of the Nazzano Method, the widening under trafﬁc of a tube of an existing motorway tunnel was realized near Ancona, along the A14 Motorway in Italy. This paper describes the works for the enlargement with conventional method of the second tube, very close to that already widened under trafﬁc. This enlargement was realized very fast, taking into account the advantages of some interesting technological improvements of the Final Design proved in the ﬁrst tube.
14:20-14:40 New Mapping Technologies for Tunnel Inspections B. Spoerr, Dibit Measuring Technique USA and C. Laughton, ILF Consultants Tunnel inspections are increasingly needed to ensure that aging infrastructure does not fail in service. To this end the time between inspections is being reduced, the thoroughness of each inspection is being increased to provide for a more detailed assessment of conditions and inventory defects. The conventional Tunnel Report, containing handdrawn maps and/or photos, and a log describing observed defects and areas of deterioration, is being increasingly replaced by LiDAR generated 3-D surface maps. The data collection process that traditionally supports development of a Tunnel Report is labor-intensive, taking crew-days of engineering effort, and requires partial or full stoppage of tunnel operations. In an urban setting, such multi-day interruptions in service are difﬁcult to countenance for a near-capacity tunnel operation.
Under time pressures, the detail and accuracy of the manual inspection process will inevitably be compromised, resulting in a high cost, low quality product. As the tunnel inspection window decreases the argument for incorporating laser scanning in to the inspection process is increased dramatically... The 3D scan technology allows detailed and accurate data to be collected within the tight time frames demanded by the owners and operators of critical infrastructure. Not only does the use of laser scanners improve the 3D accuracy of the data collected, it also, enhances the efﬁciency and safety of the inspection process, reduces data collection and processing costs and enhances the reliability of results over time. The paper will also demonstrate the value of adding photogrammetric data to the 3D Model to show surface defect discoloration. The accurate and detailed data collected by a combination of LiDAR and photogrammetric techniques provide superior data needed to inform critical asset management decisions related to maintenance, repair and replacement.
WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA TUESDAY 26 APRIL 14:40-15:00 A Comparison between Monitoring Solutions within SCL Tunnels at Crossrail Farringdon Station P. Salak and A.Gakis, Dr. Sauer & Partners Ltd and A. St. John, Kier Infrastructure, part of BFK Joint Venture Methods of monitoring the structural behaviour of tunnels during construction traditionally rely on in-tunnel displacement monitoring, with designers occasionally specifying the use of pressure cells in critical areas. The advent of ﬁbre optic strain technology (using Fibre Bragg Gratings) offers the tunnelling industry an additional method of monitoring tunnel behaviour. Experiences at Crossrail Farringdon Station have offered a unique insight into the comparative beneﬁts between conventional in-tunnel absolute displacement monitoring, pressure cells and ﬁbre optic monitoring methods, where all three systems were deployed within the same area.
15:00-15:20 Evaluation of Alternative Techniques for Excavation Damage Characterization J. van Eldert, Luleå University of Technology; H. Ittner, Svensk KärnBränslehantering (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and waste management) and H. Schunnesson and D. Johansson, Luleå University of Technology Numerous aspects of underground construction, from structural stability to construction costs, are dependent on the tunnel quality, including blast damage and Excavation Damage Zone (EDZ).
Furthermore, technical development in the ﬁeld of Measurement While Drilling (MWD) technology, including software for on-board logging and on-site analysis, have shown large potential for rock mass characterization that may also inﬂuence the excavation damage, in tunneling and mining. This paper discusses techniques for excavation damage characterization and explores the use of MWD for characterization and prediction of excavation damage. The paper is based on data collected from an underground waste collection site in central Stockholm, Sweden, constructed in 2015 by Veidekke. MWD, GPR data, drill-cores and geological mapping data were collected, and the correlation between EDZ and the MWD response was studied. The results show signiﬁcant potential using MWD for rock mass characterization and provide an insightful new potential application for excavation damage characterization.
15:20-15:40 Non-destructive Approach for Shotcrete Lining Strength Monitoring V. Ahuja and B. Jones, University of Warwick Shotcrete lining forms an integral part of conventional tunneling and is widely applied for underground excavations. Early strength gain of the shotcrete is a crucial aspect for ground support and safety of operatives. Strength requirements are dependent on various factors such as lining thickness, ground type, excavation size and tunnel depth. The early strength gain is typically monitored using destructive tests, such as needle penetration, stud driving or coring 22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 samples for uniaxial compressive strength testing in the laboratory.
Being destructive, these tests cannot be directly performed onto the lining without causing damage that must be repaired, which is a particular problem for permanent linings. For this reason and to avoid the need for operatives to work near to exposed ground and/ or fresh shotcrete, these destructive tests are often performed on panels, which are sprayed at the same time as the tunnel lining. All current testing methods are also very local, testing only a small part of the lining or a panel, which may not be representative because the temperature history could be signiﬁcantly different. Therefore, these tests do not provide an accurate or complete picture of the lining strength gain. New testing methods that are non-destructive and can scan the whole lining remotely would be extremely desirable. This paper describes a new method, using thermal imaging techniques, that achieves these aims. It also discusses the real-time on-site application of the method, providing insight into the experience gained and conclusions derived.
15:40-16:10 Break 16:10-16:30 Robotic Application of a 50mm Thick Sprayed Concrete Fireprooﬁng Layer E. Batty, E. Kentish, A. Skarda, BAM Ferrovial Kier JV The design of the tunnels at Bond Street Station includes a ﬁnal sprayed concrete ﬁreprooﬁng layer. The performance of this layer was veriﬁed by a programme of testing to Crossrail’s KT24 speciﬁcation, which proved that a dosage of 1kg/m³ polypropylene ﬁbres and a layer thickness of 50mm would be sufﬁcient to limit spalling in the event of a ﬁre. Application of this thin layer was achieved using a state of the art spraying robot, with the ability to scan the proﬁle and automatically apply a uniform layer of concrete. To provide assurance and calibrate this spraying robot, BFK developed a bespoke survey system for checking SCL thicknesses in the ﬁeld. This provided an instant independent check of the spraying robot and allowed areas of inadequate thickness to be rectiﬁed without risk of cold joints. This paper describes the practical application of the ﬁreprooﬁng layer and how design compliance was ensured.
16:30-16:50 Successful Completion of Major Large-Scale Tunnel Infrastructure Projects in the Southern Hemisphere with XXL Machines K. Bäppler, Herrenknecht AG When considering large-scale infrastructure projects worldwide special attention has to be paid to the large diameter tunnel construction projects that were successfully completed in the Southern Hemisphere. The projects that are highlighted in this paper are large-scale infrastructure projects in the sector of transport.
In focus are four road tunnel projects that were constructed in Australia and New Zealand using mechanized tunnelling technology. The tunnel boring machines (TBMs) that were reliably applied WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA TUESDAY 26 APRIL to these four major projects all exceed the bore diameter of 12 meters. These TBMs are therefore in the range of large to very large diameter TBMs. The technology used demonstrates state of the art technology with tailored tunnelling technology adapted to the speciﬁc project demands. Two Double Shielded Hard Rock TBMs (Ø12.35 meters) were used for the construction of the Clem Jones Tunnel in Brisbane crossing beneath the Brisbane River and these two machines have been reused for the excavation of a 4.3km long two-lane highway tunnel for Legacy Way in Brisbane creating a new trafﬁc artery towards the city centre. Two EPB Shields (Ø12.48 meters) excavated and lined the twintube road tunnel for the Brisbane Airport Link.
16:50-17:10 An Advanced Shaft Construction Method to Install Ten Ventilation Shafts, as Applied in the Naples Metro Project V. Manassero, Underground Consulting S.A.S; F. Cavuoto, Studio Cavuoto and A. De Risi, Metropolitana di Napoli S.p.A.
This paper deals with an innovative mechanized method to bore and simultaneously line circular shafts, adopted in the Naples Metro project for the installation of 10 vertical shafts for ventilation purposes. With this method, excavation of shafts is carried out under a positive head of stabilizing ﬂuid by a milling machine, temporarily set at the bottom of a permanent lining made of precast r. c. segment rings. The debris is evacuated by inverse ﬂuid circulation. The shafts in Naples are 4.5 m I.D., from 34 to 44 m deep and they are all located downtown in a highly urbanized area. They were bored and installed into volcanic soils under a hydrostatic head of up to 30 m. Displacements and groundwater level were constantly monitored in order to keep control of the effects on the surrounding buildings and utilities.
17:10-17:30 Istanbul Strait Road Crossing Tunnel – Project Challenges and TBM Solutions W. Burger, Herrenknecht AG and E. Arioglu, Yapi Merkezi Inc The Istanbul Strait Road Crossing Project includes a 3.34 kilometer subsea tunnel excavated by TBM with an excavation diameter of 13.71 meters. The tunnel will incorporate two road decks, each employing two trafﬁc lines and shoulder with the daily capacity of 100.000 light vehicles. The tunnel alignment crosses full face rock sections with heavily fractured zones due to tectonic events as well as a long central stretch of difﬁcult mixed face and very variable soft ground conditions. The demanding ground conditions and the large diameter in combination with realized face pressures well above 10bar required a highly specialized and well adapted TBM. The paper will describe the project challenges and the related technical solutions incorporated within the TBM design as well as the real site experience.